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1 Effective Implementation, Strong Leadership, Successful Schools Sue Szachowicz Principal, Brockton High School Senior Advisor, International Center for.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Effective Implementation, Strong Leadership, Successful Schools Sue Szachowicz Principal, Brockton High School Senior Advisor, International Center for."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Effective Implementation, Strong Leadership, Successful Schools Sue Szachowicz Principal, Brockton High School Senior Advisor, International Center for Leadership in Education WISCONSIN, NOVEMBER 2009

2 2 1. Implementing the Literacy Initiative Across the Curriculum 2. What Gets Monitored Is What Gets Done 3. All Means ALL: Strategies for Special Education Students 4. Building Relationships with Faculty, Students, and Parents TODAY’S AGENDA:

3 3 INTRO: Who am I and why am I here? WHO: Empowering a team WHAT: Our mission – LITERACY for ALL HOW: Instructional Leadership Implementation Monitoring (next session) AND SO:Results

4 4 SO, Who is this woman, and why is she here?????

5 5 Brockton High School Brockton, Massachusetts “School of Champions”

6 66 BROCKTON HIGH SCHOOL Comprehensive 9 – 12 Enrollment: over 4,300 Poverty Level: 72% Minority population: 71% 30 different languages represented 38% do not speak English as their primary language Approximately 12% in Transitional Bilingual Ed. Approximately 11% receive Special Education Services

7 77 Student Population 55.5% Black - includes African- American, Cape Verdean, Haitian, Jamaican, and others 27.3% White 14% Hispanic 2.7% Asian.5% American Indian

8 8 SO, That’s who she is, but why is she here?????

9 9 Here’s what we faced: (still do!) State mandates: High Stakes Testing (MCAS) Federal mandates :NCLB, AYP Local mandates – Graduation requirements

10 10 MCAS 1998 Failure ELA – 44 % (Sped – 78%) MATH – 75% (Sped – 98%) MCAS 1998 Advanced+Proficient ELA – 22% MATH – 7% State Mandates…We faced:

11 11 And we had “empires” Brockton High: The Medieval Feudal System

12 12 But even worse… We faced a flawed belief system: “Students have a right to fail.” Former BHS Principal

13 13 Success at Brockton High then…

14 14 Success at Brockton High???

15 15 Success at Brockton High now…

16 16 MCAS 1998 Failure ELA – 44% MATH – 75% MCAS 2009 Failure ELA – 5% MATH – 15%

17 17 MCAS 1998 Advanced+Proficient ELA – 22 % MATH – 7 % MCAS 2009 Advanced+Proficient ELA – 78 % (matches the state) MATH – 60 %

18 MCAS??? So you think it’s easy??? 18

19 19 SAMPLE MCAS QUESTION: Life of Henry V: Act IV, Scene III (ll. 1-80) Open Response question Explain how the excerpt shows that the king is an effective leader. Use relevant and specific information from the excerpt to support your answer. (Question is looking for language and style analysis, not simply content).

20 20 SAMPLE MCAS QUESTION: Excerpt from Don Quixote (pp 58-60) Open Response Question Explain how the author creates a humorous tone in the excerpt. Use relevant and specific information from the excerpt to support your answer. (Question is looking for language analysis, not simply content).

21 21 SAMPLE MCAS MATH QUESTION: Jason launched a model rocket from the ground. The formula below can be used to determine the height of the rocket above the ground at any time during the rocket’s flight. h = 16t(7 – t) In the formula, h and t are defined as follows: t = the time, in seconds, that has elapsed since the rocket was launched h = the height, in feet, of the rocket above the ground at time t Use the formula to answer the following questions. a.What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 1 second after it was launched? Show your work. b. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 6 seconds after it was launched? Show your work. c. The value of h was 0 when the rocket hit the ground. How many seconds after the rocket was launched did it hit the ground? Show your work. d. How many seconds after the rocket was launched was the height of the rocket 160 feet? Show your work.

