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THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH CHAPTER 3. WHAT IS “GRAMMAR”? Different meanings: ETYMOLOGICALLY LINKED TO “WRITTEN LETTERS”, BUT GRADUALLY HAS ACQUIRED A WIDER.

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Presentation on theme: "THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH CHAPTER 3. WHAT IS “GRAMMAR”? Different meanings: ETYMOLOGICALLY LINKED TO “WRITTEN LETTERS”, BUT GRADUALLY HAS ACQUIRED A WIDER."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH CHAPTER 3

2 WHAT IS “GRAMMAR”? Different meanings: ETYMOLOGICALLY LINKED TO “WRITTEN LETTERS”, BUT GRADUALLY HAS ACQUIRED A WIDER MEANING ETYMOLOGICALLY LINKED TO “WRITTEN LETTERS”, BUT GRADUALLY HAS ACQUIRED A WIDER MEANING IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKS IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKS EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKS EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKS THE RULES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CORRECT LANGUAGE THE RULES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CORRECT LANGUAGE DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAMMAR: PEDAGOGICAL/NORMATIVE, DESCRIPTIVE, THEORETICAL (e.g. Halliday’s systemic grammar) DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAMMAR: PEDAGOGICAL/NORMATIVE, DESCRIPTIVE, THEORETICAL (e.g. Halliday’s systemic grammar)

3 WHAT IS “GRAMMAR” MADE OF? Grammar= language Grammar= language Phonology Phonology Morphology Morphology Word-formation Word-formation Syntax Syntax Lexis and phraseology Lexis and phraseology Semantics Semantics Text and discourse Text and discourse Punctuation Punctuation The central core of grammar= morphology inflectional (and derivational, see Chapter 4) syntax

4 MORPHOLOGY THE STUDY OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS THE STUDY OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS e.g. the plural –s inflection for nouns and the –ed inflection for verbs e.g. the plural –s inflection for nouns and the –ed inflection for verbs

5 SYNTAX THE WAY IN WHICH WORDS COMBINE TO FORM LARGER UNITS OF MEANING e.g. phrases, clauses, sentences Example: word order in a noun phrase or in statements and questions e.g. She is a beautiful girl NOT She is a girl beautiful NOT She is a girl beautiful

6 IN PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH… limited presence of inflectional morphology compared to Old English (and other languages such as Italian or German) limited presence of inflectional morphology compared to Old English (and other languages such as Italian or German) and and greater importance of syntax and word order in signalling grammatical relations greater importance of syntax and word order in signalling grammatical relations

7 GRAMMATICAL UNITS TEXT SENTENCE (frase complessa) SENTENCE (frase complessa) CLAUSE (frase semplice CLAUSE (frase semplice /principale o subordinata) /principale o subordinata) PHRASE ( *not frase but PHRASE ( *not frase but sintagma/gruppo) sintagma/gruppo) WORD WORD MORPHEME MORPHEME

8 What is a MORPHEME? Unhappy un-happy Unhappy un-happy Cats cat-s Cats cat-s A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function  Lexical e.g. pen, book  Functional or grammatical e.g. if, the free: can stand alone as a word e.g. basket, woman free: can stand alone as a word e.g. basket, woman bound: cannot stand alone and must be linked to another morpheme (called base or root) e.g. -ly, un-, -able, -ee bound: cannot stand alone and must be linked to another morpheme (called base or root) e.g. -ly, un-, -able, -ee

9 MORPHEMES and MORPHS Played play-ed PLAY+ past Unhelpful un-help-ful negative+HELP+ adjective WORDS MORPHS MORPHEMES (concrete) (abstract) (concrete) (abstract)

10 ALLOMORPHS -ed -ed the morph that indicates past tense can be realised phonetically in different ways (allomorphs) depending on the phonological context : the morph that indicates past tense can be realised phonetically in different ways (allomorphs) depending on the phonological context : e.g. Raised [d] looked [t] looked [t] decided [ I d] decided [ I d]

11 TWO BRANCHES OF MORPHOLOGY INFLECTIONAL : DEALS WITH CHANGES THAT HAVE GRAMMATICAL MEANING e.g. –est signalling the superlative of adjectives e.g. –est signalling the superlative of adjectives DERIVATIONAL: DEALS WITH THE PROCESS OF NEW WORD FORMATION e.g. un-happ(y)i-ness (see Chapter 4) e.g. un-happ(y)i-ness (see Chapter 4)

12 WHAT IS A WORD? Mary’s brother-in-law lost his identity card during the week-end How many words are there in this clause?

13 HOW MANY ‘WORDS’ ARE THERE IN THIS SENTENCE? I asked him to list all his books, but instead of listing them all, he listed only his favourite book I asked him to list all his books, but instead of listing them all, he listed only his favourite book 20 or 14 or a number in between? 20 or 14 or a number in between?

