Presentation on theme: "ASKING ANSWERABLE CLINICAL QUESTION"— Presentation transcript:
1 ASKING ANSWERABLE CLINICAL QUESTION Akbar soltani. MD, MSTehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC)Evidence-Based Medicine research Center (EBMRC)Shariati Hospital
2 Outline Background and foreground question Asking question and research methodologyDOE vs POEM questionswhat is PICO?
3 دکارتاز میان اشیاء عالم ، عقل بهتر از هر چیز دیگری ، برابر تقسیم شده است. زیرا هر کسی بهره خویش را از عقل ، آنچنان تمام میداند که حتی کسانی که د رهمه چیز از همه دشوار پسند ترند معمولا بیش از آنچه هم اکنون از آن دارند آرزو نمی کنند.
4 Track down the information sources you need A five-step process for using an evidence-based approach in general practiceDefine the problemTrack down the information sources you needCritically appraise the informationApply the information with your patientsEvaluate how effective the application of information is
5 The First Step in EBM Develop a well-built, structured, answerable clinical question
6 A clinical scenarioThe patient is a 77-year-old man admitted for dyspnea and fever. He fell ill 4 days ago with low-grade fever, chills, myalgias, rhinorrhoea and a non-productive cough. One day ago he developed dyspnea on exertion, purulent sputum, lateral chest wall pain with inspiration and a shaking chill. His general health is fairly good; He has had essential hypertension for 12 years, well controlled on diuretic therapy. He has not smoked.
7 A clinical scenario (cont.) On examination, his respiratory rate is 28, his heart rate is 108 and his temperature is 39.2°C.He have subtle cyanosisHis chest expands symmetricallyHe has no wheezingThere is bronchophony and egophony in the left lower posterior lung field.
8 A clinical scenario (cont.) Initial blood tests show leukocytosis and hyponatremia.The team suspects acute community-acquired pneumonia with hypoxemia, and plans chest radiographs, sputum studies, supplemental oxygen and antimicrobial therapy
10 A medical student’s questions: What microbial organisms can cause community-acquired pneumonia?How does pneumonia cause egophony?What is the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia?
11 Background questionNotice that the student’s questions ask for general or “background” knowledge about pneumonia, the disorder that explains much of this patient’s acute illness.Epidemiology, Prevalence, Incidence, Pathophysiology, … (as in the first parts of textbooks)
12 Background questions Ask for general knowledge about a disorder Two essential components:A question root (who, what, where, when, how)A disorder, or an aspect of a disorder
13 A practitioner’s questions: In this patient, are clinical findings sufficiently powerful to rule in or rule out pneumonia?(Dx)In this patient, is a Chest X-Ray necessary for the diagnosis?(Dx)In this patient, is the probability of Legionella infection sufficiently high to warrant considering coverage of this organism using initial antibiotic choice? (Tx)In this patient , do clinical features predict outcome well enough that as a “low risk” patient, he can be treated safely at home?
14 Foreground questionThese questions ask for specific knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with pneumonia, which might be called “foreground” knowledge.Due to high turnover of foreground Q, always we have foreground Q and we should search in opposite to background Q
15 Foreground The patient and/or the problem The main intervention (defined very broadly, including an exposure, a diagnostic test, a prognostic factor, a treatment, a patient perception,…)Comparison interventionThe clinical outcome .
17 Hallmarks of a good question: Relevant - Will the answer matter?Answerable - Can the question be answered by research data?Clear – unambiguous, definite, objectiveWorthy - Is the answer worth the work?
18 Formulating a clinical question This skill can be improved by:Breaking the question down into its component partsClassifying the question into a specific domaintherapy, diagnosis, prognosis, harm…Formulating a clinical question means Breaking the question down into its component partsand Classifying the question into a specific domain.