22 22 SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION: Corn snakes show variety in their skin color pattern. While the complete genetics of corn snake color are complex, the most common colors on normal corn snakes—red and black—are each coded by one gene. For the red gene, the allele for the presence of red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive. Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the allele for the absence of black pigment (b) is recessive. a. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake that is homozygous dominant for the red color with a snake that is heterozygous for the red color. What percentage of the offspring is expected to have red pigment in their skin? b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two snakes that are heterozygous for the black color. What percentage of the offspring are expected to have black pigment in their skin? c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are heterozygous for black color are both homozygous recessive for the red gene. Each parent has genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this information, what percentage of their offspring are expected to lack both the red and black pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning.

23 23 SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION: Corn snakes show variety in their skin color pattern. While the complete genetics of corn snake color are complex, the most common colors on normal corn snakes—red and black—are each coded by one gene. For the red gene, the allele for the presence of red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive. Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the allele for the absence of black pigment (b) is recessive. a. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake that is homozygous dominant for the red color with a snake that is heterozygous for the red color. What percentage of the offspring is expected to have red pigment in their skin? b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two snakes that are heterozygous for the black color. What percentage of the offspring are expected to have black pigment in their skin? c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are heterozygous for black color are both homozygous recessive for the red gene. Each parent has genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this information, what percentage of their offspring are expected to lack both the red and black pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning. c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are hetero- zygous for black color are both homozygous recessive for the red gene. Each parent has genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this information, what percentage of their offspring are expected to lack both the red and black pigments in their skins. Explain your reasoning.

24 24 1998 TERM 1 859 STUDENTS (4400 students) 2008 TERM 1 1299 STUDENTS (4300 students) Honor Roll Statistics

25 25 THEN “Students have a right to fail.” BHS Principal NOW “There is no such right! High Standards, High expectations, No excuses!” BHS Principal

26 Turnaround at Brockton High BROCKTON - Brockton High School has every excuse for failure, serving a city plagued by crime, poverty, housing foreclosures, and homelessness. Almost two-thirds of the students qualify for free or reduced-price lunches, and 14 percent are learning to speak English. More than two-thirds are African-American or Latino - groups that have lagged behind their peers across the state on standardized tests. But Brockton High, by far the state’s largest public high school with 4,200 students, has found a success in recent years that has eluded many of the state’s urban schools: MCAS scores are soaring, earning the school state recognition as a symbol of urban hope. Principal Susan Szachowicz, shown chatting at lunch with Yiriam Lopez, is in many ways the school’s biggest cheerleader. (Essdras M Suarez/ Globe Staff) By James Vaznis Globe Staff / October 12, 2009James Vaznis Emphasis on literacy brings big MCAS improvement

27 27 OK, so some good things happened at Brockton High, BUT… WHAT did you do, and HOW did you do it???

28 28 For Whole School Reform It’s ALL about the 3 R’s: Rigor Relevance Relationships

29 29 Eight Components of School Reform Embrace a Common Vision and Goals Inform Decisions Through Data Systems Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Clarify Student Learning Expectations Adopt Effective Instructional Practices Address Organizational Structures Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

30 30 RIGOR: HIGH standards, HIGH expectations for ALL students It all started with that!

31 31 Eight Components of School Reform Embrace a Common Vision and Goals Inform Decisions Through Data Systems Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Clarify Student Learning Expectations Adopt Effective Instructional Practices Address Organizational Structures Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

32 32 EMPOWERING A TEAM WHY start with that???

