2WHAT IS “GRAMMAR”? Different meanings: ETYMOLOGICALLY LINKED TO “WRITTEN LETTERS”, BUT GRADUALLY HAS ACQUIRED A WIDER MEANINGIMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKSEXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKSTHE RULES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CORRECT LANGUAGEDIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAMMAR: PEDAGOGICAL/NORMATIVE, DESCRIPTIVE, THEORETICAL (e.g. Halliday’s systemic grammar)
3WHAT IS “GRAMMAR” MADE OF? Grammar= languagePhonologyMorphologyWord-formationSyntaxLexis and phraseologySemanticsText and discoursePunctuationThe central core of grammar=morphologyinflectional (and derivational, see Chapter 4)syntax
4MORPHOLOGYTHE STUDY OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF WORDSe.g. the plural –s inflection for nouns and the –ed inflection for verbs
5SYNTAX THE WAY IN WHICH WORDS COMBINE TO FORM LARGER UNITS OF MEANING e.g. phrases, clauses, sentencesExample: word order in a noun phrase or in statements and questionse.g. She is a beautiful girlNOT She is a girl beautiful
6IN PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH… limited presence of inflectional morphology compared to Old English (and other languages such as Italian or German)andgreater importance of syntax and word order in signalling grammatical relations
7GRAMMATICAL UNITS TEXT SENTENCE (frase complessa) CLAUSE (frase semplice/principale o subordinata)PHRASE ( *not frase butsintagma/gruppo)WORDMORPHEME
8What is a MORPHEME? Unhappy un-happy Cats cat-s Lexical e.g. pen, book A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning or grammatical functionLexical e.g. pen, bookFunctional or grammatical e.g. if, thefree: can stand alone as a word e.g. basket, womanbound: cannot stand alone and must be linked to another morpheme (called base or root) e.g. -ly, un-, -able, -ee
9MORPHEMES and MORPHS WORDS MORPHS MORPHEMES (concrete) (abstract) Played play-ed PLAY+ pastUnhelpful un-help-ful negative+HELP+ adjectiveWORDS MORPHS MORPHEMES(concrete) (abstract)
10ALLOMORPHS-edthe morph that indicates past tense can be realised phonetically in different ways (allomorphs) depending on the phonological context:e.g. Raised [d]looked [t]decided [Id]
11TWO BRANCHES OF MORPHOLOGY INFLECTIONAL : DEALS WITH CHANGES THAT HAVE GRAMMATICAL MEANINGe.g. –est signalling the superlative of adjectivesDERIVATIONAL: DEALS WITH THE PROCESS OF NEW WORD FORMATIONe.g. un-happ(y)i-ness (see Chapter 4)
12Mary’s brother-in-law lost his identity card during the week-end WHAT IS A WORD?Mary’s brother-in-law lost his identity card during the week-endHow many words are there in this clause?
13HOW MANY ‘WORDS’ ARE THERE IN THIS SENTENCE? I asked him to list all his books, but instead of listing them all, he listed only his favourite book20 or 14 or a number in between?
14IT DEPENDS ON THE CRITERIA OF “WORDHOOD” USED Phonological : a word is preceded and followed by pausesOrthographic : a word is preceded and followed by spaces or punctuation marksProsodic : a word takes one main stressInternal integrity : a word is an indivisible unitSemantic : a word has a single meaning
15Word/word forms/lexemes List/listing/listed = 3 word forms of the LEXEME TO LISTBook/books = 2 word forms of the LEXEME BOOKHe/him = two word forms of the LEXEME HE
16WORDS IN DICTIONARIESENTRY: an independent lexical unit in alphabetical orderHEADWORD: the main word of the entryLEMMA: the canonical form, e.g. the singular for nouns
17Words are traditionally grouped into WORD CLASSESORPARTS OF SPEECH
18HOW MANY AND WHAT ARE THEY? NOUNSVERBS ( LEXICAL vs. AUXILIARY VERBS)ADJECTIVESADVERBSARTICLES or DETERMINERSPRONOUNSCONJUNCTIONSPREPOSITIONSINTERJECTIONS/INSERTS e.g. oh, yes, right
19OPEN AND CLOSED CLASSES open-class words lexical or content words: wide and open membership; mixed etymological origin ; 4 classes: nouns, (lexical) verbs, adjectives, adverbsclosed-class words grammatical or function words: limited membership and high frequency of use; short; usually of Germanic origin; 5 classes: pronouns, determiners, auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions
20MULTIPLE CLASS MEMBERSHIP the same word form may belong to more than one word classe.g. fast (adj.), fast (adv.), fast (n.)park (n.), to park (v.)can (n.), can (aux.)only the co-text, i.e. the surroundings of the word, allows the reader/listener to understand the differenceword stress helps disambiguatione.g. rebel (n.) , rebel (v.) 
