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Harry Vardis Creative Focus Institute 1120 Hope Rd. Suite 150 Atlanta, GA 30350 404 256­7000 www.creativefocus.net For a C reativity O n D emand E nvironment.

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Presentation on theme: "Harry Vardis Creative Focus Institute 1120 Hope Rd. Suite 150 Atlanta, GA 30350 404 256­7000 www.creativefocus.net For a C reativity O n D emand E nvironment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harry Vardis Creative Focus Institute 1120 Hope Rd. Suite 150 Atlanta, GA ­7000 For a C reativity O n D emand E nvironment C REATIVE T HINKING T HINKING T OOLS T OOLS [C.O.D.E] Revised October 2006

2 Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSi INTRODUCTION ii BLOCKS TO CREATIVITYiii CREATIVE THINKERS’ CHARACTERISTICSiv I. Introduction to Creativity1 a. Person – Roles & Responsibilities2 b. Place – Climate Setting3 c. Process 4 II. The Dynamic Balance of Creativity5 a. Divergent Thinking6 b. Divergent Rules7 c. Convergent Thinking8 d. Convergent Rules9 III.Four Steps of a Problem Solving Process 10 a. Step 1 – Clarify11 1. Statement Starters12 2. Word Dance13 3. Highlighting b. Step 2 – Ideate Brainstorming18 2. Forced Connections Brainwriting Idea Matrix23 5. Highlighting24 6. Evaluation Matrix25 c. Step 3 – Develop26 1. Develop Criteria & Select Solutions [Evaluation Matrix] PPCO31 d. Step 4 – Implement32 1. Create Prototype and Debrief33-35 IV.APPENDIX Clarification QuestionsA1 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools – The ProcessA2 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools WorkbookA3-A6 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools CheatsheetA7 SCAMPERA8-A10 What is Your Business?A11-A12

3 Acknowledgements The information presented in this manual is the culmination of many years of work in research and application of Creativity by a host of professionals to whom we are grateful.* Specifically, portions of this manual were prepared under the auspices of the Creative Education Foundation for its training programs. However, the Creative Education Foundation would be nowhere without the hundreds of Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Institute leaders (faculty) who volunteer to share their time and prodigious expertise in CPS with all those interested in this exciting area. Every attempt was made, where appropriate, to credit the work of specific individuals and to properly reference previously published materials. Any error of omission related to reference or crediting is not intentional. In closing, we would appreciate any feedback you may have on how we can improve future editions of this manual. * Kathy Breeze, Roger Firestien, Blair Miller, Jonathan Vehar, Gerrard J. Puccio i

4 Introduction This Creative Problem Solving process is based on more than 50 years of scientific research in human creativity and problem solving. This is research that was pioneered in the early 50’s by the Department of the Army, Harvard University, Arthur D. Little consulting, Alex Osborn (the Pioneer of Brainstorming), Dr. Sidney Parnes and other distinguished individuals. It is a little known map that humans use to address and solve problems. The research shows that using the right tools, the right process and individuals with shared interests we can arrive at new and unexpected solutions. Also, by avoiding the wrong assumptions and by having a shared focus breakthrough results can be reached. The steps of the process are similar to the four preference profiles outlined in the FourSight inventory. We are grateful for the contributions and the pioneering work done by Garrard Puccio and THinc Communications, Evanston Illinois towards the completion of this manual. Each of the steps of this process is based on the classical creative thinking model: First, create many possibilities (Diverge) and then make choices (Converge). Never do both at once! For true breakthrough thinking to occur we need both Imagination and Judgment. They both need time to thrive and they have to be kept separate, otherwise you will end up killing most of your ideas by your own judgment. As you engage in each one of the two processes, Divergence and Convergence, always visit first the rules for that phase because even the most experienced practitioners tend to be “human” and become judgmental when they should not be. When you generate ideas turn off the critic. Generate many options. Get radical. Build on other ideas. When you are judging be deliberate, be affirmative and consider novelty. ii

5 Blocks to Creativity People comprehend at__________________ WPM People speak at _____________________WPM 18% of your audience is_______________ 25% have ________________________ 57% are thinking____________________ This causes ______________________thinking For creativity to happen you must be ________to all new ideas The two phases of creativity are: _______________ and ____________ You must be willing to make ______________________for creativity to happen What inhibits your creativity is ______________________ To keep people on track you need _______________ ratio of praise to criticism To change behavior positively you need ____________ratio of praise to criticism iii

6 Creative Thinkers’ Characteristics Capture all new ideas—How do you capture ideas? Challenge failure—Never get discouraged Surround-relocate, redecorate—Move office around Broaden skills & knowledge—What have You read lately? iv

7 CREATIVITY

8 Introduction to Creativity Definition of Creativity 1 Creativity - Novelty that is useful Note the two key points upon which this definition is built: 1. Novelty – newness, never having been seen before, a fresh approach. 2. Usefulness – is it able to be used for something? Does it serve a purpose? As you read this manual, always keep in mind that both of these elements must be present for Creativity, as it applies to business, to exist. Key assumptions to understand as you begin this course: 1. Everybody is creative in some way 2. Creativity skills can be taught 3. You may not leave the course as creative as DaVinci, but if you participate fully, you will leave with the knowledge and/or the ability to be deliberately more creative and better able to solve problems. Dimensions of Creativity Creativity can also be dimensionalized by the “Three P’s 2 ” presented below: P erson – issues around how people are creative such as how creative someone is, and what it is that makes somebody creative. P lace (Environment)­­ issues around the environment in which creativity flourishes or is squelched. P rocess – issues that deal with how people can be more creative or can use and apply their creativity. Given the above, the following pages present the “Three Ps” of Creativity in detail. Extra emphasis has been given to the Process since it provides the “How to” foster and capitalize on creativity 1 Derived from the work of Stan Gryskiewicz of the Center for Creative Leadership 2 Mel Rhodes in Phi Delta Kappa CREATIVITY 1