33 33 The Importance of Empowerment

34 34 Whack-a-Mole

35 35 Empowering a Team How do I “…get the right people on the bus, the wrong people off the bus, and the right people into the right seats?” Jim Collins, Good to Great

36 36 Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Essential Groups Restructuring Committee, our “think tank” Administrative Leadership Team Data Analysis Team Steering Committees in every Department

37 37 How do I select the team? “Getting the right people on the bus” Restructuring Committee – our “think tank” Every department represented with a mix of teachers and administrators Balance of new teachers and veterans, new voices and voices of experience Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team

38 38 Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team “Getting the right people on the bus” Administrative Leadership Team Qualifications Professional Strengths Personal Qualities (Humor, Trust … It’s all about the relationships)

39 39 “Getting the right people on the bus” Data Analysis Team Led by Associate Principal for C&I Eight-ten members – teachers & admin. Target area depts. represented (Testing areas, Sped, Bilingual) Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team

40 40 “Getting the right people on the bus” and “Getting the right people in the right seats” Restructuring Committee Mission: FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS!!!! Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team

41 41 YOUR TURN: EMPOWERMENT Think about someone on your staff who you think has the disposition to lead but has not been involved. How can you bring that person in?

42 42 RIGOR, RELEVANCE, RELATIONSHIPS For us, two goals: Increase student academic achievement Personalize the educational experience for every student

43 43 We had to look in the mirror: We HAD to think differently and ask ourselves a new set of questions…

44 44 WHAT are we teaching? HOW are we teaching it? HOW do we know our students are learning it?

45 45 What can we control, what can’t we control? What do we have now that we can use differently?

46 46 What will my BEST teachers think? What’s best for our kids?

47 47 And, our favorite… QUESTION: WHY do we do it this way??? ANSWER: Because we’ve ALWAYS done it this way!!!

48 48 Eight Components of School Reform Embrace a Common Vision and Goals Inform Decisions Through Data Systems Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Clarify Student Learning Expectations Adopt Effective Instructional Practices Address Organizational Structures Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

49 49 Inform Decisions Through Data Systems “Confront the brutal facts.” Jim Collins in Good to Great For us – 76% Failure!!! Below the state average on EVERY open response (writing) question PICK ONE THING!!! (We started with literacy/writing!)

50 50 Embrace a Common Vision and Goals Clarify Student Learning Expectations FOUNDATION LEARNING: What are the NON-negotiable skills and knowledge that ALL students must master? Our school wide Literacy Initiative

51 51 The “WHAT”: LITERACY for ALL: Reading, Writing, Speaking, Reasoning

52 52 Two pronged approach: 1.Literacy skills for ALL – NO EXCEPTIONS!!! 2.Safety nets and interventions for stuggling learners (More later on that)

53 53 How did we determine our focus? Literacy Skills Drafted:

54 54 Our Mission: LITERACY

55 55 How we communicated our literacy focus: ENGAGING THE FACULTY: Interdisciplinary discussion groups on the drafts using 3 guiding questions: 1.In each of the four areas of Reading, Writing, Speaking and Reasoning, have we included what is required for students to be successful in your class/your content area? 2.Is the skill stated clearly so that all teachers and students can understand it? 3.Is the skill applicable to ALL content areas?

56 56 “Lessons Learned the Hard Way” Tip: Put all your negative folks together in a group so they don’t spread their toxic fumes.

57 57 - So which of these kids is not going to graduate??? How we communicated our focus: - MCAS scores listed on the top of all materials - Newsletter reporting discussion results

58 58 Clarify Student Learning Expectations For us: Our Literacy Initiative – Clearly defined objectives for ALL students in Reading, Writing, Speaking, Reasoning Rubrics for those Literacy Objectives

59 59 Our Mission: LITERACY

60 60 Eight Components of School Reform Embrace a Common Vision and Goals Inform Decisions Through Data Systems Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Clarify Student Learning Expectations Adopt Effective Instructional Practices Address Organizational Structures Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

61 61 How did we implement our focus? Using data to guide the process Help the faculty understand the assessment At BHS all teachers examined the MCAS test Key question: “What did you notice?”

62 62 FOCUS, FOCUS!!! We started with writing!

63 63 Why writing??? We examined the test. Asked What did you notice? AND… We needed a WIN!!! Pick something measurable.

64 64 We started with writing. FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS!!!