14   Phonological : a word is preceded and followed by pauses   Orthographic : a word is preceded and followed by spaces or punctuation marks   Prosodic : a word takes one main stress   Internal integrity : a word is an indivisible unit   Semantic : a word has a single meaning IT DEPENDS ON THE CRITERIA OF “WORDHOOD” USED

15 Word/word forms/lexemes List/listing/listed = 3 word forms of the LEXEME TO LIST Book/books = 2 word forms of the LEXEME BOOK He/him = two word forms of the LEXEME HE

16 WORDS IN DICTIONARIES ENTRY: an independent lexical unit in alphabetical order HEADWORD: the main word of the entry LEMMA: the canonical form, e.g. the singular for nouns

17 Words are traditionally grouped into WORD CLASSES WORD CLASSES OR OR PARTS OF SPEECH PARTS OF SPEECH

18 HOW MANY AND WHAT ARE THEY? NOUNS VERBS ( LEXICAL vs. AUXILIARY VERBS) ADJECTIVESADVERBS ARTICLES or DETERMINERS PRONOUNSCONJUNCTIONSPREPOSITIONS INTERJECTIONS/INSERTS e.g. oh, yes, right

19 OPEN AND CLOSED CLASSES open-class words  lexical or content words: wide and open membership; mixed etymological origin ; 4 classes: nouns, (lexical) verbs, adjectives, adverbs open-class words  lexical or content words: wide and open membership; mixed etymological origin ; 4 classes: nouns, (lexical) verbs, adjectives, adverbs closed-class words  grammatical or function words: limited membership and high frequency of use; short; usually of Germanic origin; 5 classes: pronouns, determiners, auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions closed-class words  grammatical or function words: limited membership and high frequency of use; short; usually of Germanic origin; 5 classes: pronouns, determiners, auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions

20 MULTIPLE CLASS MEMBERSHIP the same word form may belong to more than one word class the same word form may belong to more than one word class e.g.fast (adj.), fast (adv.), fast (n.) park (n.), to park (v.) park (n.), to park (v.) can (n.), can (aux.) can (n.), can (aux.) only the co-text, i.e. the surroundings of the word, allows the reader/listener to understand the difference only the co-text, i.e. the surroundings of the word, allows the reader/listener to understand the difference word stress helps disambiguation word stress helps disambiguation e.g. rebel (n.) [  ], rebel (v.) [  ] e.g. rebel (n.) [  ], rebel (v.) [  ]

21 NOUNS Open class with a naming function Open class with a naming function common (city, house) or proper (London, Mary, the White House) common (city, house) or proper (London, Mary, the White House) Concrete (bread) or abstract (love) Concrete (bread) or abstract (love) Countable (book/books) and uncountable or mass (milk, furniture, information) Countable (book/books) and uncountable or mass (milk, furniture, information) may take the ‘s genitive case (genitivo sassone) may take the ‘s genitive case (genitivo sassone)

22 VERBS: lexical and auxiliary verbs open class denoting actions or states open class denoting actions or states  lexical /main / full verbs e.g. I like English He walked to school He walked to school  auxiliary verbs (or auxiliaries) are added to lexical verbs for various purposes e.g. I could go faster. (modality) John is going nowhere. (progressive aspect) Do you go to school? (question) I do love him! (emphasis)

23 LEXICAL VERBS dynamic: referring to physical processes= allow the progressive form dynamic: referring to physical processes= allow the progressive form e.g. to play, to walk, to drink Stative/state : referring to states and conditions = do not allow the progressive form Stative/state : referring to states and conditions = do not allow the progressive form e.g. to know, to love, to believe Some can be both, e.g. to feel

24 ADJECTIVES Open-class with a descriptive function Open-class with a descriptive function attributive function, before a noun attributive function, before a noun e.g. the extraordinary boy  predicative function, after copular verbs (to be, to seem, to appear) e.g. John is tall some adjectives are only used in either attributive or predicative function e.g.the child is afraid (predicative) *the afraid child but the freightened child e.g.the main task (attributive) *the task is main but the task is crucial / important important

25 GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES most adjectives are gradable most adjectives are gradable it is possible to indicate to what extent the quality referred to by an adjective applies by using intensifiers it is possible to indicate to what extent the quality referred to by an adjective applies by using intensifiers e.g.lucky very lucky extremely lucky  some adjectives are not gradable e.g huge *extremely huge unique *very unique

26 ADVERBS A very heterogeneous class Fortunately, today the dog has eaten his food very quietly outside comment when how / how /where …provide information about how, when, and where …provide information about how, when, and where …allow the speaker to comment on the whole utterance …allow the speaker to comment on the whole utterance …express degree with adjectives or other adverbs …express degree with adjectives or other adverbs

27 Subclasses of adverbs Circumstance adverbs or adjuncts: give additional information about an element of the sentence Circumstance adverbs or adjuncts: give additional information about an element of the sentence e.g. The surgeon completed the operation carefully e.g. The surgeon completed the operation carefully Stance adverbs or disjuncts: provide a comment on the sentence Stance adverbs or disjuncts: provide a comment on the sentence e.g. Frankly, I should have told her what happened e.g. Frankly, I should have told her what happened Linking adverbs or conjuncts: connect one sentence or part of a sentence to another Linking adverbs or conjuncts: connect one sentence or part of a sentence to another e.g. She wasn’t free to go to New York at Christmas and besides she couldn’t afford it. e.g. She wasn’t free to go to New York at Christmas and besides she couldn’t afford it.