21NOUNS Open class with a naming function common (city, house) or proper (London, Mary, the White House)Concrete (bread) or abstract (love)Countable (book/books) and uncountable or mass (milk, furniture, information)may take the ‘s genitive case (genitivo sassone)
22VERBS: lexical and auxiliary verbs open class denoting actions or stateslexical /main / full verbs e.g. I like EnglishHe walked to schoolauxiliary verbs (or auxiliaries) are added to lexical verbs for various purposese.g. I could go faster. (modality)John is going nowhere. (progressive aspect)Do you go to school? (question)I do love him! (emphasis)
23LEXICAL VERBSdynamic: referring to physical processes= allow the progressive forme.g. to play, to walk, to drinkStative/state : referring to states and conditions = do not allow the progressive forme.g. to know, to love, to believeSome can be both , e.g. to feel
24ADJECTIVES Open-class with a descriptive function attributive function, before a noune.g. the extraordinary boypredicative function, after copular verbs (to be, to seem, to appear) e.g. John is tallsome adjectives are only used in either attributive or predicative functione.g. the child is afraid (predicative)*the afraid child but the freightened childe.g. the main task (attributive)*the task is main but the task is crucial /important
25GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES most adjectives are gradableit is possible to indicate to what extent the quality referred to by an adjective applies by using intensifierse.g. luckyvery lucky extremely luckysome adjectives are not gradablee.g huge *extremely hugeunique *very unique
26ADVERBS A very heterogeneous class Fortunately, today the dog has eaten his food very quietly outsidecomment when how / how /where…provide information about how, when, and where…allow the speaker to comment on the whole utterance…express degree with adjectives or other adverbs
27Subclasses of adverbsCircumstance adverbs or adjuncts: give additional information about an element of the sentencee.g. The surgeon completed the operation carefullyStance adverbs or disjuncts: provide a comment on the sentencee.g. Frankly, I should have told her what happenedLinking adverbs or conjuncts: connect one sentence or part of a sentence to anothere.g. She wasn’t free to go to New York at Christmas and besides she couldn’t afford it.
28CONJUNCTIONS … join linguistic elements coordinating conjunctions, or coordinatorse.g. and, but, orsubordinating conjunctions, or subordinators- simple, e.g. because, although, when- complex, e.g. as far as, in order to
29PREPOSITIONS show the relationship between two items typically followed by a noun phrase with which they form a Prepositional Phrase (PP)e.g. the dog ran under the tablesimple: single worde.g. under, over, at, oncomplex: more than one wordaccording to, on behalf of, with regard to
30DETERMINERSFunction words used before a noun to indicate definiteness or indefiniteness, quantity, possessione.g. all these sugary cookies filled with jam and creamThe main subclasses are :Articles (indefinite and definite): a, an, thedemonstratives: this, that, these, thosepossessives: my, your, his, her, their, our, its etc.quantifiers: all, few, many, several, some, every, each, any, etc.cardinal numbers: one, two, fifty, etc.ordinal numbers: first, second, third, etc.