19 Common types of questions and related evidence Causation / EtiologyCohort > Case Control > Case series > Case reportsDiagnosisCross-sectional > and/or cohort > case controls
20 Common types of questions and related evidence (cont.) TherapySystematic review of RCTs > RCT > Cohort, Case-control > Expert OpinionPrognosisCohort > Case-control, …
21 Question components : PICO What types of Participants?What types of Interventions?What types of Comparison?What types of Outcomes?
22 What Types of Participants? (Patient / Population)Disease or condition of interestPotential co-morbiditySettingDemographic factors
23 First componentThink about who / what you wish to apply this evidence to… e.g.People with a particular disorder?e.g chronic recurrent cystitisPeople in a particular care setting?e.g. communityparticular groups of peoplee.g. sexually active young women?the elderly?children?How would you describe your clients / setting?
24 What Types of Intervention? Type of treatmentType of diagnostic testType of causative agentType of prognostic factor
25 Second componentThe intervention / topic of interest (e.g. cause, change in practice etc.) e.g.Use of cranberry juice (as a drink)Might want to specify how much / how oftenFor complex interventions may need to give specific detail / consideration to the description…What exactly am I considering…?
26 Third componentThe comparison or alternative (not applicable to all questions) e.g.Anti-biotic therapy?Nothing?Fluids alone?What alternatives actions might I try?
27 Fourth component The outcome… e.g. CureDuration of diseasepreventionDeathSide effectsPain (reduced)WellbeingWhat am I hoping to accomplish (what outcomes might reasonably be affected…)?
28 Patient oriented outcomes Mortality/SurvivalDisease free periodQuality of lifeWork absenteeismDisability/ Duration and severity of illnessPain
29 What Types of Outcome?For treatment, it includes all outcomes that are important to people, and lead to make decisions to define success of therapyFor prognosis, outcome is the chosen endpoint of the disease(Mortality, Morbidity, Quality of life: Disease-free period, admission period, pain, work absence,…)Outcomes:Patient orientedDisease oriented
31 Examples of Hypothetical DOE and POEM studies Drug A lowers cholesterolDrug A lowers cardiovascular mortalityDrug A decreases overall mortalityFouride increaseosteoblast icactivityFuoride increse BMDFluoride increase fractureTight control of type 1 diabetes mellitus keeps FBS<140mg/dlTight control of type 1Diabetes decreasesMicrovascular complicationsTight control of type 1Diabetes decreases mortality and improves quality of life
32 Patient oriented outcomes Mortality/SurvivalDisease free periodQuality of lifeWork absenteeismDisability/ Duration and severity of illnessPain
35 Is PICO effective?Only 20% of questions the intervention and the control groups were properly specified from at baseline.7/14 questions previously mis-specified in the intervention group were properly specified at follow-up (P = 0.008). Control group showed no changes from baseline.Intervention group more likely to explicitly describe patients (P = 0.028), comparisons (P = 0.014), and outcomes (P = 0.008).(Villanueva EV, et al. Improving question formulation for use in evidence appraisal in a tertiary care setting: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2001;1(1):4. Epub 2001 Nov 08.)Villanueva EV, Burrows EA, Fennessy PA, Rajendran M, Anderson JN. Improving question formulation for use in evidence appraisal in a tertiary care setting: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2001;1(1):4. Epub 2001 Nov 08.