65 65 Faculty Meetings became Literacy Workshops

66 66 Our Professional Development Model: Development of Scripts Train the Trainer Interdisciplinary and Dept. workshops Implementation calendar Assessing with rubric Monitoring/collecting student work

67 67 OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. READ QUESTION CAREFULLY. 2. CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS. 3. RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVING BLANKS). 4. READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY. 5. TAKE NOTES THAT RESPOND TO THE QUESTION. BRAINSTORM & MAP OUT YOUR ANSWER. 6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS. 7. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR MAP AS A GUIDE. 8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM THESIS IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END SENTENCE. 9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE. 10. REREAD AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.

68 68 Our Professional Development Model: Development of Scripts Train the Trainer Interdisciplinary and Dept. workshops Implementation calendar Assessing with rubric Monitoring/collecting student work

69 69 Implementation according to a specific timeline… Example...

70 70 As a follow up to this activity, I am requiring Department Heads to collect from each teacher at least one student sample from each of the teachers’ classes. The student samples should include: Student Name Teacher Name Date Course Name and Level Period A copy of the reading selection and question Evidence of the student’s active reading All pre-writing work that the student has done, e.g. webs A copy of the written open response The new scoring rubric and completed assessment After you have collected the samples from each teacher and have had the opportunity to review them for quality and completeness, please send them to me in a department folder with a checklist of your teachers. Again, please be sure that your teachers clearly label their student samples. The Open Response calendar of implementation for 2009 is as follows: Jan. 12–16:Social Science, Social Science Biling. Jan. 20–23:Wellness, JROTC Jan. 26-30:Final Exams /Beginning of Term Feb. 2-6:Beginning of Term 3 Feb. 9-13:Science, Science Bilingual Feb. 16-20:VACATION Feb. 23-27:Business, Technology and Career Ed. March 2-6:Math, Math Bilingual March 9-13:Foreign Lang, Special Ed, ESL Bilingual Mar. 16-20:Family &Cons. Science, Project Grads Mar. 23-27:Music, Art

71 71 So, HOW do we know our students are learning it? One method: School wide rubrics

72 72 Assessment using our specific Open Response Writing Rubric Example...

73 73 CONTENTFORM 8  Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4  Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material.  Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors. 6  Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3  Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1  Easy to read 0  Difficult to read 4  Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question.  Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2  Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought. 2  Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question.  Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1  Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1  Sufficient 0  Insufficient 0  Response is incorrect.  Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material.  Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0  Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects no organization.  Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure. Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient 8-10 = Needs Improvement 0-7 = Failing

74 74 CONTENTFORM 8  Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4  Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material.  Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors. 6  Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3  Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1  Easy to read 0  Difficult to read 4  Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question.  Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2  Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought. 2  Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question.  Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1  Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1  Sufficient 0  Insufficient 0  Response is incorrect.  Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material.  Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0  Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects no organization.  Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure. Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient 8-10 = Needs Improvement 0-7 = Failing CONTENT: 8 Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 6 Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant but general textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material.

75 75 CONTENTFORM 8  Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4  Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material.  Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors. 6  Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3  Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1  Easy to read 0  Difficult to read 4  Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question.  Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2  Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought. 2  Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question.  Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1  Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1  Sufficient 0  Insufficient 0  Response is incorrect.  Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material.  Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0  Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects no organization.  Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure. Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient 8-10 = Needs Improvement 0-7 = Failing FORM: 4 Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material. Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors. 3 Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors.

76 76 CONTENTFORM 8  Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4  Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material.  Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors. 6  Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question.  Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3  Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.  Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1  Easy to read 0  Difficult to read 4  Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question.  Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2  Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought. 2  Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question.  Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence.  Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1  Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples.  Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1  Sufficient 0  Insufficient 0  Response is incorrect.  Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material.  Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0  Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.  Response reflects no organization.  Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure. Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient 8-10 = Needs Improvement 0-7 = Failing Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient 8-10 = Needs Improvement 0-7 = Failing

77 77 What gets monitored is what gets done!!! For the students AND the teachers… (More on this in next session)