31PRONOUNSclosed class of words which replace words thus avoiding repetitionse.g. Michelle was offered an exciting new job and she decided to take itMain subclasses :personal pronounse.g. They love football (subject) She loves them (object)possessive pronounse.g. This book is mineDemonstrative pronounse.g. This is my friend Tomreflexive pronounse.g. She hurt herselfinterrogative pronounse.g. Whose car is this?relative pronounse.g. This is the car which/that I want to buy
32AUXILIARIES A closed class of verbs which accompany lexical verbs Two subclasses:primary auxiliarieshave, be, doe.g. Liz is looking for a job, Do you speak English? She has studied a lotmodal auxiliaries (modality)can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must,e.g. I must go now! Would you like a cup of coffee?
33WH-WORDSA frequently used expression to refer to function words beginning with wh-:adverbs (interrogative, relative, exclamative)e.g. When did you call her?pronouns (interrogative, relative, exclamative)e.g. Whose car is that?determiners (interrogative, relative, exclamative)e.g. Which book did you choose?
34NUMERALS cardinal, e.g. one, two, three, etc. ordinal, e.g. first, second, third, etc.numerals may function as nounse.g. The Magnificent Seven
35PDE REGULAR INFLECTIONS NOUNS s plural,NOUNS ’s possessive or genitivecaseVERBS s 3rd pers. sing.VERBS ed past tense,VERBS ed past participleVERBS ing -ing form, gerundADJECTIVES -er comparativeADJECTIVES -est superlative
36NUMBER in English NOUNS Most nouns add -s e.g. girls, toys, carssome nouns add -es e.g. tomatoes, branches, knivesthe pronunciation of the inflectional ending -s/-es depends on the phonetic context, i.e. there are three allomorphs of the plural morpheme -se.g. cakes = /s/ (preceded by the voiceless consonant /k/)beans = /z/ (preceded by the voiced consonant /n/)judges= /iz/some nouns have irregular plural endingse.g. children, teeth, mice, oxen, curricula, sheep (see p. 131)uncountable nouns:e.g. evidence, advice, equipment, information
37POSSESSIVE CASE IN ENGLISH NOUNS The ‘s genitive versus the of-form POSSESSIVE CASE IN ENGLISH NOUNS The ‘s genitive versus the of-form. Synthetic versus analytic optionSAY WHETHER THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES ARE ALL ACCEPTABLE AND DISCUSS THE RULE OF THE ‘s GENITIVE versus THE “OF FORM”John’s car is fastthe car of John is fastthe students’ protest is still going onthe protest of the students is still going onthe car of the friend who is visiting me was stolen last nightThe friend who is visiting me’s car was stolen last nightyesterday’s newspaperthe newspaper of yesterdaythe journey’s endThe end of the journeyThe legs of the tablethe table’s legs
38‘S or of GENITIVE John’s car is fast NO the car of John is fast the students’ protest is still going onthe protest of the students is still going onthe car of the friend who is visiting me was stolen last nightNO The friend who is visiting me’s car was stolen last nightyesterday’s newspaperNO the newspaper of yesterdaythe journey’s endThe end of the journeyThe legs of the tableNO the table’s legs
39VERB INFLECTIONSMOST ENGLISH VERBS ARE REGULAR AND HAVE A PARADIGM OF 5 WORD FORMS and 4 VERB INFLECTIONSe.g. Love/loves/loved/loved/lovingTHERE IS A SMALLER NUMBER OF VERY FREQUENTLY USED IRREGULAR VERBSe.g. put, put, putlose, lost, losttake, took, takenspeak, spoke, spokengo, went, goneAUXILIARIES ARE VERY IRREGULAR, e.g. The verb to be has forms that differ from one another , e.g. am, are, is, was, were, been ( PROCESS OF SUPPLETION)MOST MODAL VERBS DO NOT INFLECT AND HAVE ONLY TWO FORMS, e.g. may, might, can, could
40GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Synthetic comparison:-er ending (comparative) e.g. warmer-est ending (superlative) e.g. finestversusphraseological/analytic comparison (for polysyllabic words)more and most e.g. more/ most interestingmore quicklyirregular comparison (process of suppletion)e.g. good better best; little, less, least; much, more, most;well, better, best; bad, worse, worst
