Presentation on theme: "Become a Reading Advocate for your Child Alabama Early Intervention & Preschool Conference November 16, 2009 Birmingham, Alabama."— Presentation transcript:
Become a Reading Advocate for your Child Alabama Early Intervention & Preschool Conference November 16, 2009 Birmingham, Alabama
Today’s Workshop The abilities to listen, speak, read and write emerge interdependently… Language Development Phonological Awareness Print Awareness and Concepts Early Writing Alphabet Knowledge
In his book, The Educated Child, Bill Bennett says, “If you are worried about your child’s reading skills, it’s better to be safe than sorry….. Learning to read has to be at the top of your child’s educational priority list. Nothing is more important to later academic success, so don’t hesitate to secure all the help you think he needs.”
There are Many Players Involved in Helping Students Learn to Read …the likelihood that a child will succeed in the first grade depends most of all on how much she or he has already learned about reading before getting there… Dr. Marilyn Adams, from Beginning to Read
What is EARLY LITERACY? Early literacy is what children know about reading before they can actually read. Early literacy is pre-reading skills. Early literacy is “reading readiness”.
Why Start Early? Learning to read is essential for school success Children should get ready to read long before they start to school Research shows that children who are read to from an early age have a larger vocabulary and better language skills when they start school Children who struggle with “Phonological Awareness”—a pre-reading skill—often struggle learning to read.
What Do Children Need to Know to Be Ready to Read? 1. Language/Vocabulary Development 2. Print Awareness 3. Knowledge of the Alphabet 4. Phonological Awareness
L a n g u a g e and V o c a b u l a r y D e v e l o p m e n t
The Importance of the Early Years How early does a child begin to learn language? From the day of birth, a child’s brain is receptive to learning language. Children learn to speak by being surrounded by speech The size of a toddler’s vocabulary is strongly correlated with how much a mother talks to the child. Your habits of talking and listening will make a difference of in your child’s language development
Receptive Language Follow Directions Listen Attentively
Expressive Language Expresses wants and needs Responds to questions Names pictures/objects Initiates conversations Speaks in sentences Imitates songs/rhymes/finger plays Retells simple stories
Phonological Awareness Discriminate and identify sounds in spoken language Identify rhyming words Recognize common sounds at the beginning of a series of words Identify syllables in words
Our children begin the process of reading EARLY…
Substitution Deletion Addition Segmentation Blending Isolation Categorization Identification Onset/Rime Syllables in a word Words in a sentence by climbing the ladder of Phonemic Awareness skills. Phonemic Awareness
P h o n e m i c A w a r e n e s s Activities
How to help your child with Phonemic Awareness… Direct teaching of specific sounds Clapping games Rhyming games “What do you hear?” games Stretching and shrinking “Bumpy” and “smooth” blending
What you need Objects that make interesting, distinctive sounds. Examples: Banging on wall/table/lapSnapping fingers Blowing a whistleCrumbling paper Blowing nose Drumming with fingers ClappingEating an apple Clicking with tongueNoisy chewing Pouring liquid Tearing paper Rubbing hands togetherStirring with a teaspoon Slamming a bookHammering Sharpening a pencilCoughing Cutting with scissorsWriting on blackboard Listening to Sequences of Sounds
What do your do? ◦ Ask children to cover their eyes and listen to and identify the sound they hear ◦ Once the children have caught on to the game, make two noises, one after the other. ◦ Without peeking, the children are to guess the two sounds in sequence saying, “There are two sounds. First we heard a _______, and then we heard a _______.” ◦ After the children can identify a sequence of two sounds, increase the number of sounds in sequence.