9 Person – Roles & Responsibilities There are three basic components to any group idea generation session and it is of key importance that the roles and responsibilities of each are clearly understood and adhered to. They include: Component 1 – Facilitator 3 The Facilitator is the leader of the "brainstorm panel and he/she: – Is solely responsible for managing the overall process – Makes sure that the process is completed within the allotted time – Manages the development of the group – Manages the flow of ideas – Makes sure that the client gets what he needs from the group – Meets with the client before gathering the resource group. Component 2 – Client 4 – Owns the problem that is to be solved – Provides direction for the facilitator and lets the facilitator know what is needed from the group – Lets the facilitator worry about the process and focuses on the content of the session – Can provide input and options along with the resource group – Models appropriate behavior and always follows the rules of creativity – Participates in both divergence and convergence Component 3 ­ Resource Group 5 – Serves the needs of the client as directed by the facilitator – Provides options in the form of problem statements, ideas, solutions, action steps, etc – Can add new perspectives by including members who are not directly involved with the issue at hand – The diversity of group members adds to the diversity of ideas – Usually participate in divergence only 3 Alex Osbom first addressed the roles of the facilitator when he introduced “brainstorming” in his book Applied Imagination, released in The role of the Client was defined by Donald Treffinger, Scott Isaksen, and Roger Firestien in the Handbook of Creative Learning 5 The role of the Resource Group was explained by Donald Treffinger and Roger Firestien in the Journal of Creative Behavior CREATIVITY 2

10 The relationship between human beings and their environment is a very important one. Some climates (environments) are more conducive to individual and group creativity than others. Therefore, it is key that both the client and the group session facilitator understand the importance of the “climate” and always strive for a more “creativity­conducive” environment. The following are some of the benefits 5 to be gained by establishing and encouraging the right climate for creativity: Better facilitation of meetings  More productive meetings  Creation of an environment where productive innovation is more likely to flourish since members:  See things more clearly  Become responsible for shaping and structuring their environments  Feel safe  Are able to trust one another  Know that what they say will be accepted  Can share their feelings  Can take risks Promotes honest communication among team members The creation of the right climate whereby participants become “change agents” 6 is achieved through: ◊ Support for ideas ◊ Playfulness/humor ◊ Dynamism/liveliness◊ Risk­taking ◊ Debates ◊ Freedom ◊ Trust/Openness ◊ Absence of conflicts Place – Climate Setting 5 Scott Isakensen, K. Brian Dorval, and Donald Treffinger – Creative Approaches to Problem Solving Climate research conducted in Sweden by Goran Ekvall and refined in the U.S. by Scott Isaksen, K. Brian Dorval, and Donald Treffinger CREATIVITY 3

11 Process It is divided into two areas. That is: Ownership of the Group and Responsibilities – The Four Steps and Preferences – Roles and Responsibilities Various Creativity Tools that can be used to elicit useful and actionable information during: – Divergent Thinking – Generating lots of options – Convergent Thinking – Judging options and making decisions This section deals with the actual mechanics on how people can be more creative or can use and apply their creativity. CREATIVITY 4

12 The Dynamic Balance of Creativity Alex Osborn, in his breakthrough book Applied Imagination, noted two distinct kinds of thinking that are essential for being creative: 1. Divergent thinking: Generating lots of options 2. Convergent thinking: Judging options, making decisions All of us do both kinds of thinking on a daily basis. However, the secret to creating new ideas is to separate your divergent thinking from your convergent thinking. This means generating lots and lots of options before you even consider judging them. Divergent Convergent 5 CREATIVITY

13 Rules The following Divergent Thinking rules 9 are extremely effective in helping individuals and groups generate creative options:  Defer judgment  Strive for quantity  Seek wild options  Combine and build on other ideas Why generate lots of options? Alex Osborn noted that “quantity yields quality.” Research conducted by Roger Firestien in 1987 validated this and the strength of these guidelines to generate twice as many good ideas as the usual approach. Tools There are a number of tools that can be used to assist in the generation of Divergence Thinking. These are presented in the following pages and include:  Brainstorming  Brainwriting  Forced Connections  Morphological Matrix Divergent Thinking – “ The generation of lots of options” 9 Applied Imagination by Alex Osborn 6 CREATIVITY [divergence]

14 Divergence Rules Rule 1 Defer Judgment Rule 3 Seek Wild Options Rule 2 Seek Quantity Rule 4 Combine Ideas 7 CREATIVITY [divergence]

15 Rules The following Convergent Thinking rules 12 should be used when it is time to make decisions about the ideas that resulted from Divergent Thinking:  Be deliberate  Check your objectives  Improve your ideas  Be affirmative Convergence is much easier for most people than divergence. It’s also easy to disregard brilliant creative ideas through reckless decision­making. By following these rules, you’ll take a smart, strategic approach to evaluating the ideas, which were so deliberately created. Tools The two basic tools of Convergent Thinking are:  Highlighting  Evaluation Matrix (including the Matrix worksheet) Convergent Thinking – “J udging of options, making decisions” 12 Proposed Concept of rules by Scott Isaksen and Don Treffinger in Creative Problem Solving, the Basic Course 8 CREATIVITY [Convergence]

16 Convergence Rules Rule 1 Judge affirmatively Rule 3 Examine, refine, revise & improve Rule 2 Be deliberate Rule 4 Check your objectives 9 CREATIVITY [Convergence]