28 CONJUNCTIONS … join linguistic elements … join linguistic elements coordinating conjunctions, or coordinators coordinating conjunctions, or coordinators e.g. and, but, or subordinating conjunctions, or subordinators subordinating conjunctions, or subordinators - simple, e.g. because, although, when - complex, e.g. as far as, in order to

29 PREPOSITIONS show the relationship between two items show the relationship between two items typically followed by a noun phrase with which they form a Prepositional Phrase (PP) typically followed by a noun phrase with which they form a Prepositional Phrase (PP) e.g. the dog ran under the table simple: single word simple: single word e.g. under, over, at, on complex: more than one word complex: more than one word according to, on behalf of, with regard to

30 DETERMINERS Function words used before a noun to indicate definiteness or indefiniteness, quantity, possession Function words used before a noun to indicate definiteness or indefiniteness, quantity, possession e.g. all these sugary cookies filled with jam and cream The main subclasses are : Articles (indefinite and definite): a, an, the Articles (indefinite and definite): a, an, the demonstratives: this, that, these, those demonstratives: this, that, these, those possessives: my, your, his, her, their, our, its etc. possessives: my, your, his, her, their, our, its etc. quantifiers: all, few, many, several, some, every, each, any, etc. quantifiers: all, few, many, several, some, every, each, any, etc. cardinal numbers: one, two, fifty, etc. cardinal numbers: one, two, fifty, etc. ordinal numbers: first, second, third, etc. ordinal numbers: first, second, third, etc.

31 PRONOUNS closed class of words which replace words thus avoiding repetitions closed class of words which replace words thus avoiding repetitions e.g. Michelle was offered an exciting new job and she decided to take it Main subclasses : Main subclasses : personal pronouns personal pronouns e.g. They love football (subject) She loves them (object) e.g. They love football (subject) She loves them (object) possessive pronouns possessive pronouns e.g. This book is mine e.g. This book is mine Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns e.g. This is my friend Tom e.g. This is my friend Tom reflexive pronouns reflexive pronouns e.g. She hurt herself e.g. She hurt herself interrogative pronouns interrogative pronouns e.g. Whose car is this? e.g. Whose car is this? relative pronouns relative pronouns e.g. This is the car which/that I want to buy e.g. This is the car which/that I want to buy

32 AUXILIARIES A closed class of verbs which accompany lexical verbs A closed class of verbs which accompany lexical verbs Two subclasses: Two subclasses: primary auxiliaries primary auxiliaries have, be, do e.g. Liz is looking for a job, Do you speak English? She has studied a lot modal auxiliaries (modality) modal auxiliaries (modality) can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, e.g. I must go now! Would you like a cup of coffee?

33 WH-WORDS A frequently used expression to refer to function words beginning with wh-:  adverbs (interrogative, relative, exclamative) e.g. When did you call her?  pronouns (interrogative, relative, exclamative) e.g. Whose car is that? e.g. Whose car is that?  determiners (interrogative, relative, exclamative) e.g. Which book did you choose? e.g. Which book did you choose?

34 NUMERALS cardinal, e.g. one, two, three, etc. cardinal, e.g. one, two, three, etc. ordinal, e.g. first, second, third, etc. ordinal, e.g. first, second, third, etc. numerals may function as nouns e.g. The Magnificent Seven

35 PDE REGULAR INFLECTIONS NOUNS - splural, NOUNS - splural, NOUNS -’spossessive or genitive NOUNS -’spossessive or genitive case case VERBS - s 3 rd pers. sing. VERBS - s 3 rd pers. sing. VERBS - ed past tense, VERBS - ed past tense, VERBS - ed past participle VERBS - ed past participle VERBS -ing -ing form, gerund VERBS -ing -ing form, gerund ADJECTIVES -ercomparative ADJECTIVES -ercomparative ADJECTIVES -estsuperlative ADJECTIVES -estsuperlative

36 NUMBER in English NOUNS Most nouns add -s e.g.girls, toys, cars Most nouns add -s e.g.girls, toys, cars some nouns add -es e.g.tomatoes, branches, knives some nouns add -es e.g.tomatoes, branches, knives the pronunciation of the inflectional ending -s/-es depends on the phonetic context, i.e. there are three allomorphs of the plural morpheme -s the pronunciation of the inflectional ending -s/-es depends on the phonetic context, i.e. there are three allomorphs of the plural morpheme -s e.g.cakes = /s/ (preceded by the voiceless consonant /k/) beans = /z/ (preceded by the voiced consonant /n/) judges= /iz/ judges= /iz/ some nouns have irregular plural endings some nouns have irregular plural endings e.g.children, teeth, mice, oxen, curricula, sheep (see p. 131) e.g.children, teeth, mice, oxen, curricula, sheep (see p. 131) uncountable nouns: uncountable nouns: e.g. evidence, advice, equipment, information e.g. evidence, advice, equipment, information

37 POSSESSIVE CASE IN ENGLISH NOUNS The ‘s genitive versus the of-form. Synthetic versus analytic option SAY WHETHER THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES ARE ALL ACCEPTABLE AND DISCUSS THE RULE OF THE ‘s GENITIVE versus THE “OF FORM” John’s car is fast John’s car is fast the car of John is fast the car of John is fast the students’ protest is still going on the students’ protest is still going on the protest of the students is still going on the protest of the students is still going on the car of the friend who is visiting me was stolen last night the car of the friend who is visiting me was stolen last night The friend who is visiting me’s car was stolen last night The friend who is visiting me’s car was stolen last night yesterday’s newspaper yesterday’s newspaper the newspaper of yesterday the newspaper of yesterday the journey’s end the journey’s end The end of the journey The end of the journey The legs of the table The legs of the table the table’s legs the table’s legs

38 ‘S or of GENITIVE John’s car is fast John’s car is fast NO the car of John is fast NO the car of John is fast the students’ protest is still going on the students’ protest is still going on the protest of the students is still going on the protest of the students is still going on the car of the friend who is visiting me was stolen last night the car of the friend who is visiting me was stolen last night NO The friend who is visiting me’s car was stolen last night NO The friend who is visiting me’s car was stolen last night yesterday’s newspaper yesterday’s newspaper NO the newspaper of yesterday NO the newspaper of yesterday the journey’s end the journey’s end The end of the journey The end of the journey The legs of the table The legs of the table NO the table’s legs NO the table’s legs