“Un-Compound” That Word What You Do You say a compound word. Ask your child to repeat it. Then ask your child to say what word remind if you omit one portion. You child pronounces the word that is left. Examples: CowboySay it again without the boycow OutsideSay it again without the out.side GrasshopperSay it again without the grass.hopper JellyfishSay it again without the fishjelly ZookeeperSay it again without the zoo.keeper RattlesnakeSay it again without the snakerattle CupcakeSay it again without the cake.cup DishwasherSay it again without the dishwasher HorseflySay it again without the horsefly BaseballSay it again without the baseball CampgroundSay it again without the groundcamp
Hearing Rhyming Words go/toptip/lipnose/rose in/laplamp/campsock/soup yes/myrest/testtie/by mad/sadfox/boxspoon/moon cat/ratshoe/sitman/mop rip/bagred/randress/mess out/pigmy/byround/pound hit/sitfix/mixrain/train him/butnow/naplike/’lick hop/mopsad/sheepinch/itch What You Do Say each pair or words below and ask your child to repeat them and tell you if the words rhyme. They rhyme if all the sounds are the same except the beginning sound. Start down the first column for the easiest pairs, followed by the middle, and then the right column Do a few at a time - not all at once.
Whew! Now the Phonics Ladder of Skills!
Phonics Skills Prefixes & Suffixes M ulti-syllabic Words Complex Consonants Vowel +r Vowel Diphthongs Vowel Teams Silent -e Consonant Digraphs Consonant Blends Short vowels (VC & CVC) Letters and Sounds
Print Awareness & Concepts Explore the use of print and to construct meaning Understand that writing is a form of communication for a variety of purposes Orient picture book correctly and turn pages one by one
What is Print Awareness? Knowledge that people read the text, not just look at the pictures Awareness of how to read a book-right side up, starting with the first page and continuing to the end; the left page is read first, and the text is read from left to right Understanding that words are units separated by white spaces
Ways to Help Your Child/Student Develop Print Awareness What Your Child Needs to Know What You Can Do to Help Words are read, not the pictures Point to the printed words as you read aloud Words are read across the page from left to right. Follow along with your finger as you read A book is read turned “right side up,” and pages are turned from right to left. Ask your child to open the book to the first page for you. Ask her to turn the pages Words are composed of letters. Make a sign for your child’s door with her name. Show your child the letters in her name. In books show your child that the white space separates the word. Each letter has a capital and small letter form and be written in many fonts Although children are generally taught the capital letters first, it helps if they have an awareness that there are two forms for each letter. Take one letter (for example, an A) and pint out all the different sizes and shapes of A’s.
Early Writing Experiment with a variety of writing tools and materials Write some recognizable letters, especially those in own name
Alphabet Knowledge Demonstrate awareness of letters in print Relate at least 10 letters to the specific sounds they represent
What Does My Child/Student Need to Know to Be Ready to Read? Knowledge of the A P L A H B E T
What is Knowledge of the Alphabet? Being able to recognize and name all the letters of the alphabet
How Important is It for Me to Teach My Child/Student the Alphabet? The importance of being able to name and recognize the letters has long been misunderstood by parents. For many years parents have believed that thy had to do two things to prepare their child for school: Teach their child the alphabet Read, read, read to their child Knowing the alphabet is necessary, but not sufficient to learning to read. One of the most important things your child needs to accomplish during kindergarten is to learn the sounds associated with letters. Knowing the alphabet can make learning the sounds easier.
Should I Teach My Child/ Student the Letter Names or Shapes First? Most educators recommend teaching the skills in the following order: 1.NAMESRecite/Sing the ABCs 2.SHAPESThis is a B 3.SOUNDSThis is a B and it says /b/
Should I Teach My Child to Write Letters? Yes If you teach correct letter formation If your child has good control of their finger muscles No If your teach them incorrectly and they develop bad habits If they have not developed finger strength and dexterity
Alphabet Knowledge When Should I Begin Teaching My Child/Student the Alphabet?