41PRONOUN INFLECTIONPronouns, and personal pronouns in particular, have retained a certain degree of inflection in PDE.e.g. personal pronouns express NUMBER, GENDER and CASE often through suppletive formsI-me; we-us, you-you, he-him, she-her, it-it, they-them
42PHRASE ( SINTAGMA/GRUPPO) a unit of syntax made up of one or more wordsit contains an obligatory head and optional modifiersThe black labrador (NP) was chewing (VP) a juicy bone (NP) very noisily (AdvP)
43TYPES OF PHRASES NOUN PHRASE (NP) my friend Paul / Tom VERB PHRASE (VP) is/ is laughingADJECTIVE PHRASE (AdjP) very tall/ absolutely brilliantADVERB PHRASE (AdvP) quietly, neverPREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) in the garden/ on Mondayexcept for prepositional phrases (PP) phrases can be constituted by a single lexical itemall phrases can be extended by pre-modification or post-modification
44TYPES OF NOUN PHRASES determiner pre-modifier HEAD post-modifier - Johnmyleather (n.)suitcasealarge, old, blue(size, age, colour)with wheels
45MORE NOUN PHRASES det. pre-modifier HEAD post-modifier The London experience-London’schurchesI know
46AMBIGUITY in NPs The French history teacher the (det.) French (pre-mod.) history (pre-mod.) teacher (head)[the] [French] [history teacher](the teacher of history is French)[the] [French history] [teacher](the teacher teaches French history)
47The French history teacher tree diagram The French history teacher : the teacher of history is FrenchNPdet Pre-mod.:Adj head:NPmod:N + head :NThe French history teacher
48The French history teacher tree diagram The French history teacher = the teacher teaches French historyNPdet Pre-mod.:NP Head:NPre-mod:Adj. Head:NThe French history teacher
49COMPLEX POST-MODIFICATION The proposal for a new building which the committee put forward last week-for a new building (PP)-which the committee put forward last week (relative clause)
50TREE DIAGRAM “An interesting government report about air pollution” NPDet. Mod.(adj.) Mod.(N.) Head:N Post-Mod:PPHead:Prep C :NPMod.:N Head:NAn interesting government report about air pollution
51FREQUENCY OF NPs IN ENGLISH PRE-MODIFICATION IS MORE COMMON THAN POST-MODIFICATION IN ALL REGISTERSCOMPLEX PRE- AND POST-MODIFICATION IS TYPICAL OF SOME REGISTERS SUCH AS WRITTEN ACADEMIC PROSE AND NEWSPAPER HEADLINES
52ENGLISH/ITALIAN NPs Il Dipartimento di Polizia di Los Angeles Translate these noun phrases into Italian and notice the differences between the two languages1. The Los Angeles Police DepartmentIl Dipartimento di Polizia di Los Angeles2. Air pollutionL’inquinamento dell’aria/atmosferico3. The Birmingham trainIl treno per/da /di (?) Birmingham4. The proposal of a national curriculumLa proposta di un curricolo nazionale5. The country’s leading expert on youth cultureIl maggior esperto del paese sulla cultura giovanile /Il maggior esperto di cultura giovanile del paese
53Italian versus English NPs English favours premodification (to the left of the head). NPs are concise and at times ambiguousItalian favours postmodification (to the right of the head) and the use of prepositional phrases. NPs are longer and more explicit
54VERB PHRASEs : finite/ non-finite finite verbs or VPs: marked by tensee.g. John plays the guitarI enjoyed the concertnon-finite verbs or VPs: not marked by tense, person or numbere.g. To arrive on time was their objectiveShe traveled accompanied by her fatherShe broke her leg while skiing
55VERB PHRASES: TENSE versus TIME TENSE: property allowing the verb to differentiate between present and past TIMEe.g. Jane likes music / Jane liked musicUnlike in Italian, there is no morphologically marked form to express future time in English (but a range of forms such as will/shall+ infinitive, going to, simple present, present progressive etc. see )
56VERB PHRASE : ASPECTProperty allowing the verb to give information about the state or the actionProgressive ( or continuous) : the action is in progress at the time of utteranceSarah is helping her sisterperfect: the action is complete, that is it occurred at an earlier time and continues to the time of utterance or is relevant to itSarah has helped her sister when she was in her teensperfect+progressive: ( often called ‘duration form’) stressescontinuity in the past and includes the time of utteranceSarah has been helping her sister since she was 12