78 78 MATH

79 79 Oral Presentation Rubric

80 80

81 81

82 82 Line Graphs Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable is plotted along an axis. A line graph has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for example, if you wanted to graph the height of a ball after you have thrown it, you could put time along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height along the vertical, or y-axis. As I mentioned before, each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs are that: - They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that given one variable the other can easily be determined. - They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show how one variable is affected by the other as it increases or decreases. -They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded. Unfortunately, it is possible to alter the way a line graph appears to make data look a certain way. This is done by either not using consistent scales on the axes, meaning that the value in between each point along the axis may not be the same, or when comparing two graphs using different scales for each. It is important that we all be aware of how graphs can be made to look a certain way, when that might not be the way the data really is. Let's take a look at an example. In a few years, you might be interested in getting some kind of part-time job. You find the following line graph, which plots the minimum wage versus time from October, 1938, to September, 1997. What kinds of things might you be able to tell from it?

83 83 Line Graphs Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable is plotted along an axis. A line graph has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for example, if you wanted to graph the height of a ball after you have thrown it, you could put time along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height along the vertical, or y-axis. As I mentioned before, each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs are that: - They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that given one variable the other can easily be determined. - They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show how one variable is affected by the other as it increases or decreases. -They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded. Unfortunately, it is possible to alter the way a line graph appears to make data look a certain way. This is done by either not using consistent scales on the axes, meaning that the value in between each point along the axis may not be the same, or when comparing two graphs using different scales for each. It is important that we all be aware of how graphs can be made to look a certain way, when that might not be the way the data really is. Let's take a look at an example. In a few years, you might be interested in getting some kind of part-time job. You find the following line graph, which plots the minimum wage versus time from October, 1938, to September, 1997. What kinds of things might you be able to tell from it? -They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that given one variable the other can easily be determined. -They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show how one variable is affected by the other as it increases or decreases. -They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded.

84 84 Teaching Students How to Interpret Line Graphs: Step One: Students should read the title and write what a graph is describing in their own words using complete sentences. Step Two: Students should then explain what is being described by each axis in complete sentences. They should find the label and the unit of measure on the horizontal axis (x-axis), and on the vertical axis (y-axis). Be sure to use the appropriate vocabulary with the students. If the label or unit of measurement is not apparent, the student needs to use the information in the title and/or any descriptions provided to determine this information. Be sure that students can identify the type of measurement units that are being used for each axis (days, weeks, number, of people, etc.) Marks on each axis must be evenly spaced and represent the same number of units between each line that is marked along the axis. Because the numbers on axes do not always start at 0, you will sometimes see a 0 followed by a zig- zag line which indicates a missing potion of the graph. Step 3: Students must mark data points with visible dots. These dots can then be labeled as an ordered pair (x-value, y-value). Step 4: Students should be able to create their own questions related to the graph. Ultimately the students need to be able to interpret and explain a line graph by identifying:The title The horizontal axis The vertical axis Relationship between the axes

85 85 Teaching Students How to Interpret Line Graphs: Step One: Students should read the title and write what a graph is describing in their own words using complete sentences. Step Two: Students should then explain what is being described by each axis in complete sentences. They should find the label and the unit of measure on the horizontal axis (x-axis), and on the vertical axis (y-axis). Be sure to use the appropriate vocabulary with the students. If the label or unit of measurement is not apparent, the student needs to use the information in the title and/or any descriptions provided to determine this information. Be sure that students can identify the type of measurement units that are being used for each axis (days, weeks, number, of people, etc.) Marks on each axis must be evenly spaced and represent the same number of units between each line that is marked along the axis. Because the numbers on axes do not always start at 0, you will sometimes see a 0 followed by a zig- zag line which indicates a missing potion of the graph. Step 3: Students must mark data points with visible dots. These dots can then be labeled as an ordered pair (x-value, y-value). Step 4: Students should be able to create their own questions related to the graph. Ultimately the students need to be able to interpret and explain a line graph by identifying:The title The horizontal axis The vertical axis Relationship between the axes Step 4: Students should be able to create their own questions related to the graph. Ultimately the students need to be able to interpret and explain a line graph by identifying: The title The horizontal axis The vertical axis Relationship between the axes