17 7 The 4 steps Clarify Ideate Develop Implement

18 Four Steps of a Problem Solving Process Clarify In this step you will explore, and research the issue. You will further define your goal. Here you will be defining the issues very carefully and not jumping into any assumptions. Paraphrasing the issue in many different ways so that all its parameters are defined is important. Addressing the right problem means you have the right information to define the problem as best you can. Some times there can be an overload of data leading to “analysis, paralysis” Ideate In this step you understand the challenge and need new, fresh ideas to address it. You will be generating many concepts and ideas. This is the place to stretch the imagination and think “out of the box”. No concerns about the details. Rather, you want to deal with broad issues and generate many ideas. Flexibility, possibilities and blue sky thinking is characteristic of this phase of problem solving. Develop Here you will turn a rough idea into a solution. That means it will have definition and a plan of action. You will be considering, analyzing and looking at many different solutions. You will be planning solutions in great detail from rough ideas and think in advance all the steps to implement the idea. Some times you may get stuck in developing the perfect solution. Keep moving or else you will loose momentum towards implementation. Implement In this stage you will have completed all the other stages of the breakthrough thinking process and you are ready to test and implement the solution. You will be practicing the Nike slogan “Just do it”. You will be taking action and get the most energy out of making ideas reality. Always moving, always looking for things to accomplish. Learning by doing and frustrated when things don’t move fast. The 4 steps 10

19 clarify

20 Getting to the real challenge… Challenges come in many sizes and shapes. For instance.. “It would be great to increase profit margins…” “How might we improve the work climate…” “In what ways can I help my 6th grader do better in math…” Clarifiers love to collect data to guide their decisions. They tend to be focused, orderly and methodical. Some times they tend to over-collect information and they ask questions. Lots of questions! It has been said that “A problem well defined is a problem half solved” and that is the motto of the clarifiers. Consider the above challenge of helping your 6th grader. You could ask, “How can I get my son to do his math homework?” or “How can I get my son excited about math?” These are two different questions and they will elicit different solutions. So in this step collect lots of information and state the challenge in a compelling way so that it expresses exactly what you want it to say. When you clarify….  Investigate the issue from many different perspectives and break assumptions into parts so that new possible challenges can emerge [see C.O.D.E. workbook  Understand the history and background of the challenge [see Appendix A-1]  Use key data to generate a list of possible questions Tools to use when clarifying….  Turn problems into questions  Use “Word Dance” to develop alternatives  Use phrases that can invite possible solutions e.g. In What Ways Might We… How To… How Might We…  Select one you wish to solve – Use highlighting Step 1 - CLARIFY Clarify 11

21 Statement Starters Statement Starters get the brain in gear to generate options. They also frame the situation by inviting ideas to explore options rather than shutting down conversations with a traditional statement. They help to phrase statements and group them as Wishes (I wish…), and Challenges (How to…) so that clear objectives can be formed. Start by identifying a broad opportunity using the following statement starters: – It would be great if... (IWBGI) – I wish...(IW) To clarify specific Problems use these statement starters: – How to… (H2) – How might...(HM) – In what ways might... (IWWM) Statement Starters are used to help the challenge owner see the challenge from different perspectives and to open the road for new possibilities. For example, phrasing a concern about cost as, "It's too expensive," cuts off discussion about the concern. However, by starting the concern about cost with "How to..." you naturally begin to generate ways to overcome the concern about cost, such as, "How to make it less expensive?" Or, "How to obtain funding from other sources.“ Another example: “We need a name for our new restaurant” is very broad. By restating the issue as “It would be great if we might come up with a name for our new Italian restaurant” opens up the possibilities with a wish and some additional data. Identify Concerns & Clarify the Problem How to... How might... In what ways might... Identify Opportunities I wish... It would be great if... starters 12

22 Word Dance Many times the challenge or problem we are working on could be stated in a way that needs teasing out the parts of it. And even after restatements, the problem may still sound similar to the original! If that happens, a very effective tool to use is Word Dance. A technique that Blair Miller brought to existence in my years as a facilitator! Directions: Start with your problem statement and identify the key verb and generate a list of verbs that could be used in its place… go for at least 12 to 15 Now identify the “Object” or “outcome” words. Again, generate at least 12 to 15 possible substitutes. Be playful and have fun with this exercise. The more unusual the choices the more newness will be in the new statements. Mix and match the 2 columns of verbs and objects exploring new combinations and looking for new insights into the problem Choose a statement that expresses the problem in the most appealing and powerful way. Here is an example: Your social group wants to expand its membership. The original challenge may be : ”How might we get more members? Using the words [“Get”] and [“Members”] we can create two lists as follows: By mixing and matching words we can come up with: How might we entice supporters? How might we attract candidates? How might we solicit more contributions MEMBERS Participants Supporters Leaders Joiners Candidates Applicants Registrations Contributions Groupies Helpers GET Attract Induce Solicit Entice Lure Gather Retain Collect 13 Word Dance

23 Highlighting On target; It sparkles; It’s intriguing; Relevant; Workable; Right on the money! HITSCLUSTERS RESTATEMENT Converge [Highlighting] 14

24 13 Was first mentioned by Don Treffinger and Roger Firestien in 1983, and was developed by Multiple Resource Associates (MRA) Highlighting Highlighting is a technique for converging or examining the output from divergence. It is useful when you are faced with lots of options and need a process to narrow down and focus on what is important. Highlighting: – Is used to screen, select and sort options which are interesting, intriguing or useful – Is a good tool to use: As a first pass­through converging a list of options With a larger number of options – Takes a larger number of options and condenses into more meaningful or manageable categories – Is useful in identifying the major categories of options and labeling them so that choices can be made more easily Highlighting 13 uses a simple but effective “sorting” process by applying three steps: – Hits ­­ A Hit is a word, phrase, or statement that “jumps off the page.” Hits capture the significance, the essence, the core. Hits are exciting, interesting, intriguing or compelling and sometimes stand “head and shoulders” above other choices. – Clusters ­­ A number of “hits” which are connected by some common relationship thus forming a pattern or cluster in the information. – Restate ­­ A Cluster is an indication of an area of importance or significance. This can be captured through the formation of a statement or restatement about the cluster. Make sure that the cluster is restated specifically enough to be useful, and is not vague and meaningless. If you are looking for ideas, make sure the restatement is an idea. If it’s a problem statement, make sure it has a proper “How to…” or similar stem on it. (See “Problem Statement Section.) 15 Converge [Highlighting]