39 VERB INFLECTIONS MOST ENGLISH VERBS ARE REGULAR AND HAVE A PARADIGM OF 5 WORD FORMS and 4 VERB INFLECTIONS e.g. Love/loves/loved/loved/loving e.g. Love/loves/loved/loved/loving THERE IS A SMALLER NUMBER OF VERY FREQUENTLY USED IRREGULAR VERBS THERE IS A SMALLER NUMBER OF VERY FREQUENTLY USED IRREGULAR VERBS e.g. put, put, put e.g. put, put, put lose, lost, lost lose, lost, lost take, took, taken take, took, taken speak, spoke, spoken speak, spoke, spoken go, went, gone go, went, gone AUXILIARIES ARE VERY IRREGULAR, e.g. The verb to be has forms that differ from one another, e.g. am, are, is, was, were, been ( PROCESS OF SUPPLETION) MOST MODAL VERBS DO NOT INFLECT AND HAVE ONLY TWO FORMS, e.g. may, might, can, could

40 GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS  Synthetic comparison: -er ending(comparative) e.g. warmer -er ending(comparative) e.g. warmer -est ending(superlative)e.g. finest -est ending(superlative)e.g. finest versus versus  phraseological/analytic comparison (for polysyllabic words) more and most e.g. more/ most interesting more and most e.g. more/ most interesting more quickly more quickly irregular comparison (process of suppletion) irregular comparison (process of suppletion) e.g. good better best; little, less, least; much, more, most; well, better, best; bad, worse, worst well, better, best; bad, worse, worst

41 PRONOUN INFLECTION PRONOUN INFLECTION Pronouns, and personal pronouns in particular, have retained a certain degree of inflection in PDE. Pronouns, and personal pronouns in particular, have retained a certain degree of inflection in PDE. e.g. personal pronouns express NUMBER, GENDER and CASE often through suppletive forms e.g. personal pronouns express NUMBER, GENDER and CASE often through suppletive forms I-me; we-us, you-you, he-him, she-her, it-it, they- them

42 PHRASE ( SINTAGMA/GRUPPO) a unit of syntax made up of one or more words a unit of syntax made up of one or more words it contains an obligatory head and optional modifiers it contains an obligatory head and optional modifiers The black labrador (NP) was chewing (VP) a juicy bone (NP) very noisily (AdvP )

43 TYPES OF PHRASES NOUN PHRASE (NP) my friend Paul / Tom VERB PHRASE (VP) is/ is laughing ADJECTIVE PHRASE (AdjP) very tall/ absolutely brilliant ADVERB PHRASE (AdvP) quietly, never PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) in the garden/ on Monday except for prepositional phrases (PP) phrases can be constituted by a single lexical item except for prepositional phrases (PP) phrases can be constituted by a single lexical item all phrases can be extended by pre-modification or post- modification all phrases can be extended by pre-modification or post- modification

44 TYPES OF NOUN PHRASES determinerpre-modifierHEADpost-modifier - -John - my my leather (n.) suitcase- a large, old, blue (size, age, colour) suitcase with wheels

45 MORE NOUN PHRASES det.pre-modifierHEAD post- modifier TheLondonexperience- -London’schurches- The -London I know I know

46 AMBIGUITY in NPs The French history teacher The French history teacher the (det.) French (pre-mod.) history (pre-mod.) teacher (head) [the] [French] [history teacher] (the teacher of history is French) [the] [French history] [teacher] (the teacher teaches French history)

47 tree diagram The French history teacher : the teacher of history is French NP NP det. Pre-mod.:Adj head:NP det. Pre-mod.:Adj head:NP mod:N + head :N mod:N + head :N The French history teacher The French history teacher

48 tree diagram The French history teacher = the teacher teaches French history NP NP det. Pre-mod.:NP Head:N det. Pre-mod.:NP Head:N Pre-mod:Adj. Head:N Pre-mod:Adj. Head:N The French history teacher

49 COMPLEX POST-MODIFICATION The proposal for a new building which the committee put forward last week The proposal for a new building which the committee put forward last week -for a new building (PP) -which the committee put forward last week (relative clause)

50 TREE DIAGRAM “An interesting government report about air pollution” NP NP Det. Mod.(adj.) Mod.(N.) Head:N Post-Mod:PP Head:Prep C :NP Head:Prep C :NP Mod.:N Head:N Mod.:N Head:N An interesting government report about air pollution

51 FREQUENCY OF NPs IN ENGLISH PRE-MODIFICATION IS MORE COMMON THAN POST- MODIFICATION IN ALL REGISTERS PRE-MODIFICATION IS MORE COMMON THAN POST- MODIFICATION IN ALL REGISTERS COMPLEX PRE- AND POST- MODIFICATION IS TYPICAL OF SOME REGISTERS SUCH AS WRITTEN ACADEMIC PROSE AND NEWSPAPER HEADLINES COMPLEX PRE- AND POST- MODIFICATION IS TYPICAL OF SOME REGISTERS SUCH AS WRITTEN ACADEMIC PROSE AND NEWSPAPER HEADLINES