57Translate into Italian and identify the main differences between the two languages Sarah helps her sister every ThursdaySara aiuta sua sorella tutti i giovedìLately Sarah is helping her sister a lotUltimamente Sara sta aiutando/aiuta molto sua sorellaSarah has helped her sister to recover from her illnessSara ha aiutato sua sorella a riprendersi dalla malattiaSarah helped her sister one year ago when she was illSara ha aiutato/aiutò sua sorella un anno fa quando era malataSarah has been helping her sister since last MaySara sta aiutando/aiuta/sua sorella dal maggio scorso.
58Translate from Italian into English Sono andata a Londra molte volteI have been to London several timesVivo a LondraI live in LondonVado a Londra ogni annoI go to London every yearVivo a Londra da 5 anni e continua a piacermi moltoI have been living in London for 5 years and I still enjoy it a lotHo vissuto a Londra per 5 anni prima di tornare in ItaliaI lived in London for 5 years before coming back to ItalyVivevo a Londra quando ho incontrato JohnI was living in London when I met John
59VERB PHRASE : VOICE The singer performed the song The song was performed by the singerNP1+VP+ NP2 NP2 +be+VPed+ by+NP1The singer was performing the songThe song was being performed by the singer
60FUNCTIONS OF THE PASSIVE the agent is unknown or irrelevantMr Constable has been murderedthe focus is on the process to convey objectivity, especially in academic proseThe results of the tests have been checked several timesto disclaim responsibilityHe is said to be a womanizerMore frequent in scientific writing and in the Press
61MODAL VERBS AND MODALITY MODALS ARE FREQUENTLY USED IN ENGLISH AND BELONG TO THE GERMANIC CORE OF THE LANGUAGE.THEY EXPRESS A WIDE RANGE OF MEANINGS referring either to actions controlled by humans ( DEONTIC MODALITY) or to the levels of certainty of an event (EPISTEMIC MODALITY). The same modals can express different meanings. The same meanings can be expressed in different ways.
62THE MAIN MEANINGS OF MODAL VERBS PERMISSION e.g. Can I go to the loo? Could I borrow your notes? (Am I allowed to ask a question?)ABILITY e.g. I can ski, (I know how to do it)POSSIBILITY e.g. She may be ill . She might be ill (Perhaps she is ill)OBLIGATION e.g. You must stop talking. You should pay attention, You have to do it. This needs to be doneLOGICAL NECESSITY e.g. She must be ill (She is very likely to be ill)VOLITION e.g. I’ll do it for youPREDICTION e.g. It will rain tomorrow
63WHAT ABOUT MODAL VERBS IN ITALIAN? Translate the following expressions into English:Devi smettere di fumareYou must stop smokingDovresti smettere di fumareYou should stop smokingPosso fumare?Can I smoke ? May I smoke?Potrei fumare?Could I smoke? Might I smoke?Domani può piovereIt may rain tomorrowDomani potrebbe piovereIt might rain tomorrowDomani pioveràIt will rain tomorrowSa sciare molto beneShe can ski very wellSapeva sciare bene quando era giovaneShe could /was able to /ski very well when she was youngIn Italian there are the verbs potere, sapere e dovereSome modal expressions are expressed in Italian through the conditional mood or the future tense, which do not exist as morphologically marked forms in English
64OTHER PHRASES ADJECTIVE PHRASE e.g. Beautiful/ (really) beautiful ADVERB PHRASEe.g. Slowly/ (fairly) slowlyPREPOSITIONAL PHRASEat University / at (Turin) University ( see pp )
65Analysis of prepositional phrases in the classroom In ( Head: prep) + the classrom (C: NP) near Rome Near ( Head: prep) + Rome (C : NP)
66HOW CAN A CLAUSE BE ANALYSED? First into Subject + predicateJohn ( what is talked about) is English (what is said about the topic)Then into the 5 main functional elements of the clause:S (Subject),V (Verb or Verb Phrase or Predicator ),O (Object) complemento oggettoC (Complement) predicato nominale, del soggetto o dell’oggettoA (Adverbial) vari tipi di complementi . They are often optional.