86 86 4 Points  Graph is titled appropriately  Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed  Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units 8 Points  Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph.  Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values).  Answers to interpretive questions are correct and complete. 3 Points  Graph is titled appropriately  Most labels are correct and placed appropriately  Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in most cases. 6 Points  Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in most cases.  Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values).  Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct and complete. 2 Points  Graph is neat and legible  Reader is able to find values by looking at the graph.  Interpretive questions are written neatly and in complete sentences. 2 Points  Graph is not titled  Some labels are correct and appropriately placed.  Interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in some cases. 4 Points  Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in some cases.  Graph scaling is attempted  Answers to some interpretive questions are correct and complete. 1 Point  Graph is not titled  Most labels are incorrectly or inappropriately placed.  Interpretive questions are labeled with incorrect units in the majority of cases. 2 Points  Numerical data is placed on the graph incorrectly in most cases.  Graph scaled incorrectly.  Answers to most interpretive questions are incorrect and incomplete. 1 Point  Neatness and legibility are lacking, but the graph is readable.  Reader will have some difficulty finding values on the graph.  Answers to interpretive questions need to be neater and complete sentences must be written 0 Points  Graph is not titled.  Labels are not present.  No units are given with answers on interpretive questions. 0 Points  No data placed on graph.  Graph not scaled at all.  Answers to interpretive questions entirely incorrect or missing Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient Comments: 8-10 = Needs Improvement _________Total Score 0-7 = Failing Labels and Titles Numerical Correctness Visual Presentation

87 87 4 Points  Graph is titled appropriately  Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed  Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units 8 Points  Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph.  Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values).  Answers to interpretive questions are correct and complete. 3 Points  Graph is titled appropriately  Most labels are correct and placed appropriately  Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in most cases. 6 Points  Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in most cases.  Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values).  Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct and complete. 2 Points  Graph is neat and legible  Reader is able to find values by looking at the graph.  Interpretive questions are written neatly and in complete sentences. 2 Points  Graph is not titled  Some labels are correct and appropriately placed.  Interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in some cases. 4 Points  Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in some cases.  Graph scaling is attempted  Answers to some interpretive questions are correct and complete. 1 Point  Graph is not titled  Most labels are incorrectly or inappropriately placed.  Interpretive questions are labeled with incorrect units in the majority of cases. 2 Points  Numerical data is placed on the graph incorrectly in most cases.  Graph scaled incorrectly.  Answers to most interpretive questions are incorrect and incomplete. 1 Point  Neatness and legibility are lacking, but the graph is readable.  Reader will have some difficulty finding values on the graph.  Answers to interpretive questions need to be neater and complete sentences must be written 0 Points  Graph is not titled.  Labels are not present.  No units are given with answers on interpretive questions. 0 Points  No data placed on graph.  Graph not scaled at all.  Answers to interpretive questions entirely incorrect or missing Evaluated by: Self Peer Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14 = Advanced 11-12 = Proficient Comments: 8-10 = Needs Improvement _________Total Score 0-7 = Failing Labels and Titles Numerical Correctness Visual Presentation 4 Points Graph is titled appropriately Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units 8 Points Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values). Answers to interpretive questions are correct and complete. 3 Points Graph is titled appropriately Most labels are correct and placed appropriately Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in most cases. 6 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in most cases. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values). Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct and complete.

88 88

89 89 Reading Workshop on TOVANI’S I Read It But I Don’t Get It and Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?

90 90

91 91 FOUNDATION LEARNING: Training ALL students STUDY SKILLS LESSONS through the LITERACY OBJECTIVES Reading: Active Reading Strategies- Previewing a text – Using visuals to preview a chapter Writing: Note-taking – Summarizing Speaking: Street talk vs. school talk – speaking in complete sentences - Listening Reasoning – Time management, Organizational strategies, Study strategies

92 92 Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and Quick-Writes Follow-up to presentation by Lin Kuzmich Faculty Meeting April 2, 2009

93 93 Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and Quick-Writes Content Objectives 1. To be able to use a foldable to demonstrate understanding of a concept and organization of information 2. To be able to demonstrate understanding and use of a quick write in order to increase our students’ understanding of a concept. Literacy Objectives 1. To take notes 2. To generate a response to what one has read, viewed, or heard.