52 ENGLISH/ITALIAN NPs Translate these noun phrases into Italian and notice the differences between the two languages 1. The Los Angeles Police Department Il Dipartimento di Polizia di Los Angeles Il Dipartimento di Polizia di Los Angeles 2. Air pollution L’inquinamento dell’aria/atmosferico L’inquinamento dell’aria/atmosferico 3. The Birmingham train Il treno per/da /di (?) Birmingham Il treno per/da /di (?) Birmingham 4. The proposal of a national curriculum La proposta di un curricolo nazionale La proposta di un curricolo nazionale 5. The country’s leading expert on youth culture Il maggior esperto del paese sulla cultura giovanile /Il maggior esperto di cultura giovanile del paese Il maggior esperto del paese sulla cultura giovanile /Il maggior esperto di cultura giovanile del paese

53 Italian versus English NPs English favours premodification (to the left of the head). NPs are concise and at times ambiguous Italian favours postmodification (to the right of the head) and the use of prepositional phrases. NPs are longer and more explicit

54 VERB PHRASEs : finite/ non-finite finite verbs or VPs: marked by tense finite verbs or VPs: marked by tense e.g. John plays the guitar I enjoyed the concert I enjoyed the concert non-finite verbs or VPs: not marked by tense, person or number non-finite verbs or VPs: not marked by tense, person or number e.g. To arrive on time was their objective She traveled accompanied by her father She traveled accompanied by her father She broke her leg while skiing She broke her leg while skiing

55 VERB PHRASES: TENSE versus TIME TENSE: property allowing the verb to differentiate between present and past TIME TENSE: property allowing the verb to differentiate between present and past TIME e.g. Jane likes music / Jane liked music Unlike in Italian, there is no morphologically marked form to express future time in English (but a range of forms such as will/shall+ infinitive, going to, simple present, present progressive etc. see ) Unlike in Italian, there is no morphologically marked form to express future time in English (but a range of forms such as will/shall+ infinitive, going to, simple present, present progressive etc. see )

56 VERB PHRASE : ASPECT Property allowing the verb to give information about the state or the action Property allowing the verb to give information about the state or the action Progressive ( or continuous) : the action is in progress at the time of utterance Progressive ( or continuous) : the action is in progress at the time of utterance Sarah is helping her sister perfect: the action is complete, that is it occurred at an earlier time and continues to the time of utterance or is relevant to it perfect: the action is complete, that is it occurred at an earlier time and continues to the time of utterance or is relevant to it Sarah has helped her sister when she was in her teens perfect+progressive: ( often called ‘duration form’) stresses perfect+progressive: ( often called ‘duration form’) stresses continuity in the past and includes the time of utterance continuity in the past and includes the time of utterance Sarah has been helping her sister since she was 12

57 Translate into Italian and identify the main differences between the two languages 1. Sarah helps her sister every Thursday 2. Sara aiuta sua sorella tutti i giovedì 3. Lately Sarah is helping her sister a lot 4. Ultimamente Sara sta aiutando/aiuta molto sua sorella 5. Sarah has helped her sister to recover from her illness 6. Sara ha aiutato sua sorella a riprendersi dalla malattia 7. Sarah helped her sister one year ago when she was ill 8. Sara ha aiutato/aiutò sua sorella un anno fa quando era malata 9. Sarah has been helping her sister since last May 10. Sara sta aiutando/aiuta/sua sorella dal maggio scorso.

58 Translate from Italian into English 1. Sono andata a Londra molte volte 2. I have been to London several times 3. Vivo a Londra 4. I live in London 5. Vado a Londra ogni anno 6. I go to London every year 7. Vivo a Londra da 5 anni e continua a piacermi molto 8. I have been living in London for 5 years and I still enjoy it a lot 9. Ho vissuto a Londra per 5 anni prima di tornare in Italia 10. I lived in London for 5 years before coming back to Italy 11. Vivevo a Londra quando ho incontrato John 12. I was living in London when I met John

59 VERB PHRASE : VOICE The singer performed the song The singer performed the song The song was performed by the singer The song was performed by the singer NP 1 +VP+ NP 2  NP 2 +be+VP ed + by+NP 1 NP 1 +VP+ NP 2  NP 2 +be+VP ed + by+NP 1 The singer was performing the song The singer was performing the song The song was being performed by the singer The song was being performed by the singer

60 FUNCTIONS OF THE PASSIVE the agent is unknown or irrelevant the agent is unknown or irrelevant Mr Constable has been murdered the focus is on the process to convey objectivity, especially in academic prose the focus is on the process to convey objectivity, especially in academic prose The results of the tests have been checked several times to disclaim responsibility to disclaim responsibility He is said to be a womanizer More frequent in scientific writing and in the Press

61 MODAL VERBS AND MODALITY MODALS ARE FREQUENTLY USED IN ENGLISH AND BELONG TO THE GERMANIC CORE OF THE LANGUAGE. MODALS ARE FREQUENTLY USED IN ENGLISH AND BELONG TO THE GERMANIC CORE OF THE LANGUAGE. THEY EXPRESS A WIDE RANGE OF MEANINGS referring either to actions controlled by humans ( DEONTIC MODALITY) or to the levels of certainty of an event (EPISTEMIC MODALITY). The same modals can express different meanings. The same meanings can be expressed in different ways. THEY EXPRESS A WIDE RANGE OF MEANINGS referring either to actions controlled by humans ( DEONTIC MODALITY) or to the levels of certainty of an event (EPISTEMIC MODALITY). The same modals can express different meanings. The same meanings can be expressed in different ways.