25 Highlighting Highlighting Steps: 1. Review the characteristics of a “ hit ” yourself or with the group. According to Scott Isaksen, K. Brian Dorval, and Don Treffinger in their book Creative Approaches to Problem Solving, an option is a “ hit ” when it is: On target Relevant Clear Interesting Intriguing Workable “ right on the money ” Or when it: “ Sparkles ” at you Feels right Solves the challenge Goes in the right direction 2. Review all of the options generated during the divergent portion. 3. Have each participant mark the options that are “ hits ” with either sticky dots, a magic marker, or by removing the Post ­ it ™ with the option to another location. 4. Identify all the options that relate to each other and group them together on a clean page. 5. Cluster the hits that relate around a specific issue or theme. 6. Restate the hot spots appropriately (e.g. as a problem statement, an idea, etc.). 7. Ask how you or the group want to move ahead, “ What would you like to do with this? ” or “ How would you like to proceed? ” 16 Converge [Highlighting]

26 Ideate

27 Invent innovative ideas…. Once you have the challenge defined you need to come up with ideas… lots of ideas! But how many do you really need? Research has shown that the more you have the better it is. In fact, research shows that the first third of your ideas come from “Inside the box”, the next third have some novelty and the last third is where you are likely to find real breakthroughs. So, go for many and have fun! Remember that Ideators are playful, imaginative, social, flexible, adaptable and adventurous. Use several ideation tools and remember that there is no bad idea at this stage. All ideas are acceptable and building on anyone else’s idea is encouraged. Think of the impossible, think out of the box, use all kinds of stimuli and go for the absurd and the outrageous. As they say “It is easier to tame a wild idea than to make a great idea out of a mediocre one.” Once you have generated plenty of ideas, chose your most promising ones and turn them into solutions in the next steps. When you are ideating….  Defer all judgment and tell everyone else in the room to do the same  Consider lots of possibilities  List what is obvious first, then stretch for the wild ones  Look at your challenge from new angles: Break assumptions, substitute elements, combine elements, modify, eliminate elements  Use a photo and ask yourself “What new possibilities does this suggest to me?  Select no more than 5 to 10% to consider further Tools to Use to Create Many Possibilities…. Diverging ToolsConverging Tools BrainstormingHighlighting [hits/clusters] Brainwriting Evaluation Matrix Forced Connections Idea Matrix Step 2 - Ideate Ideate 17

28 Brainstorming was invented by Alex Osborn 10 and is defined as “a group attempt to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing ideas.” Brainstorming is: One of the most versatile tools available for problem solving and idea generation within groups Extremely useful in obtaining input from all group members Designed for creative collaboration by groups, HOWEVER, the divergent guidelines are applicable when working alone. It entails a group of appropriately selected people a moderator to coordinate the session and the free and unencumbered exchange of ideas, on a given subject, among the participants. Brainstorming Steps: Everybody knows how to brainstorm. However, most people know how to brainstorm unproductively. Following are the steps needed to hold a successful brainstorming session: 1. Write down the statement of the challenge (or problem/opportunity) so that it is visible to all 2. Present and apply the Divergent Thinking guidelines throughout the session: Defer judgment Strive for: – Participation – Quantity Seek unusual and wild ideas Combine ideas 3. Set a quota of options and keep going until you meet it 4. Gather concise and specific options. Record the options. Have participants repeat their options (if necessary) until they are clearly captured by the tape recorder. The options should then be written where they can be seen 5. Periodically (every 15 options or so) check with yourself or your group to make sure the options are going in the right direction 6. Proceed until you have met your quota or you have enough options to answer the challenge. Brainstorming 10 Introduced in 1953 in the first edition of Applied Imagination 18 Brainstorming

29 When you look at this object, what ideas do you get for solving this problem? Forced Connections FireWater 19 Forced Connections

30 When a group begins to slow down during brainstorming, or when the options generated seem to be in a rut, use the technique of Force Connections 10 to get things going again. Forced Connections is a technique that allows for attributes of an object to be related to the challenge. [e.g. The shape of an egg can provide ideas on how to improve a telephone booth.] This technique:  Is helpful in getting a group out of a rut  Works well when a group or an individual begins to slow down during divergence  Works well with other divergent tools (e.g. brainstorming, brainwriting, etc.)  Helps generate more unusual options  Works best with totally unrelated objects or pictures (explain) Forced Connection Steps: Go over the Divergent Thinking guidelines: Show or point out either an object or a picture Ask yourself or the group, “What ideas for this challenge (as stated during Brainstorming) can you get by looking at this (object or picture)? Tell yourself or the group members to force a connection in their mind to generate novel or useful options. Have each participant share his or her new ideas. Make sure that all ideas, even the silliest, are recorded. Repeat as necessary. Forced Connections Defer Judgment Seek Wild Options Rule 2 Rule 4 Combine Ideas Rule 1 Rule 3 Seek Quantity 10 Created by Charles S. Whiting and first appeared in Applied Imagination 20 Forced Connections

31 Brainwriting STATEMENT OF CHALLENGE Pin it up Stake it Roll around Cream fill ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 21 Brainwriting

32 11 Introduced by Horst Geschka in Methods and Organization of Idea Generation Brainwriting Another variation/modification of Brainstorming is the Brainwriting technique 11. It...  Is an excellent tool for dealing with overbearing or intimidating members of the resource group  Is good for more introverted groups since it lets shy people communicate their thoughts/ideas  Allows for time to reflect and incubate on options without giving the feeling of a slow­down  Effectively provides deliberate builds on other thoughts/ ideas  Allows for a change of pace during a loud, raucous meeting Brainwriting Steps Give each participant copies of Brainwriting forms Put one extra form within reach of all participants Have participants write the statement of the challenge at the top of all forms Go over the Divergent Thinking guidelines Tell the participants to: Write down an idea in each box in the first row (complete only one row) of the form then, Exchange the forms with the three ideas with another one from the middle of the table (floor, chairs, etc.) Feel free to build on the ideas written down by the other participants On a new form have them write down three more ideas on the next row Have them swap their forms again and continue to swap until all of the forms are full Use more forms if necessary. Defer Judgment Seek Wild Options Seek Quantity Rule 1 Rule 3 Rule 2 Rule 4 Combine Ideas 22 Brainwriting

