Presentation on theme: "Understanding Psychology Chapter 1: The Origins of Psychology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding Psychology Chapter 1: The Origins of Psychology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program Slide author: Larry D. Thomas, Ph.D. Blinn College Copyright 2007 Horizon Textbook Publishing
What Is Psychology? The science of behavior and mental processes
Psychology –The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Scientific method –The orderly, systematic procedures researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings
I. Defining Psychology The science of human behavior and mental processes – Behavior: Overt actions and reactions – Mental Processes: Thoughts, ideas, reasoning processes – Science: Rigorous, systematic observations Tries to develop comprehensive theories and reliable knowledge
II.How did Psychology Begin? A. Philosophy –Plato What we know is a mere recollection of what we knew at a previous time. (No new thoughts!) –Aristotle Tabula Rosa Senses must be recorded in the mind to become thought –Descartes Dualism Mind and Body are separate In spite of my desire I may choose differently –Locke Tabula Rosa furnished information by 1. Senses 2. Perception of minds operation (perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning, knowing and willing)
II.How did Psychology Begin? B. Spiritualism 1.Exorcism of Spirits 2.Trepanation
II.How did Psychology Begin? C. The Science Traditions 1. Galton –Measurements of the Head –Phrenology
II.How did Psychology Begin? C. The Science Tradition –2. Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920) –Father of Psychology –Published from the first Psychology Lab ● Edward B. Titchener (1867 – 1927) – Brought Structuralism to America
II.How did Psychology Begin? C. The Science Traditions –3. Functionalism William James (1842 – 1910) –First lab at Harvard –First Textbook in Psychology –Not structure but function –Influenced by Evolutionary Theory
II.How did Psychology Begin? D. The Psychoanalytic Tradition –1. Freud & Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) –Use of hypnosis to cure neurotic symptoms –Talking cure known as catharsis –Theory is very sexual
II. How did Psychology Begin? E. The Behaviorist Revolution –1. John Watson (1878 – 1958) –Focused on measuring only what is observable –2. B. F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) –Allowed psychology to be scientific
II.How did Psychology Begin? F. Gestalt Psychology –1. Max Wertheimer (1886 – 1941) –2. Wolfgang Kohler (1887 – 1967) –3. Kurt Koffka (1880 – 1943) The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
II. How did Psychology Begin? G. Humanistic Psychology –1. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) –2. Carl Rogers Role of Free Will and Conscious Choice
II. How did Psychology Begin? H. Cognitive Psychology –1. David Wechsler (1896-1981) Focuses on mental processes Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Intelligence Testing
III.What Trends Currently Shape Psychology? A.Notable Women in Psychology Between 1920 and 1975 –Women received < 25% of Ph.D.’s –Mary Whiton Calkins –Margaret Washburn –Leta Stetter Hollingworth
III.What Trends Currently Shape Psychology? A.Women in Psychology Today, women earn: 73% of bachelor’s degrees in psychology Nearly 70% of new doctorates Still underrepresented in experimental psychology and academia Research by and about women is prominent
III.What Trends Currently Shape Psychology? B. Ethnic Diversity in Psychology –Situation changing more slowly –23% of membership of American Psychological Association (APA) –Receive 19% of doctoral degrees in psychology
Notable early African American psychologists –Gilbert Haven Jones –Albert Beckham –Inez Prosser –Howard Long –Francis Sumner, “Father of African American Psychology” –Kenneth & Mamie Clark Influenced Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education III.What Trends Currently Shape Psychology?
Notable Latino / Latina psychologists –Martha Bernal –Manuel Barrera –R. Diaz-Guerrero –Jorge Sanchez –Melba J. T. Vasquez –Clarissa Pinkola Esteìs –Salvador Minuchin
III.What Trends Currently Shape Psychology? Diversity strengthens psychology –Helping professions are more effective for more people –Diversity brings a variety of research interests to the field
IV.Fields of Specialization A. Texas Licensed Fields of Specialization in Psychology –Clinical –Counseling –Educational & School –Industrial/Organizational
IV.Fields of Specialization B. Non-Licensed Fields of Specialization in Psychology –Cognitive –Developmental –Social –Personality –Experimental –Biological
IV.Fields of Specialization B. Non-Licensed Fields of Specialization in Psychology –Engineering –Health –Positive –Forensic –Artificial Intelligence/ Connectionism –Evolutionary
IV.Fields of Specialization C. Making Psychology A Career
V.Goals of Psychology The Goals of Psychology –1. Describe –2. Explain –3. Predict –4. Influence …behavior and mental processes
V.Goals of Psychology Goals of Psychology –Description First step in understanding most behavior or mental process Describes the behavior or mental process of interest as accurately and completely as possible Tells what occurred –Explanation Requires an understanding of the conditions under which a given behavior or mental process occurs Enables researchers to state the causes of the behavior or mental process they are studying Tells why a given event or behavior occurred
V.Goals of Psychology Goals of Psychology (cont.) –Prediction When researchers can specify the conditions under which a behavior or event is likely to occur The results of empirical test allow us to predict future events –Influence When researchers know how to apply a principle or change a condition to prevent unwanted occurrences or to bring about desired outcomes
V.Goals of Psychology Theories –Tentative attempts to organize and fit into a logical explanatory framework all of the relevant data or facts scientist have observed regarding certain phenomena. Why do we dream? Why do we spend more time dreaming when we are in emotional conflict? Empirical tests –Test in which scientist manipulate conditions or behaviors for the purposes of testing a hypothesis, and observe the results. People who are presented with waking-state problems and then deprived of nighttime dreaming will be less likely to suggest reasonable solutions the following morning than other subjects who are allowed a normal night’s rest.
V.Goals of Psychology Critical thinking –The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, or conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented –The foundation of the scientific method –Evaluate theories on their own merit Do not fall into dualism (right or wrong) thinking If this theory is true then how might I change my beliefs or thinking? Under what conditions might this theory not make accurate predictions?