62 THE MAIN MEANINGS OF MODAL VERBS 1. PERMISSION e.g. Can I go to the loo? Could I borrow your notes? (Am I allowed to ask a question?) 2. ABILITY e.g. I can ski, (I know how to do it) 3. POSSIBILITY e.g. She may be ill. She might be ill (Perhaps she is ill) 4. OBLIGATION e.g. You must stop talking. You should pay attention, You have to do it. This needs to be done 5. LOGICAL NECESSITY e.g. She must be ill (She is very likely to be ill) 6. VOLITION e.g. I’ll do it for you 7. PREDICTION e.g. It will rain tomorrow

63 WHAT ABOUT MODAL VERBS IN ITALIAN? Translate the following expressions into English: Devi smettere di fumare You must stop smoking Dovresti smettere di fumare You should stop smoking Posso fumare? Can I smoke ? May I smoke? Potrei fumare? Could I smoke? Might I smoke? Domani può piovere It may rain tomorrow Domani potrebbe piovere It might rain tomorrow Domani pioverà It will rain tomorrow Sa sciare molto bene She can ski very well Sapeva sciare bene quando era giovane She could /was able to /ski very well when she was young In Italian there are the verbs potere, sapere e dovere Some modal expressions are expressed in Italian through the conditional mood or the future tense, which do not exist as morphologically marked forms in English

64 OTHER PHRASES ADJECTIVE PHRASE ADJECTIVE PHRASE e.g. Beautiful/ (really) beautiful e.g. Beautiful/ (really) beautiful ADVERB PHRASE ADVERB PHRASE e.g. Slowly/ (fairly) slowly e.g. Slowly/ (fairly) slowly PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE at University / at (Turin) University ( see pp ) at University / at (Turin) University ( see pp )

65 Analysis of prepositional phrases in the classroom in the classroom In ( Head: prep) + the classrom (C: NP) near Rome near Rome Near ( Head: prep) + Rome (C : NP)

66 HOW CAN A CLAUSE BE ANALYSED? HOW CAN A CLAUSE BE ANALYSED? First into Subject + predicate John ( what is talked about) is English (what is said about the topic) John ( what is talked about) is English (what is said about the topic) Then into the 5 main functional elements of the clause: S (Subject), V (Verb or Verb Phrase or Predicator ), O (Object) complemento oggetto C (Complement) predicato nominale, del soggetto o dell’oggetto A (Adverbial) vari tipi di complementi. They are often optional.

67 WORD ORDER in PDE WORD ORDER in PDE Translate the following clauses into English: Translate the following clauses into English:  Seguiranno alcuni esempi Some examples will follow Some examples will follow  Nel capitolo 3 verrà presentata la grammatica Grammar will be presented in Chapter 3 Grammar will be presented in Chapter 3  Giovanni parla molto bene l’italiano /l’italiano molto bene John speaks Italian very well John speaks Italian very well  Odio stirare I hate ironing I hate ironing  Piove forte da molte ore It’s been raining heavily for many hours It’s been raining heavily for many hours C’è un gatto in giardino C’è un gatto in giardino There is a cat in the garden There is a cat in the garden CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION: The unmarked word order in English in SVO, while in Italian this order can vary to a certain extent The unmarked word order in English in SVO, while in Italian this order can vary to a certain extent The subject is compulsory in English, and not in Italian. If there is no subject, a ‘dummy’ (empty) subject will be used (it/there). The subject is compulsory in English, and not in Italian. If there is no subject, a ‘dummy’ (empty) subject will be used (it/there).

68 THE VERB …IS THE CENTRAL PART OF THE CLAUSE SINCE IT DETERMINES THE OTHER ELEMENTS (e.g. verb complementation or valency) She was laughing one-place verb She was playing the piano two-place verb She was very beautiful two-place verb She gave him a kiss three-place verb She made him happy three-place verb

69 CLAUSE ELEMENTS SVOCA The black labrador (NP) has bitten (VP) Mr Allington (NP) He (NP) put (VP) the keys (NP) in his bag (AdvP) Sue (NP) is feeling (VP) very sleepy (AdjP)

70 SVOCA It (dummy subject) is going to rain (VP) Armstrong (NP) became (VP) the first man on the moon (NP) Chris (NP) made (VP) Sara (NP) really angry (AdjP) yesterday (AdvP) What I don’t understand (clause) is (VP) is (VP) Why you lied to me ( clause)

71 S+V+Oi+Od SVOi (Indirect Object) Od Od (Direct Object) Shegaveme a kiss She gave gave her sister a glass of wine Shegave Od Od a glass of wine Oi Oi to her sister

72 SV (intransitive verb). No complementation The black labrador was barking clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP det. mod.(adj.) head (n.) aux. head (v.) the black labrador was barking the black labrador was barking

73 SVO d (monotransitive) Andrew bought a sports car clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP V O d :NP V O d :NP head (n.) head (v.) det. mod. (n..) head (n.) head (n.) head (v.) det. mod. (n..) head (n.) Andrew bought a sports car Andrew bought a sports car

74 SVO d (monotransitive) Andrew bought a sports car clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP V O d :NP V O d :NP head (n.) head (v.) det. mod. (adj.) head (n.) head (n.) head (v.) det. mod. (adj.) head (n.) Andrew bought a sports car Andrew bought a sports car

75 SVA (+ an obligatory Adverbial) The taxi is waiting outside clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP V A:AdvP V A:AdvP det. head (n.) aux. head (v.) head (adv.) The taxi is waiting outside The taxi is waiting outside

76 SVC s (copular verb) The weather has turned very nasty clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP V C:AdjP det. head (n.) aux. head(v.) mod.(adv.) head(adj.) det. head (n.) aux. head(v.) mod.(adv.) head(adj.) The weather has turned very nasty