67WORD ORDER in PDE Translate the following clauses into English: Seguiranno alcuni esempiSome examples will followNel capitolo 3 verrà presentata la grammaticaGrammar will be presented in Chapter 3Giovanni parla molto bene l’italiano /l’italiano molto beneJohn speaks Italian very wellOdio stirareI hate ironingPiove forte da molte oreIt’s been raining heavily for many hoursC’è un gatto in giardinoThere is a cat in the gardenCONCLUSION:The unmarked word order in English in SVO, while in Italian this order can vary to a certain extentThe subject is compulsory in English , and not in Italian. If there is no subject, a ‘dummy’ (empty) subject will be used (it/there).
68THE VERB…IS THE CENTRAL PART OF THE CLAUSE SINCE IT DETERMINES THE OTHER ELEMENTS ( e.g. verb complementation or valency)She was laughing one-place verbShe was playing the piano two-place verbShe was very beautiful two-place verbShe gave him a kiss three-place verbShe made him happy three-place verb
69CLAUSE ELEMENTS S V O C A He (NP) put (VP) the keys (NP) in his bag The black labrador (NP)has bitten (VP)Mr Allington (NP)He (NP)put (VP)the keys(NP)in his bag(AdvP)Sue (NP)is feeling (VP)very sleepy (AdjP)
70S V O C A It (dummy subject) is going to rain (VP) Armstrong (NP) became (VP)the first man on the moon (NP)Chris (NP)made (VP)Sara (NP)really angry (AdjP)yesterday (AdvP)What I don’t understand (clause)is (VP)Why you lied to me( clause)
71S+V+Oi+Od S V Oi (Indirect Object) Od (Direct Object) a kiss Shegavemea kissher sistera glass of wineto her sister
72the black labrador was barking SV (intransitive verb). No complementation The black labrador was barkingclauseS:NP P:VPdet. mod.(adj.) head (n.) aux. head (v.)the black labrador was barking
73SVOd (monotransitive) Andrew bought a sports car clauseS:NP P:VPV Od:NPhead (n.) head (v.) det. mod. (n..) head (n.)Andrew bought a sports car
74SVOd (monotransitive) Andrew bought a sports car clauseS:NP P:VPV Od:NPhead (n.) head (v.) det. mod. (adj.) head (n.)Andrew bought a sports car
75SVA (+ an obligatory Adverbial) The taxi is waiting outside clauseS:NP P:VPV A:AdvPdet head (n.) aux. head (v.) head (adv.)The taxi is waiting outside
76SVCs (copular verb) The weather has turned very nasty clauseS:NP P:VPV C:AdjPdet head (n.) aux. head(v.) mod.(adv.) head(adj.)The weather has turned very nasty
77Copular verbsbe, feel, seem, appear, look, remain, stay, become, sound, tastee.g. I am / feel rather tired (C: AdjP)She became a nurse (C:NP)You look extremely happy (C:AdjP)Mary appeared in good health (C:PP)That is what I mean (C: clause)
78SVOiOd (di-transitive) Gill told her child a bedtime story clauseS:NP P:VPV Oi:NP Od:NPhead(n.) head(v.) det. head(n.) det. mod.(n.) h(n.)Gill told her child a bedtime story
79Di-transitive verbs Give, tell, bring, buy, show e.g. John showed me (Oi) his new car (Od)They bought him (Oi) a new racket (Od)Tell us (Oi) the truth (Od)
80SVOdCo (complex transitive) The judges declared Jackie the winner clauseS:NP P:VPV O:NP Co:NPdet. head (n.) head (v.) head(n.) det. h(n.)The judges declared Jackie the winner
81SVOdA Terry put the rubbish in the dustbin clauseS:NP P:VPV O:NP A:PPhead (n.) head(v.) det. h(n.) h (prep) C:NPdet. h(n.)Terry put the rubbish in the dustbin
82AdverbialOptional elements added to the obligatory elements of the clauseCircumstance adverbial: additional informatione.g. The taxi is waiting outsideStance adverbial: speaker’s feeling / attitudee.g. Hopefully I will pass all my exams in JuneLinking adverbiale.g. In conclusion, all’s well that ends well.