33 Idea Matrix This is an exercise 11 that combines the parameters (e.g. facts, attributes, benefits or other variables) of the challenge to make different combinations. It is a little like making a sandwich where we combine different breads, vegetables, meats, cheeses, spreads and other ingredients. That is, by forming a matrix of all the ingredients (e.g. breads, vegetables, cheeses, meats etc.) and using random phone numbers (having 7 columns) we can come up with a different sandwich every time. The Idea Matrix… o Is helpful in looking at new options o Utilizes the “known” in new combinations or variations with the unknown o Works well with other divergent tools o Is an excellent tool to start a brainstorming session because it utilizes the known attributes of the challenge o While it keeps the parameters constant it allows for variations within each parameter The Idea Matrix Steps o Specify the challenge o Select the parameters of your challenge e.g. attributes, emotions etc. For each parameter you consider for the matrix ask yourself: “would the challenge still exist without this? (If the answer is yes include it; if no delete it.) o List all the possible options under each parameter. Keep the options fewer and unusual in order to generate truly new possibilities o Try different combinations using a random numbers table, a pair of dice or just telephone numbers out of a phonebook e.g. 11 Created by Dr. Fritz Zwicky 23 Idea matrix

34 Highlighting See Pages 14 – 16 24

35 The Evaluation Matrix 14 is a tool that is useful in comparing options to each other by rating the options against criteria. It: o Is used to systematically analyze options o Can be used with a number of options (approximately 1­10) o Works with criteria developed for the challenge o Helps to better understand, develop and strengthen a number of options. Criteria: In order to setup the Matrix table you will need also to generate a number of criteria to be used in the evaluation of the options. The criteria to be used in the matrix should answer the question: “What does my option have to do so that I will want to use it?” In other words, the criteria should be phrased so that they are positive. For example if you wanted to spend less than $100 on something, you would phrase the criteria?  Will it cost less than $100?  NOT: Will it be more than $100? The statement starters that are used with criteria are:  Will it…  Does it… Note that the more specific the criteria are, the more valuable will be the evaluation. Any measurements that you can include will help you make a better decision. For example:  Instead of: Will it be an affordable vacation?  Try: Will it cost less than $2,000? (Assuming that for you $2,000 IS an affordable vacation) Evaluation Matrix 14 Sidney Parnes uses it in his Creative Behavior Guidebook and Creative Behavior Workbook 25 Evaluation Matrix

36 develop 26

37 Making the idea real… This is the stage that the idea will find its way from the proverbial paper napkin and into a plan of action. This is the place where an idea’s strengths, weaknesses, and potentials for the future need to be listed and discussed. It helps a lot if you list the concerns in a question form e.g. How to…, How might…, In what ways might we…this type of phraseology invites solutions rather than criticism of the idea. Remember that good developers are reflective, pragmatic, cautious, structured. Carefully evaluate the ideas so that you can see if they meet your criteria to success. Then create a detailed plan of action by saying: What I see myself/ us doing is… When you develop….  Develop criteria for success. Rate solutions against each other  Modify and improve solutions to better meet the criteria for success  Make the positives of the idea known  State the concerns in terms of questions so that they invite solutions e.g. How might...?  Create an action plan that details who does what by when and reporting to whom Questions to consider while developing….  Who might assist you with your solution? [assistors]  Who needs to be convinced about the merits of your solution? [resistors]  What steps might you take to put your solution into action?  How can we build enthusiasm and get acceptance for this solution? Tools to use when developing....  Evaluation Matrix  PPCO Step 3 – Develop Criteria & Select Solutions Develop 27

38 The Evaluation Matrix 14 is a tool that is useful in comparing options to each other by rating the options against criteria. It: o Is used to systematically analyze options o Can be used with a number of options (approximately 1­10) o Works with criteria developed for the challenge o Helps to better understand, develop and strengthen a number of options. Criteria: In order to setup the Matrix table you will need also to generate a number of criteria to be used in the evaluation of the options. The criteria to be used in the matrix should answer the question: “What does my option have to do so that I will want to use it?” In other words, the criteria should be phrased so that they are positive. For example if you wanted to spend less than $100 on something, you would phrase the criteria?  Will it cost less than $100?  NOT: Will it be more than $100? The statement starters that are used with criteria are:  Will it…  Does it… Note that the more specific the criteria are, the more valuable will be the evaluation. Any measurements that you can include will help you make a better decision. For example:  Instead of: Will it be an affordable vacation?  Try: Will it cost less than $2,000? (Assuming that for you $2,000 IS an affordable vacation) Evaluation Matrix 14 Sidney Parnes uses it in his Creative Behavior Guidebook and Creative Behavior Workbook Evaluation Matrix 28

39 Evaluation Matrix (cont’d) Setting up the Matrix: The worksheet on the following page requires three things to set it up: Options: these go in the left hand column Criteria: these “measuring sticks” go across the top row Scale: pick a scale that is meaningful to you and gives you enough of a range to express your preference or displeasure for your options without giving you too much of a choice. Try to use a scale with three to five options. For example: Complete the matrix one column at a time by asking: “If I (option), to what extent will it (criteria)?” Evaluation Matrix Steps: Generate criteria – Generate criteria (Diverge) important to this decision. For example, when buying a new home, you may consider some of the criteria to be: initial cost of home, cost of upkeep, location, access to bus lines, school district, taxes, etc. Select criteria – Chose the criteria, which is most important, or most influential, for your decision. Put the criteria into question form after the stem: – Will it…? – Does it…? – Or is it…? For example: Will it be near bus lines? Will it be in a good school district? Does it cost less than $100,000? Does it require any renovation? Etc. Setup matrix – Put the criteria you’ve selected into one column each – Write your options on the left column, one option per row. – Create a rating scale, for example: 1­5 with 1 being the lowest rating, and 5 being the highest rating, or GOOD OKAY BAD, or any other rating scale. Using your rating scale, fill in the boxes one column at a time. Do not fill in the boxes one row at a time. To help you rate, phrase the sentences according to your options and criteria: “If (option), to what extent (criteria)”. For example: If we buy a house on Main Street, to what extent will it be near the bus lines? Complete the matrix. Do not total up the rows! The matrix ALLOWS YOU TO COMPARE OPTIONS BASED ON THEIR STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, AND HELPS YOU CLARIFY YOUR THINKING. Think about or discuss the options that receive the high and low ratings and factor that in to the decision­making process If necessary, diverge on ideas on how to overcome areas in your criteria that are low. Evaluation Matrix 29