Ways to Help Your Child Develop Alphabet Skills AGE SKILL ACTIVITY AGE SKILL ACTIVITY Letter naming Sing ABC songsSing ABC songs Read ABC booksRead ABC books Letter recognition Use plastic lettersUse plastic letters Read ABC booksRead ABC books Form letters in clay, paper-mache, bubbles, sand, etc.Form letters in clay, paper-mache, bubbles, sand, etc Letter sounds Read rhyming booksRead rhyming books Do word activities involving recognition of beginning, ending, and rhyming sounds.Do word activities involving recognition of beginning, ending, and rhyming sounds. Match pictures of objects to lettersMatch pictures of objects to letters
Counting, Matching, and Naming Letters F G What You Need Set of plastic alphabet letters-preferable capital letters Mat that you make on an 11” x 17” piece of firm paper. Trace the plastic letters and fill them in, in an arc shape, so that the plastic letters will fit over the letters written on the arc. The arc should extend from the lower left to the lower right corner. What You Do Ask you child to count how many letters there are. Then ask your child to place the plastic letters on the matching letters on the arc of the mat. Teach her the name of each letter, introducing about four new letters per day. For example, “This is the letter A.” After she can differentiate the letter shapes and has been taught the names of each letter, ask her to say the name of the letter as she places it in the position on the arc. Repeat often, until your child can recognize each letter, place it over the corresponding symbol on the arc on the mat, and say the name of each letter. Generally, it takes several weeks for a child to master all the letters.
Learning The Sequence of the Alphabet Learning The Sequence of the Alphabet What You Need Set of plastic alphabet letters A slightly different mat made on an 11” x 17” piece of firm paper. List the letters in order in a straight line across the top to provide a reference for the child. This time, instead of the letters composing the arc, draw a line to form the arc. Then provide three “anchors” by writing the letter A at the lower left corner of the arc, the letter Z at the lower right, and M and N at the midway point at the top of the arc. What You Do Ask your child to take the plastic letters out of the container and place them right side up in the center of the arc. Then ask her to find the A and place it. Next find the Z and place it, followed by the M and N. The child then begins with B, Then C, and so on, placing all the letters in order along the arc. When your child has finished sequencing the letters, ask her to check it by touching and naming each letter, starting with A and moving to Z. The alphabet across the top of the mat can serve as an additional reminder. Repeat this activity frequently until the child can place all the letters in the proper order within two minutes. Generally, it takes several weeks for a child to master this task. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ C E A C X F
Guess the Letter Guess the Letter What You Need Two sets of plastic alphabet letters-preferably capital letters Two 11” c 17” mats with or without the letters filled in on the arc Two brown paper bags, or cloth bags, big enough to hold the letters What You Do This is a game that two children can play together or you can play with your child. The object is to try to correctly identify and name the letters based on felling them without looking. The winner is the first player to fill in all the letters on her arc. The first player reaches into a brown paper bag and feels a plastic letter without looking at it. If she can correctly name it, then she gets to place it on the arc on her mat and choose another letter. She continues choosing letters until she makes a mistake. Once a mistake is made, the turn rotates to the next player The player who successfully identifies and places all the letters on her arc is the winner.
Snaky Letters What You Need Modeling clay or cookie dough What You Do Roll the pieces of clay or dough into snake-shaped pieces for your child to use. Help your child form the pieces into the shapes of letters. If you cookie dough, make sure the letters with enclosed circles (i.e., o, b, d, q) have plenty of space inside the circle before baking. This will assure that the circles will not close up when baked.
What does the research tell us that we should do about language development & vocabulary?