83Obligatory adverbialAdverbials that are required to complete the meaning of the verbE.g. Sally put the bread on the table (obligatory Adverbial)vs. Sally cut the bread on the table (optional Adverbial)Verbs: put, last, live
84Adverbials vs. complements John was very quiet (C)John was in bed (A)They are in good health (C)They are in the garden (A)You should stay sober (C)You should stay here (A)Complements describe or characterize the S (or O)Adverbials typically express place or direction.
85TO SUM-UP THE CLAUSE ELEMENTS : S/V/O/C/A The baby is cryingS+V+AThe concert lasted three hoursS+V+OdShe is playing tennisS+V+Od+AShe put the rubbish in the dustbinS+V+CsShe is IndianS+V+Oi+OdHe gave her a kissS+V+ Od+CoThey elected her dean of the faculty
86MAIN AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Mary had been waiting for more than an hourSuddenly, she stood up and went outShe said that she was not feeling well because the air in the room was stuffyShe wanted to get some fresh aira main clause always contains a finite verb and typically contains an overt subjecta subordinate clause cannot stand alone and needs to be attached to a free-standing clausea non-finite clause is always subordinatesimple clauses consist of a clause, compound clauses consist of two coordinate clauses, complex clauses consist of a main and one or more subordinate clauses.
87TYPES of CLAUSES TYPICAL FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSE TYPES FORM FUNCTION declarative statementinterrogative questionimperative directiveexclamative exclamationShe’s wearing a new dress.Is she wearing a new dress?Buy yourself a new dress!What a lovely dress she’s wearing!
88DECLARATIVE CLAUSESdeclarative clauses are normally used to make statementsdeclarative clauses typically have an overt subject, a verb element and any necessary verb complementation and may also have optional adverbialsPhilip will visit his dentist in London today
89INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES yes-no questions: Are you happy?wh- questions: Where do you live?Question-tag : She’s Australian, isn’t she?She doesn’t love him, does she?So, you have changed your mind,have you/haven’t you?the interrogative structure implies a subject-operator inversionany auxiliary which is used to make interrogative sentences is labelled operator (be, have, do)Questions tags may have contrastive or constant polarity ( p. 166)
90MARKED SENTENCE STRUCTURES This book, I really liked itEMPHASIS IN SPEECHTerry plays jazz piano for fun.It is Terry who plays jazz piano for fun.It’s jazz piano that Terry plays for funIt’s for fun that Terry plays jazz pianoIt-CLEFTI would like a book for my birthdayWhat I would like for my birthday is a bookWH-CLEFTCLEFTINGto highlight a particular element of the sentencethe focussed element is introduced by a dummy Subject and followed by a relative clause
91SENTENCE the largest unit of syntactic structure I agreed to go with them (main clause) although I wasn’t really happy with the idea. (subordinate clause)the largest unit of syntactic structurea sentence must consist of at least one clause (main clause)in writing, a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stopin speech sentences are not always complete
92TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES NOMINAL I just hope (that) they will understandRELATIVE The man who is sitting next to Tom is JohnADVERBIAL Call me as soon as you get home (time) because I have to talk to you (reason) .The boy stood on the box so that he could see better (purpose). Even though I am tired (concession), I’ll do it.4. COMPARATIVE This hotel is not so nice as I expected
93TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSES IN WHAT WAYS DO THE FOLLOWING RELATIVE CLAUSES DIFFER? WHICH RELATIVE PRONOUNS CAN BE USED IN EACH CONTEXT?This is the best hotel (that, which, who, whom, whose, zero pronoun) I was able to findThis hotel, (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero pronoun) was renewed last year, is one of the best in the cityThe man (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero pronoun) you see in the photo is my brotherThe man (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero pronoun) is coming towards us is my brotherThe music (that, which, who, whose, whom, zero article) we are listening to is MozartWe stayed in a lovely hotel, (which, that, who, whom, whose) owner is a good friend of mineWe spent the night in a farm, (which, that, who, whom, whose) was very relaxing
94Accepted optionsThis is the best hotel (that, which, zero pronoun) I was able to find This hotel, which was renewed last year, is one of the best in the city The man (that, who,whom, zero pronoun) you see in the photo is my brother The man (that, who) is coming towards us is my brother The music (that, which, zero article) we are listening to is Mozart We stayed in a lovely hotel, whose owner is a good friend of mine We spent the night in a farm, which was very relaxing
95RULE OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses can be either defining ( or restrictive) or non-defining (non-restrictive) depending on whether they define the antecedent or add extra information. Commas are required for defining clauses.The use of relative pronouns is conditioned by the antecedent , whether it is human ( who,whom, whose, that) or non-human ( that, whose, which), whether it plays the role of subject (who, that, which) or object (whom, that, which, zero pronoun), whether it is defining ( who, whose, whom, that, which) or non-defining (who, whose, which).There are some fuzzy areas of usage (e.g. who/whom)
96CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (periodo ipotetico) 1) If the weather is nice, tomorrow we will go to the seaside (it is an open possibility)NO * If the weather will be nice, …2) If the weather were/was nice, we would go to the seaside ( it is unlikely)3) If the weather had been nice, we would have gone to the seaside (it did not happen)
97Activity 1: build acceptable noun phrases filling all the boxes determinerpre-modifierHEADpost-modifierMYBESTFRIENDIN TURINTHESEELEGANTFLATSIN THE CITY CENTREANEWBOOKABOUTSHAKESPEARE
98ACTIVITY 2: Give a top-down scale of the main grammatical units with an example for each SENTENCE Call two taxis, please, because there are ten of usCLAUSE (main clause) Call two taxis ( subordinate clause) because there are ten of usPHRASE Noun phrase: two taxis or Verb phrase: callWORD taxis, call, two, pleaseMORPHEME taxi (free lexical morpheme) , -s (bound grammatical morpheme)
99Last night Mary showed us a very interesting documentary ACTIVITY 3: Give examples of declarative clauses containing the given verbs and having the patterns indicated1. Show = A time S V Oi OdLast night Mary showed us a very interesting documentary2. Make = S V Od CoYou have made me very happy3. Be /seems = S V CsI am Italian or This seems a good idea
100ACTIVITY 4: Identify the clause elements in the following examples 1. I am getting really angryI (S) am getting (V) really angry (Cs)2. Perhaps we should invite MaryPerhaps (A) we (S) should invite (V) Mary (Od)It’s going to rainIt (S)’s going to rain (V)
101The woman hit the boy with the umbrella Use a tree diagram to show that this clause is ambiguousThe woman (S) hit (V) the boy with the umbrella (Od)OrThe woman (S) hit (V) the boy (Od) with the umbrella (A)