40 Evaluation Matrix Worksheet Rating Scale: 3 – Good 2 – Fair 1 – Poor OPTIONS CRITERIA Evaluation Matrix 30

41 Pluses, Potentials, Concerns, Overcome concerns (PPCO) When a new idea is born it is very vulnerable. In order to overcome such attacks there is a very effective technique 15. It is based on the principle of affirmative judgment and allows for both the positive and the negative responses to be expressed. First we have to find value in the new idea. To do that we first state the positive aspects of it. Next, we say what potential opportunities it might present. Then, we present our concerns in the form of questions so that we invite further thinking and finally we brainstorm on those questions. This method or technique can be used to evaluate ideas, or as feedback on behaviors. The four steps are: List all the pluses of the idea: Now list at least three potential future gains that could come out of this idea. Use the statement “It might…” to express such possibilities in the future if the idea becomes reality. 1. It might… 2. It might… 3. It might… Now phrase each concern as an open-ended question so that you can overcome it. 1. How to… 2. How to… 3. How to… Pick the most important concern and come up with at least 15 possible ways to overcome it. Select the best choice. Then pick the next most important and do the same thing. Do this until you have overcome all of them. Now state each concern as a statement using the statement starter “In order to…” so you will say: In order to…, we will….(State the idea to overcome it) 15 Developed by Dianne Foucar-Szocki, Bill Shephard and Roger Firestein. Concern#1How to… Ideas to overcome concern # etc. Concern #2How to… Ideas to overcome concern # etc. P.P.C.O. 31

42 Implement

43 Action... By now the implementers are getting anxious… “Let’s get going!” they scream and want to see some action. So, your solution looks good on paper, the plans are on paper also and you need to get things moving! This requires tolerance for risk, so get started. Implementers are persistent, decisive, determined, assertive and action-oriented. They have no patience to read the users’ manual. They just want to turn on the key and drive the car. Yes, the clocks on their VCR’s are blinking but they are enjoying the show while others are working through the instructions! In this step you see actual progress and make course corrections fast. When you implement... Identify who are the people and circumstances who will help you and who is going to put road blocks in your way?  Test fast, fail fast, adjust fast as Tom Peters says.  Check what is working well? What needs change? What are we learning?  Take action on something within 24 hours. Tools to use when implementing...  Create a prototype of the solution  Debrief using: What…? So what…? Now what…?  Make improvements and move on. Step 4 - Implement Implement 32

44 Creating a prototype of the idea When embarking on building a prototype, it is a good idea to start with a list of “To do” items and a list of “Who- will- do- what” people. A “To do” list helps focus on the steps needed to create the prototype and keeps the energy level high. Some questions that could help to create a good “To do” list, are: – What resources can we use to create the prototype? – What steps do we need to take in order to turn this idea into reality? – In what ways can we make it a success? – Against what criteria will it be judged? – How can we make it exciting to our audience so that they will absolutely love it? – In what ways might we build excitement into it? – What might we do to gain enthusiasm from the audience? – What advantages do we need to emphasize in order to make it a success? – How might we pretest the prototype? – What additional resources might we need? – How might we overcome any objections, difficulties, limitations or obstacles? It is a good idea to start the “To do” list and the “Who will do what list” alone or in teams of two, rather than trying to do it as an entire group. Following, we can open it to the entire group so that all prototype-building ideas are heard. As a next step converge with the entire group participating. Depending on the project, a small matrix like the one below might help to keep things organized: Action ItemBy whom?By when?Reporting completion to whom? prototyping 33

45 Debriefing - Noun – “to aid the input… furnishing of data concerning the output… so that errors may be corrected… the reaction of some results of a process serving to alter or reinforce the character of that process.” Webster’s Third New International Dictionary Hedria Porrath Lunken wrote in her article the Art and Discipline of Debriefing that, “A tool, known as Debriefing, can be used to stimulate staff and customers to gain insights that may have a profound effect or influence on future behavior”, or “forcing an aha!” Leaders and facilitators recognize the value of debriefing all activities to determine the “On course” progress on a given initiative. In doing so, we test our own effectiveness and the depth of our participants’ understanding and knowledge. Also, it is important that we utilize a variety of debriefing tools or strategies, as well as reconfiguring the participants into different group sizes and combinations. Debriefing does not prevent errors before they happen. It enables us to avoid making them again. It provides us with reflective and self-evaluative tools in future planning. Why Debrief? 1. Provides closure 2. Makes each participant feel that his/her thinking and feeling are important 3. Answers the “now what” 4. Improves confidence of participants – affirming a learning experience 5. Leads to action steps 6. Expands understanding 7. Deepens and enriches the learning experience 8. Builds a sense of community 9. Building bridge between what has been learned and implementation of new learning 10. Gives us guidance in planning next learning steps DEBRIEF 34