77 Copular verbs be, feel, seem, appear, look, remain, stay, become, sound, taste be, feel, seem, appear, look, remain, stay, become, sound, taste e.g. I am / feel rather tired (C: AdjP) She became a nurse (C:NP) She became a nurse (C:NP) You look extremely happy (C:AdjP) You look extremely happy (C:AdjP) Mary appeared in good health (C:PP) Mary appeared in good health (C:PP) That is what I mean (C: clause) That is what I mean (C: clause)

78 SVO i O d (di-transitive) Gill told her child a bedtime story clause clause S:NP P:VP V O i :NP O d :NP V O i :NP O d :NP head(n.) head(v.) det. head(n.) det. mod.(n.) h(n.) Gill told her child a bedtime story

79 Di-transitive verbs Give, tell, bring, buy, show Give, tell, bring, buy, show e.g. John showed me (Oi) his new car (Od) They bought him (Oi) a new racket (Od) They bought him (Oi) a new racket (Od) Tell us (Oi) the truth (Od) Tell us (Oi) the truth (Od)

80 SVO d C o (complex transitive) The judges declared Jackie the winner clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP V O:NP C o :NP det. head (n.) head (v.) head(n.) det. h(n.) The judges declared Jackie the winner

81 SVO d A Terry put the rubbish in the dustbin clause clause S:NP P:VP S:NP P:VP V O:NP A:PP V O:NP A:PP head (n.) head(v.) det. h(n.) h (prep) C:NP det. h(n.) det. h(n.) Terry put the rubbish in the dustbin

82 Adverbial Optional elements added to the obligatory elements of the clause Optional elements added to the obligatory elements of the clause Circumstance adverbial: additional information Circumstance adverbial: additional information e.g. The taxi is waiting outside Stance adverbial: speaker’s feeling / attitude Stance adverbial: speaker’s feeling / attitude e.g. Hopefully I will pass all my exams in June Linking adverbial Linking adverbial e.g. In conclusion, all’s well that ends well.

83 Obligatory adverbial Adverbials that are required to complete the meaning of the verb Adverbials that are required to complete the meaning of the verb E.g. Sally put the bread on the table (obligatory Adverbial) E.g. Sally put the bread on the table (obligatory Adverbial) vs. Sally cut the bread on the table (optional Adverbial) Verbs: put, last, live

84 Adverbials vs. complements John was very quiet (C) John was very quiet (C) John was in bed (A) John was in bed (A) They are in good health (C) They are in good health (C) They are in the garden (A) They are in the garden (A) You should stay sober (C) You should stay sober (C) You should stay here (A) You should stay here (A) Complements describe or characterize the S (or O) Adverbials typically express place or direction.

85 TO SUM-UP THE CLAUSE ELEMENTS : S/V/O/C/A 1. S+V 2. The baby is crying 3. S+V+A 4. The concert lasted three hours 5. S+V+Od 6. She is playing tennis 7. S+V+Od+A 8. She put the rubbish in the dustbin 9. S+V+Cs 10. She is Indian 11. S+V+Oi+Od 12. He gave her a kiss 13. S+V+ Od+Co 14. They elected her dean of the faculty

86 MAIN AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 1. Mary had been waiting for more than an hour 2. Suddenly, she stood up and went out 3. She said that she was not feeling well because the air in the room was stuffy 4. She wanted to get some fresh air a main clause always contains a finite verb and typically contains an overt subject a main clause always contains a finite verb and typically contains an overt subject a subordinate clause cannot stand alone and needs to be attached to a free- standing clause a subordinate clause cannot stand alone and needs to be attached to a free- standing clause a non-finite clause is always subordinate a non-finite clause is always subordinate simple clauses consist of a clause, compound clauses consist of two coordinate clauses, complex clauses consist of a main and one or more subordinate clauses. simple clauses consist of a clause, compound clauses consist of two coordinate clauses, complex clauses consist of a main and one or more subordinate clauses.

87 TYPES of CLAUSES TYPICAL FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSE TYPES FORM FUNCTION FORM FUNCTION declarative statement interrogative question interrogative question imperative directive imperative directive exclamative exclamation exclamative exclamation She’s wearing a new dress. Is she wearing a new dress? Buy yourself a new dress! What a lovely dress she’s wearing!

88 DECLARATIVE CLAUSES declarative clauses are normally used to make statements declarative clauses are normally used to make statements declarative clauses typically have an overt subject, a verb element and any necessary verb complementation and may also have optional adverbials declarative clauses typically have an overt subject, a verb element and any necessary verb complementation and may also have optional adverbials Philip will visit his dentist in London today

89 INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES yes-no questions: Are you happy? yes-no questions: Are you happy? wh- questions: Where do you live? wh- questions: Where do you live? Question-tag : She’s Australian, isn’t she? Question-tag : She’s Australian, isn’t she? She doesn’t love him, does she? She doesn’t love him, does she? So, you have changed your mind, So, you have changed your mind, have you/haven’t you? have you/haven’t you? the interrogative structure implies a subject-operator inversion the interrogative structure implies a subject-operator inversion any auxiliary which is used to make interrogative sentences is labelled operator (be, have, do) any auxiliary which is used to make interrogative sentences is labelled operator (be, have, do) Questions tags may have contrastive or constant polarity ( p. 166) Questions tags may have contrastive or constant polarity ( p. 166)