Vocabulary What is it? ◦ to know the meanings of words read ◦ to know the meanings of words heard ◦ to use a variety of words in spoken and written language
Research Evidence Children enter school with a listening vocabulary ranging between 2500 to 5000 Vocabulary differences at grade 2 may last throughout elementary school (Biemiller & Slonin, 2001) Children who enter with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more discrepant over time from their peers who have rich vocabulary knowledge ( Baker, Simmons & Kame’enui 1997) 86-98% of the words recorded in each child’s vocabulary consisted of words also recorded in their parents’ vocabularies ( Hart & Risley, 2000)
Vocabulary Gap Per hour 100-hr week 5,200-hr week 3 years WELFARE62062,000 3 million 10 million WORKING CLASS 1,250125,000 6 million 20 million PROFESSIONAL2,150215, million 30, 000 million Average child from a welfare family hears about 3 million words a year vs. 11 million from a professional family (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Use High-Quality Oral Language Model good language use Engage in daily oral language Read aloud good literature Use less “business” talk at home Use descriptive words Lots of shared reading and conversations about words
Less “Business” Talk—More Conversations! Business Talk ◦ Come here! ◦ Stop that! ◦ Be quiet! ◦ Sit down and eat! ◦ Go watch TV! ◦ Clean your room! ◦ Go to sleep! ◦ Get in the tub! Conversations ◦ Tell me about… ◦ How was ….? ◦ What do you think about…? ◦ Why is …..? ◦ Do you think …..? ◦ Who is …..? ◦ What do you like?
Other Ways to Help Your Child’s Language Development Recommended HabitExample Rephrase & extend your child’s words. Child: That’s a doggie. Parent: Yes, it’s a Doberman pinscher! Ask a clarifying question. Child: That’s a man. Parent: Tell me more about the man you saw. Model more complex vocabulary or sentence structure Child: See my building Parent: Yes, I see the tall skyscraper you built with lots of windows so people can see the view of the city. Ask “open-ended” questions Child: I like that story. Parent: What was your favorite part of the story?
Read Aloud Children to
Curious George Gets a Medal Curiousshed professorFountain pen loop signal Funnel hurled space suit Blotter grunting parachute
Things You Can Do To Create a Reading Environment At Home Fill you house with books Establish good reading habits Offer incentives for reading Set an example for reading Help your child choose books
What do Kindergarteners have to learn? Are we sending them ready for Kindergarten??
DIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Quick one minute assessments that let us know if our students are “on track” to be readers. Help schools provide enough instruction to get students back on track as readers. Helps schools see where they need to focus to help our children learn to read at each grade Helps us see where we as parents can help at home to help our children learn to read
What “Big Ideas” are Being Assessed? Big IdeaDIBELS Measure Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency and Accuracy Vocabulary Comprehension Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF) Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Word Use Fluency (WUF) Oral Reading Fluency & Retell Fluency (RTF) Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph. D. et al
What is Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)? It is a one minute assessment It is an indicator of risk of reading problems It is not one of the 5 areas identified by the National Reading Panel and Reading First as one of the critical areas of reading It is tested in fall, winter, spring of K also fall of first grade Students should be able to name 25 random letter names in one minute by the end of K
Letter Naming Fluency Target goal of at least 40 by spring of Kindergarten Student identifies upper- and lower-case letters for 1 minute
What is Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)? One minute assessment given at beginning and middle of K Outcome goal of identifying 25 first sounds in words in one minute by middle of K. Example: ◦ Shown four pictures and told the picture names, the student can point to the one that begins with the correct sound given. Point to the one that begins with mmmm
What is Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)? One minute assessment given middle of K, end of K and in beginning, middle, and end of first grade Outcome goal is to be able to separate words into individual sounds by the end of K and to be able to do at the rate of 35 sounds per minute Reaching outcome goal critical skill for becoming a good reader and speller Continue to test through first grade, goal doesn’t go up