46 Debriefing - Noun – “to aid the input… furnishing of data concerning the output… so that errors may be corrected… the reaction of some results of a process serving to alter or reinforce the character of that process.” Webster’s Third New International Dictionary Helpful Hints for Debriefing Jacquie Lowell makes the following suggestions for debriefing: – Have participants debrief in pairs first, because people will share more readily their thoughts with one person than volunteer them in a group. – After they have discussed their reaction in pairs, then ask volunteers from the whole group to contribute ideas and insights out loud to all. – Facilitator needs to create a safe, judgment free atmosphere to encourage participants to speak freely and confidently. – If a participant says something that indicates he thinks he is alone in reacting in a certain way (and judging himself badly for it), a quick hand vote to demonstrate how many others in the group also have that reaction can be helpful. – Facilitator should ask both process questions unique to each exercise and general process questions such as: “What did you notice while doing the exercise?” Debriefing tool - “What? So What? Now What?” What? Here are some sample questions to use during the “What?” phase: What went on/ What happened? What did we learn? Could you be more specific? Can you say that in another way? What else? Who else? Who reacted differently, same? So What? Here are some sample questions to use during the “So What?” Phase: How did you feel about …? How many felt the same? How many felt different? What does that mean to you? Do you see anything happening here? What does that suggest to you about yourself? What did you learn/relearn? Now What? How might you apply/transfer that? How might you retain the new learning? What modification/changes might you make? What would you continue with? If you had to do it over again, what would you do? DEBRIEF 35

47 APPENDIX

48 Clarification Questions Identifying the concerns  What is the challenge you would like to resolve?  What are the objectives?  If you could get some magical answers to your questions, which questions would you want the magical answers to?  What do you wish would happen? SELECT THE MOST APPEALING STATEMENT Discovering the facts KEY QUESTIONS: In what ways might I/ we find out…..?  What is going on?  Who is involved?  Who else should be involved?  What’s at stake for you and for them?  What have you already thought or tried?  What other information do you need?  What are 3 needs that you want to satisfy?  What are some changes or improvements that could address these needs?  What has been tried so far?  What are some obstacles we can expect?  How soon does this project need to be completed?  What is the ideal outcome? SELECT THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTS Identifying the real problem  What do you wish could happen? PHRASE: I wish…..  What would be the one thing you would like to see happen? PHRASE: If only….  What would the future look like if your wish came true? Write a short paragraph imagining what you would tell others as “your achievement”  What does it solve?  What is the investment you have to make?  What will the outcomes look like? USING STATEMENT STARTERS FROM PAGE 12 RESTATE THE CHALLENGE USING NEW INFORMATION FROM THESE QUESTIONS. SELECT THE CHALLENGE THAT YOU WISH TO PURSUE AND GO TO “IDEATION” A1 Clarification questions

49 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools The process CLARIFY 1. Write out the client’s initial challenge 2. Paraphrase it in 4 or 5 ways using the Clarifier Statements… H2, IWWMI…, HMW… etc 3. List all the facts you know about the challenge and the wishes of the client. What do they want to accomplish? 4. Restate the challenge using Clarifier Statements and also the new information 5. Select the one statement that is closest to the objective and has interest in it. Select with a smile not a frown! 6. Write the statement separately on a page and keep it in front of you. FORGET ABOUT ANYTHING ELSE RIGHT NOW. IDEATE Remember the 4 rules of ideation: – Defer judgment, – Go for quantity and do it with time limits – Go for wild ideas – Build on the ideas of others 1. Find Inspiration: Use children’s books, magazines, pictures to think of words and phrases about smell, touch, feelings, sounds, sights. Make a list of about BRAINSTORMING 3. Starting from the bottom of your word list, write at least 10 “headlines” that solve the challenge of your clarified statement 4. Use Idea BOX to list either audience, benefits, attributes or any other dimensions that make the product or service what it is. 5. Now, generate at least 20 more headlines. DEVELOP 1. Select 2-3 of your coolest, strongest headlines based on your criteria. For each, develop a solution (end product) and a “sell in” to your client. IMPLEMENT 1. Do a full prototype presentation. 2. Debrief Remember:  Share your ideas with peers as often as you can and build on them  The client buys value so state the need, state your approach, state the benefits and state competitors ploy. Yours must be better! A2

50 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools WORKBOOK CLARIFY 1. Write out the client’s initial challenge _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 2. Paraphrase it in 4 or 5 ways using the Clarifier Statements… H2, IWWMI…, HMW… etc _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3. List all the facts you know about the challenge and the wishes of the client. What do they want to accomplish? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 4. Restate the challenge using Clarifier Statements and also the new information _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 5. Select the one statement that is closest to the objective and has interest in it. Select with a smile not a frown! _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 6. Write the statement separately on a page and keep it in front of you. FORGET ABOUT ANYTHING ELSE RIGHT NOW. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ A3

51 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools WORKBOOK IDEATE 4 Rules of divergence: – Defer judgment, – Go for quantity and do it with time limits – Go for wild ideas – Build on the ideas of others 1. Find Inspiration: Use children’s books, magazines, pictures to think of words and phrases about smell, touch, feelings, sounds, sights. Make a list of about _________________________ ____________ ____________ 2. BRAINSTORMING / 3. Starting from the bottom of your word list, write at least 10 “headlines” that solve the challenge of your clarified statement _________________________ ____________ ____________ 4. Use Idea BOX to list either audience, benefits, attributes or any other dimensions that make the product or service what it is. [DO IT ON A SEPARATE PAGE] 5. Now, generate at least 20 more headlines. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A4

52 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools WORKBOOK DEVELOP 1. Select 2-3 of your coolest, strongest headlines based on your criteria. For each, develop a solution (end product) and a “sell in” to your client. A5

53 Managing & Applying Problem Solving Tools WORKBOOK IMPLEMENT Do a full prototype presentation. Debrief A6

54 CHEATSHEET WHEN YOU NEED TO … USE THESE TOOLSPAGE NUMBER CLARIFYStatement Starters12 Clarification QuestionsA1 Word Dance13 Brainstorming18 Highlighting14-16 IDEATEBrainstorming21-22 Forced Connections19-20 Brainwriting18 Idea Matrix23 Highlighting14-16 DEVELOPBrainstorming21-22 PPCO31 Evaluation Matrix25 IMPLEMENTBrainstorming21-22 Debriefing34-35 A7