36 Should I ask a colleague? 12 occupational therapy questionsE.g., Is a 38-year old sewage worker subject to a higher risk of contracting Hepatitis A as a result of occupational exposure? (No)Obtain advice from 2 professionals on 3 cases each.37% wrong answers17% wrong if based on literature65% wrong if notSchaafsma BMC Health Services Research 2005
37 Impact of searching on correctness of answers to clinical questions PRESENTATION ONE14/04/2017Impact of searching on correctness of answers to clinical questionsRight to RightWrong to RightRight to WrongWrong to WrongMcKibbon(GP or IM)28%13%11%48%An ideal information system would be able to answer – or tell us there is no answer – to any clinical question arising in practice. Studies of doctors and students performance on searching tasks suggest there is considerable room for improvement. Table 1 summarises 3 studies that assessed subjects answers both before and after searching. Overall answers improved but in 7 to 14% of cases answers went from right to wrong, that is, the search mislead subjects. And in 36 to 48% of cases wrong answers were not improved.The problem is one of both the information systems and the system user. Most clinicians are poorly trained in structuring questions and searching. An examination of the search terms used by the TRIP search engine showed most searches used a single term and rarely used explicit Boolean connectors.Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice37
38 Impact of searching on correctness of answers to clinical questions PRESENTATION ONE14/04/2017Impact of searching on correctness of answers to clinical questionsRight to RightWrong to RightRight to WrongWrong to WrongMcKibbon(GP or IM)28%13%11%48%Quick Clinical(GPs)21%32%7%40%Hersh(Med students)20%31%12%36%(Nursing)18%17%14%52%An ideal information system would be able to answer – or tell us there is no answer – to any clinical question arising in practice. Studies of doctors and students performance on searching tasks suggest there is considerable room for improvement. Table 1 summarises 3 studies that assessed subjects answers both before and after searching. Overall answers improved but in 7 to 14% of cases answers went from right to wrong, that is, the search mislead subjects. And in 36 to 48% of cases wrong answers were not improved.The problem is one of both the information systems and the system user. Most clinicians are poorly trained in structuring questions and searching. An examination of the search terms used by the TRIP search engine showed most searches used a single term and rarely used explicit Boolean connectors.Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice38
40 Broad or narrow questions? Do drug X reduce mortality and morbidity in people with severe malaria?NarrowDo drug X suppositories reduce mortality in children with cerebral malaria?
41 What is the Best Treatment for Zoster? What is the most cost-effective treatment for zoster if we consider pain reduction, quality of life and prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia?Is famciclovir effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (defined as pain 3 months after rash healing) in otherwise healthy patients aged who present within 48 hours of zoster rash, compared with placebo?
42 ExampleA TV programme has highlighted a hospital in Suffolk in which a stroke unit has been set up that specialises in the treatment of patients who have suffered strokes.The hospital trust wants to know about the effectiveness of stroke units in terms of lives saved before deciding whether to invest in one.
44 Patients who have suffered strokes Or ProblemInterventionComparisonOutcomesPatients who have suffered strokes
45 Patients who have suffered strokes Or ProblemInterventionComparisonOutcomesPatients who have suffered strokesStroke units
46 Patients who have suffered strokes Or ProblemInterventionComparisonOutcomesPatients who have suffered strokesStroke unitsNormal hospital care
47 Patients who have suffered strokes Or ProblemInterventionComparisonOutcomesPatients who have suffered strokesStroke unitsNormal hospital careLives saved
48 Do stroke units save lives ? OrDo stroke units save lives ?
49 Example 1You admit a 65 year old man with a stroke. On examination you find that he has mild weakness of the right arm and right leg and bilateral carotid bruits. You send the patient for carotid doppler ultrasonography and subsequently receive the report that he has moderate stenosis (50-69% by NASCET criteria) of the ipsilateral carotid artery. You've noticed in the pile of journals that is accumulating in your office that there has been some recent literature addressing surgical versus medical (ASA=acetylsalicylic acid=Aspirin) therapy for patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis but you are unsure what the results of these studies indicate.A clinician could ask the following questions:1. Can ASA (acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin) decrease the risk of stroke?2. Does a carotid bruit predict significant carotid stenosis?3. How effective is a carotid endarterectomy in someone with moderate carotid stenosis?How can we make well-built clinical questions from these clinical dilemmas?
50 Example 1. Prevention Patient or Problem 65 year old man with a stroke and moderate carotid stenosisInterventionASAComparisonplaceboOutcomestrokeQuestionIn a 65 year old man with a stroke and moderate carotid stenosis, can ASA decrease the risk of another stroke compared with no treatment?
51 Example 1. Diagnosis Patient or Problem 65 year old man with a stroke Interventioncarotid bruitComparisondoppler ultrasonographyOutcomecarotid stenosisQuestionIn a 65 year old man with a stroke, how precise and accurate is the presence of an ipsilateral carotid bruit for diagnosing significant carotid stenosis compared with doppler ultrasonography?