94 94 Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and Quick-Writes Activities 1. Review the assessment graphic as it relates to formative assessment and ways to change instruction. 2. Create a foldable. 3. Take notes on a foldable in response to questions to demonstrate understanding of a quick-write. 4. Respond to a quick-write prompt. 5. Apply how a quick-write can be used to a new situation.

95 95 ASSESSMENT … is an educative tool: to aide in the development of student understanding of a concept or skill to measure the students’ attained proficiency in a concept or skill to inform daily and long term instruction in order to ensure the attainment of concepts and skills Summative Assessment that measures student proficiency of an objective taught within a unit of study/course/yearFormative Ongoing assessment that monitors student progress toward proficiency of a concept, process, or skill teacher observations dipsticking questioning homework 3-2-1 quizzes class discussions writing logs self evaluation ticket to leave portfolios peer evaluation tests essays open responses graded discussion demonstrations presentations performances research artifacts exhibits district unit tests reflections INFERENCES made from assessments can be formative and/or summative. Preparation of Assessment Implementation of Assessment Reflection/Evaluation of Assessment of Revision of Instruction

96 96 Graphic Organizers/Foldables “The best worksheet is a blank piece of paper.”

97 97 Graphic Organizers/Foldables What is a quick-write?

98 98 Graphic Organizers/Foldables How can I use a quick-write?

99 99 Graphic Organizers/Foldables What are the benefits of a quick-write?

100 100 Quick-Writes “Writing is to Thinking Fluency As Phonics is to Reading Fluency”

101 101 Kuzmich 2007 Writing Matters: Writing IS Thinking Writing Matters: Writing IS Thinking Writing supports assembly and binding in the brain because: Writing uses multiple parts of the brain simultaneously. Writing uses multiple parts of the brain simultaneously. Writing increases performance in every content area. Writing increases performance in every content area. Writing is a multi-sensory rehearsal for the brain. Writing is a multi-sensory rehearsal for the brain. Writing is highly correlated to increased performance on assessments. Writing is highly correlated to increased performance on assessments.

102 102 Kuzmich 2007 What Does the Evidence Really Say? Effective performance assessment REQUIRES writing Effective performance assessment REQUIRES writing More writing reduces “coverage” of standards and curriculum More writing reduces “coverage” of standards and curriculum Less coverage with MORE writing does NOT hurt multiple choice scores Less coverage with MORE writing does NOT hurt multiple choice scores

103 103 Kuzmich 2007 Writing Performance Assessment Multiple Choice Scores Writing and Social Studies Scores Virginia Department of Education, 1998 R =.87 Data Source: Center for Performance Assessment

104 104 Kuzmich 2007 Writing Performance Assessment Multiple Choice Scores Writing and Math Scores Virginia Department of Education, 1998 R =.88 Data Source: Center for Performance Assessment

105 105 Kuzmich 2007 Writing Performance Assessment Multiple Choice Scores Writing and Science Scores U. S. Department of Education, 1998 R =.86 Data Source: Center for Performance Assessment

106 106 Kuzmich 2007 Quick-Writes 1 to 3 minutes 1 to 3 minutes Diagnostic Diagnostic Not for grading Not for grading Allows teacher to check for understanding, adjust pacing and emphasis, offer assistance to those who need additional help or extension of learning Allows teacher to check for understanding, adjust pacing and emphasis, offer assistance to those who need additional help or extension of learning

107 107 Quick-Writes Prompt: Define global warming and explain three factors that contribute to it.

108 108 Quick-Writes How can I use quick writes? Assessment Tool  GOT IT  GOT SOME OF IT  HASN’T A CLUE

109 109 Quick-Writes How can I use quick writes? Follow-up to Assessment Address individual learning needs of students through grouping Tailor assignments to specific group Assist students who need help

110 110 Kuzmich 2007 Cognitive Effect - Writing allows students to show what they know. Teaching Effect - Student writing provides teachers with valuable diagnostic information. Conclusion - We must recognize the power of writing across the curriculum and the vital role it plays in student success! Why is Writing so Powerful?