55 SCAMPER QUESTIONS Substitute,Combine,Adapt,Modify,Put to other uses,Eliminate,Reverse or Rearrange S.C.A.M.P.e.r A8 These questions are best asked during divergence while using another tool such as Brainstorming to capture ideas. Substitute You can substitute things, places, procedures, people, ideas, and even emotions. Substitution is a trial and error method of replacing one thing with another until you find the right idea. What can I substitute for the shopping baskets people carry, so I can sell more goods? Answer: Shopping carts!! How to sell colorless Vodka to Americans who wanted color in their drink? Answer: Add tomato juice or orange juice!! Sales:6000cases to 38million! – What can be substituted? Who else? What else? – Can the rules be changed? – Other ingredients? Other materials? – Other process or procedure? – Other power? – Other place? – Other approach? Change format? – What else instead? What other part instead of this? Combine Creative thinking requires synthesis, the process of combining previously unrelated ideas, goods or services to create something new. The car, according to Henry Ford is a combination of things which make it work. Five years earlier the discovery would have been impossible! – What ideas can be combined? – Can we combine purposes? Combine talents? Parts? – How about an assortment? – How about a blend, an alloy, an ensemble? – Combine units? – What other article could be merged with this? – How could we package a combination? – What can be combined to multiply possible uses?

56 SCAMPER QUESTIONS – [continued] Substitute,Combine,Adapt,Modify,Put to other uses,Eliminate,Reverse or Rearrange S.C.A.M.P.e.r These questions are best asked during divergence while using another tool such as Brainstorming to capture ideas. Adapt One of the paradoxes of creativity is that in order to think originally, one must first be familiar with the ideas of others. Think of all the “of the month” clubs that were spawned by the Book of the Month Club!! – What else is like this? – What other idea does this suggest? – Does the past offer a parallel? – What could I copy? – Whom could I emulate? – What idea could I incorporate? – What other process could be adapted? – What else could be adapted? – What different contexts can I put my concept in? – What idea outside my field can I incorporate? Magnify – What can be magnified, made larger, or extended? – What can be exaggerated? Overstated? – What can be added? More time? Stronger? Higher? Longer? – How about greater frequency? Extra features? – What can add extra value? – What can be duplicated? – How could I carry it to a dramatic extreme? – How can this be altered for the better? – What can be modified? – Is there a new twist? – Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, form, shape? – Change name? – Other changes? Change nature? Change attitude? – What changes can be made in the plans? In the process? In the marketing? – What other form could this take? What other package? – Can the package be combined with the form? A9

57 SCAMPER QUESTIONS – [continued] Substitute,Combine,Adapt,Modify,Put to other uses,Eliminate,Reverse or Rearrange S.C.A.M.P.e.r Put to Other Uses? G.W.Carver, botanist and chemist, discovered more than 300 uses for the lowly peanut because he never stopped looking. – What else can this be used for? – Are there new ways to use as is? – Other use if modified? – What else could be made from this? – Other extensions? Other markets? Eliminate or Minify – What can be streamlined? – What if this were smaller? – What should I omit? – Should I divide it? Split it up? Separate it into different parts? – Make miniature? Condense? Compact? – Subtract? Delete? Understate? – Can the rules be eliminated? What’s not necessary? Rearrange – What other arrangements can be better? – What other payment plan might be better? – Interchange components? – Other pattern? Other layout? – Other sequence? Change the order? – Transpose cause and effect? – Change pace? – Change schedule? Reverse – Can I transpose positive and negative? – What are the opposites? What are the negatives? – Should I turn it around? Up instead of down? Down instead of up? – Consider it backwards? – Reverse roles? – Do the unexpected? Adopted from Bob Eberle’s book Scamper: Games for imagination Development. These questions will help find an idea, product, or service and then imagine what else can be done with it. Every subject takes its meaning from the way it is used. A10

58 What Is Your Business? This exercise is taken from the book Thinkertoys by Michael Michalko and is a great exercise towards discovering what your company is and what it can become. There are many things around us that although they move or grow we do not see them. Take the stars for instance, they seem to stand still although they move at speeds of more than a million miles per day or the trees that grow but unless we mark them we cannot see their growth. In a similar way companies tend to move but seem set in their ways, their products and the services they provide. If we want to change them and look for new opportunities we need ways to help us out. Many years ago a railroad was in the railroad business. Then its business became transportation business. Or, Bell Telephone was about telephones and then it became about service! These changes in perspectives bring about totally new possibilities and here is how this technique can help to explore the new possibilities. Outline of the exercise 1. Ask “What is your business?” and “What should your business be?” These questions focus your attention on where to look for new ideas. 2. Define and organize your business according to products or services, markets, functions and technologies. For instance, the key descriptors for a business book publisher would be: Products: Books Markets: Books for business professionals Functions: Books that provide business information Technologies: Books based on the latest printing technologies Services: Book clubs with member discounts 3. Under each variable, list the key words for the business: Key words describe the products or services, markets, functions and technologies in your industry or technologies your markets use A11

59 What Is Your Business? [continued] 4. Mix and match your products, markets, functions, services and technologies in various ways to explore new ideas. Example: A key word index for the business book publisher would be: PRODUCTSFUNCTIONSMARKETSTECHNOLOGIESSERVICES hardback informationlibrariesprintprofessional booksdiscounts softback booksentertainmentbookstoreselectronicbooks clubs floppy diskseducationuniversitiesaudionewsletters castestrainingindustrymodularseminars electronic resourcesmilitaryvideoinformation networksservices Idea: Produce audio cassettes for sales training to be sold directly to corporations. Idea: An electronic data bank containing all the information from the publisher’s backlist business books to be sold as a business resource by way of a computer network for businesses. A12


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