52 Example 1. Therapy Patient or Problem 65 year old man with a stroke and moderate carotid stenosisInterventioncarotid endarterectomyComparisonASAOutcomestrokeQuestionIn a 65 year old man with stroke and moderate carotid stenosis, can carotid endarterectomy decrease the risk of stroke compared with medical therapy?
53 Example 2You admit a 75 year old man with a stroke (left sided weakness) who is having trouble ambulating, feeding, bathing and dressing himself. He has hypertension but it is well controlled with a diuretic. He is otherwise well and now that he is medically stable you decide after discussion with him to transfer him to a stroke unit. His family asks to see you because they are concerned about this transfer. They live very close to the acute care hospital and wonder why he can't stay on the general medical ward where he currently is. You arrange to meet with him and his family to discuss their concerns. In the meantime, you decide to review the evidence for the use of stroke units.What clinical questions could you ask?
54 Example 2 Patient or Problem 75 year old man with a stroke and residual weaknessInterventionadmission to a stroke unitComparisongeneral careOutcomefunctional statusQuestionIn an elderly man with a stroke, does admission to a stroke unit decrease the risk of death and dependency?
55 Example 3You are a GP. Your middle-aged patient comes to see you because of painful, weak, and stiff left shoulder. A few days ago, while lifting some heavy furniture, he felt a pop in the shoulder. You suspect a rotator cuff tear and send him to an orthopedic specialist. Your patient returns after a couple of days, angry because the doctor at the hospital first ordered an MRI, but since the machine was not operational he used the ultrasound, ensuring your patient that “it’s all the same”. Your patient doesn’t believe this to be a valid diagnosis. Can you, by reviewing evidence of diagnostic procedures in such cases, persuade him to see the specialist again?What clinical questions could you ask?
56 Example 3 Patient or Problem middle-aged man with a rotator cuff tear InterventionultrasoundComparisonMRIOutcomediagnosisQuestionIs diagnostic ultrasound imaging as accurate as MRI in detecting partial thickness rotator cuff tear in middle age?
57 Example:You admitted 4 year old boy with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Blood tests revealed existence of IgM-class antibodies reactive to antigens from H. influenzae. You wondered how sure can you only by this test confirm the diagnosis, but despite that questions, soon after taking blood sample for hemoculture, you introduced therapy with antibiotics. You are familiar with the fact that 20% of cases of meningitis caused by H. influenzae result in complete or partial hearing loss. You also remember that you read somewhere that risk of this sequel may be lowered by application of dexamethasone.Ask clinical question, search the literarture, and appraise the results?
58 Asking clinical question Patient or Problem4 year old man with H. influenzae meningitisInterventionantibiotics+dexamethasoneComparisonantibiotics onlyOutcomehearing losssQuestionIn a 4 year old boy with H. influenzae meningitis, does application of dexamethasone decreases the risk of partial or complete hearing loss?
60 Educational Prescription Date and place to be filled___________Educational tasks to be completed before sessionLearner:_________ Task:______________________Presentations will cover:How you found what you foundWhat you foundThe validity and applicability of your findHow it will alter your managementHow well you think you did
61 Advantages of the educational prescription It specifies the clinical problem that generated the question.It states the question, in all of its key elements.It specifies who is responsible for answering it.It reminds everyone of the deadline for answering it (taking into account the urgency of the clinical problem that generated it).Finally, it reminds everyone of the steps of searching, critically appraising and relating the answer back to the patient.
62 One tactic we use is to make specifying clinical questions an integral part of presenting a new patient to the group.For example, we ask learners on our general medicine in-patient clinical teams, when presenting new patients, to tell us “33 things in 3 minutes” about each admission.
63 Summary Questions are design specific Answerable question, PICO (DOE, POEM)Background Vs Foreground questionsTextbooks are more useful for background QsBroad Vs Narrow QsCAT