111 111 Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and Quick-Writes How might I use quick-writes in my classes?

112 112 Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and Quick-Writes THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU

113 113 Professional Development Literacy Workshops Open Response WritingPreviewing a Table of Contents Analyzing Graphs & ChartsUsing Summarizers Teaching Multiple Choice Oral Presentations StrategiesVocabulary in Context Using Visuals to Preview Teaching Non-fiction Reading a ChapterActive Reading Strategies Thinking About WordsELL /SIOP Strategies Assessment – Checking forUsing Quick Writes UnderstandingFoldables /Graphic Organizers

114 114 What gets monitored is what gets done!!! For the students AND the teachers…

115 115 So, HOW do we know our teachers are implementing this? Formal and informal evaluation, and collection of student work (Specifics in the next session)

116 116 Empowering a team Using the data to inform decisions Literacy for ALL – NO exceptions A Professional Development Model that trained ALL teachers in literacy strategies Monitoring, monitoring, monitoring RECAP:

117 117 RESULTS: What can the results be for the students when the school takes action? (HINT, HINT… GOOD THINGS!!!)

118 118 District Grade Band Sub Grp ELA 2003 ELA 2004 ELA 2005 ELA 2006 ELA 2007 ELA 2008Gain Brockton Grd 10 Agg 76.478.179.284.083.28811.6 Lynn Grd 10 Agg 70.570.773.077.278.182.712.2 Worcester Grd 10 Agg 67.968.671.875.379.382.614.7 Boston Grd 10 Agg 64.467.769.776.578.182.317.9 Lowell Grd 10 Agg 69.874.273.676.478.981.411.6 Fall River Grd 10 Agg 69.871.772.172.681.479.29.4 New Bedford Grd 10 Agg 66.169.170.574.374.578.212.1 Springfield Grd 10 Agg 62.165.666.767.369.776.714.6 Brockton Grd 10 SPED 51.350.254.061.863.370.419.2 Lawrence Grd 10 Agg 59.958.363.661.461.969.29.3 Proficiency Index – ELA - Mass. Urbans

119 CLOSING THE GAP! ELA MCAS Scores Ratio of State Average for Whites Brockton Scores AsianBlack Hispanic WhiteOther 8 th grade in 2006.85.80.85.97.77 10 th grade in 2008 1.01.94 1.08.89 Source: Ron Ferguson, Achievement Gap Initiative, Harvard University

120 120 But it’s not just about the numbers!!!

121 I am proud of this school: Total in AgreementDisagree 97% 0% Source: WE Lead Survey, ICLE

122 122 Changing Attitudes: Everyone is responsible for every student Believing that every student CAN and MUST Our responsibility: to figure out how to help

123 123 JOHN& ABIGAIL ADAMS SCHOLARSHIP – 2009 246 Recipients – 25% African American – 32% Asian – 7% Hispanic – 6% MultiRace/NonHispanic-2% Native American – <1% White – 53 % Low Income – 34% W/ Disability – 3%

124 124 Massachusetts Compass School Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory – Schools Making Progress International Center for Leadership in Education – Model School 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 U.S. Department of Education National High School Summit National School Change Award – 2006 Harvard Achievement Gap Initiative 2009 NASSP/CSSR Secondary School Showcase 2010

125 125 Brockton High School Brockton School District Plymouth County 470 Forest Avenue Brockton, Massachusetts (508)580-7633

126 126 Dr. Susan E. Szachowicz, Principal Brockton High School 470 Forest Avenue Brockton, MA 02301 508-580-7633 susanszachowicz@bpsma.org Senior Advisor International Center for Leadership in Education www.leadered.com

127 Leadership Academy January 29-31, 2010 New Orleans www.LeaderEd.com


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