90 MARKED SENTENCE STRUCTURES This book, I really liked it EMPHASIS IN SPEECH Terry plays jazz piano for fun. It is Terry who plays jazz piano for fun. It’s jazz piano that Terry plays for fun It’s for fun that Terry plays jazz piano It-CLEFT I would like a book for my birthday What I would like for my birthday is a book WH-CLEFTCLEFTING to highlight a particular element of the sentence to highlight a particular element of the sentence the focussed element is introduced by a dummy Subject and followed by a relative clause the focussed element is introduced by a dummy Subject and followed by a relative clause

91 SENTENCE I agreed to go with them (main clause) although I wasn’t really happy with the idea. (subordinate clause)  the largest unit of syntactic structure  a sentence must consist of at least one clause (main clause)  in writing, a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop  in speech sentences are not always complete

92 TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 1. NOMINAL I just hope (that) they will understand 2. RELATIVE The man who is sitting next to Tom is John 3. ADVERBIAL Call me as soon as you get home (time) because I have to talk to you (reason).The boy stood on the box so that he could see better (purpose). Even though I am tired (concession), I’ll do it COMPARATIVE This hotel is not so nice as I expected

93 TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSES IN WHAT WAYS DO THE FOLLOWING RELATIVE CLAUSES DIFFER? WHICH RELATIVE PRONOUNS CAN BE USED IN EACH CONTEXT? This is the best hotel (that, which, who, whom, whose, zero pronoun) I was able to find This is the best hotel (that, which, who, whom, whose, zero pronoun) I was able to find This hotel, (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero pronoun) was renewed last year, is one of the best in the city The man (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero pronoun) you see in the photo is my brother The man (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero pronoun) is coming towards us is my brother The music (that, which, who, whose, whom, zero article) we are listening to is Mozart We stayed in a lovely hotel, (which, that, who, whom, whose) owner is a good friend of mine We spent the night in a farm, (which, that, who, whom, whose) was very relaxing

94 Accepted options This is the best hotel (that, which, zero pronoun) I was able to find This hotel, which was renewed last year, is one of the best in the city The man (that, who,whom, zero pronoun) you see in the photo is my brother The man (that, who) is coming towards us is my brother The music (that, which, zero article) we are listening to is Mozart We stayed in a lovely hotel, whose owner is a good friend of mine We spent the night in a farm, which was very relaxing This is the best hotel (that, which, zero pronoun) I was able to find This hotel, which was renewed last year, is one of the best in the city The man (that, who,whom, zero pronoun) you see in the photo is my brother The man (that, who) is coming towards us is my brother The music (that, which, zero article) we are listening to is Mozart We stayed in a lovely hotel, whose owner is a good friend of mine We spent the night in a farm, which was very relaxing

95 RULE OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses can be either defining ( or restrictive) or non-defining (non-restrictive) depending on whether they define the antecedent or add extra information. Commas are required for defining clauses. The use of relative pronouns is conditioned by the antecedent, whether it is human ( who,whom, whose, that) or non-human ( that, whose, which), whether it plays the role of subject (who, that, which) or object (whom, that, which, zero pronoun), whether it is defining ( who, whose, whom, that, which) or non-defining (who, whose, which). There are some fuzzy areas of usage (e.g. who/whom) There are some fuzzy areas of usage (e.g. who/whom)

96 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (periodo ipotetico) 1) If the weather is nice, tomorrow we will go to the seaside (it is an open possibility) NO * If the weather will be nice, … NO * If the weather will be nice, … 2) If the weather were/was nice, we would go to the seaside ( it is unlikely) 3) If the weather had been nice, we would have gone to the seaside (it did not happen)

97 Activity 1: build acceptable noun phrases filling all the boxes determinerpre-modifierHEADpost-modifier MY MY BEST BEST FRIEND FRIEND IN TURIN IN TURIN THESE THESE ELEGANT ELEGANT FLATS FLATS IN THE CITY CENTRE ANEWBOOKABOUTSHAKESPEARE

98 ACTIVITY 2: Give a top-down scale of the main grammatical units with an example for each SENTENCE Call two taxis, please, because there are ten of us SENTENCE Call two taxis, please, because there are ten of us CLAUSE (main clause) Call two taxis ( subordinate clause) because there are ten of us CLAUSE (main clause) Call two taxis ( subordinate clause) because there are ten of us PHRASE Noun phrase: two taxis or Verb phrase: call PHRASE Noun phrase: two taxis or Verb phrase: call WORD taxis, call, two, please WORD taxis, call, two, please MORPHEME taxi (free lexical morpheme), -s (bound grammatical morpheme) MORPHEME taxi (free lexical morpheme), -s (bound grammatical morpheme)

99 ACTIVITY 3: Give examples of declarative clauses containing the given verbs and having the patterns indicated 1. Show = A time S V Oi Od Last night Mary showed us a very interesting documentary Last night Mary showed us a very interesting documentary 2. Make = S V Od Co You have made me very happy You have made me very happy 3. Be /seems = S V Cs I am Italian or This seems a good idea I am Italian or This seems a good idea

100 ACTIVITY 4: Identify the clause elements in the following examples 1. I am getting really angry I (S) am getting (V) really angry (Cs) I (S) am getting (V) really angry (Cs) 2. Perhaps we should invite Mary Perhaps (A) we (S) should invite (V) Mary (Od) Perhaps (A) we (S) should invite (V) Mary (Od) 3. It’s going to rain It (S)’s going to rain (V) It (S)’s going to rain (V)

101 The woman hit the boy with the umbrella Use a tree diagram to show that this clause is ambiguous The woman (S) hit (V) the boy with the umbrella (Od) Or The woman (S) hit (V) the boy (Od) with the umbrella (A)


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