An At Home “Reading Kit” Family/Caregivers are the child’s first and most important teacher in early literacy Family/Caregivers play an important role in supporting, reinforcing, and help if the child is struggling with reading Family/Caregivers reinforce and broaden the horizon for those children on track to be readers who need to reach and grow Family/Caregivers make the difference among, “I can’t”, “I might”, “I will”, and “I did”! Use our suggestions, read on-line, work with the school, think up your own using ours as a jumping off point
Resources for Teachers & Parents
Picture Books to Read Aloud to an Infant or Toddler AUTHORTITLE Ahlberg, Janet & Allen Each Peach Pear Plum Arnold, Tedd No Jumping on the Bed Barton, Byron Trucks Brown, Margaret Wise Goodnight Moon Bruna, Dick Miffy Carlstrom, Nancy White Jesse Bear, What Will You Wear Gibbons, Gail Trains Hill, Eric Where’s Spot? Martin, Bill Jr., & John Archambault Chicka Chicka Boom Boom Martin, Bill, Jr., & Eric Carle Brown, Brown Bear, What Do You See? Numeroff, Laura Joffe If you Give a Mouse a Cookie Oxenbury, Helen Tom and Pippo Make a Friend
Books for a First-Grade Student Beginning Reader-First Stage AuthorTitle Brown, Laura KrasnyRex and Lilly: Playtime Rex and Lilly :Family Time Eastman, P.D.Go, Dog Go! Seuss, Dr.Hop on Pop Ziefert, HarrietCat Games Harry Goes to Fun Land A New House for Mole and Mouse
Books for a First-Grade Student Beginning Reader -Second Stage AuthorTitle Bonsall, CrosbyWho’s Afraid of the Dark? Cocca-Leffler, MaryannIce-Cold Birthday Edwards, RobertaFive Silly Fishermen Herman, GailWhat a Hungry Puppy! Hoff, SydDanny and the Dinosaur Parish, PeggyBe Ready at Eight Seuss, Dr.The Cat in the Hat; Green Eggs and Ham One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish Bridwell, NormanClifford the Big Red Dog Brown, Margaret WiseGoodnight Moon Bourgeois, PauletteFranklin in Bossy Franklin is Messy Carle, EricThe Very Hungry Caterpillar The Very Busy Spider Do You Want to Be My Friend?
Straight Talk About Reading Susan L. Hall Ed.D Louisa C. Moats, Ed.D
Parenting a Struggling Reader Susan L. Hall, Ed.D Louisa C. Moats, Ed.D
Road to the Code Benita A. Blachman, Ph.D Eileen Wynne Ball, Ph.D Rochella Black, M.S. Darlene M. Tangel, Ph. D.
P H O N E M I C A W A R E N E S S in Young Children Marilyn Jager Adams Barbara R. Foorman Ingvar Lundberg Terri Beeler
Bringing Words To Isabel L. Beck Margaret G. McKeown Linda Kucan Life
Overcoming DYSLEXIA Sally Shaywitz, M.D. July 28, 2003
Other Books Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print- A Summary by Marilyn Jager Adams Help Me Help My Child: A Sourcebook for Parents of Learning Disabled Children by Jill Bloom Your Child’s Growing Mind: A Practical Guide to Brain Development and Learning from Birth to Adolescence by Jane M. Healy, PhD. About Dyslexia: Unraveling the Myth by Priscilla L. Vail The Educated Child by Bennett, Finn, & Cribb
What if a child is not learning the skills I am teaching? New Federal mandates on the horizon…: Response to Instruction:(RtI)
What is RtI? Re-teaching children the skills they have not learned. Providing more teaching time on these skills Providing different learning opportunities from the teaching strategies that did not help them learn Providing small group intervention (re-teaching) Providing individual intervention (re-teaching)
Bottom line… If children do not learn with the strategies we have used… ◦Work with them using other strategies until they do learn… ◦Work with them until they do learn…
Some people there are who, being grown, forget the horrible task of learning to read. It is perhaps the greatest single effort that the human undertakes, and he must do it as a child. - John Steinbeck, 1982 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature
What about time? Time to play (games, games, games!) ◦ minutes daily Time to work (practice, practice, practice!) ◦ minutes daily Time to celebrate (brag, brag, brag!) ◦ minutes daily
What We Know Now About Helping All Children Learn to Read… There are early literacy activities that prepare children to learn to read There are things schools can do There are things parents can do A parent/school partnership is best!
Become a Reading Advocate for Your Child
Contact Information Julie Colley Lowery, Education Specialist Alabama Department of Education Cathy Jones, Education Specialist Alabama Department of Education Teresa Nichols, Education Consultant Nichols Education Services, Inc.