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William and Mary Language Arts Curriculum for High-ability Learners Seaford School District Seaford, Delaware November 7, 2012 Presentation by Dr. Kimberley.

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Presentation on theme: "William and Mary Language Arts Curriculum for High-ability Learners Seaford School District Seaford, Delaware November 7, 2012 Presentation by Dr. Kimberley."— Presentation transcript:

1 William and Mary Language Arts Curriculum for High-ability Learners Seaford School District Seaford, Delaware November 7, 2012 Presentation by Dr. Kimberley L. Chandler Curriculum Director Center for Gifted Education The College of William and Mary 757-221-2588

2 Language Arts Units

3 Agenda Introduction/Curriculum Framework Concept of Change Constructing Meaning Through Literature Persuasive Writing Reasoning Research Vocabulary and Word Study Implementation Considerations Questions Work/Planning Time

4 Learner Needs What is learned What is taught C urriculum A ssessment How it is delivered I nstruction

5 The Integrated Curriculum Model Advanced Content Dimension Process-Product Dimension Issues/Themes Dimension - VanTassel-Baska, 1986

6 Learner Characteristics and Corresponding Emphases in the Curriculum THE LEARNER Precocity (Advanced development in some curricular area) Intensity (Capacity to focus and concentrate for long periods of time) Complexity (Can engage in high level and abstract thinking) THE CURRICULUM Advanced content (Provides opportunities for new learning) Process/product depth considerations (Enhances engagement and creative production; allows utilization of information in a generative way ) Issues/concepts/themes/ideas across domains of learning (Allows students to make connections across areas of study and to work at a level of deep understanding) 6

7 Language Arts Curriculum Framework The Literature Understanding Change Using the Reasoning Process Learning Language Arts Content and Skills Concept Process Content Literary Analysis and Interpretation Persuasive Writing Linguistic Competency Oral Communication

8 Language Arts Curriculum Goals >To develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature >To develop persuasive writing skills >To develop linguistic competency >To develop listening/oral communication skills >To develop reasoning skills in LA >To understand the concept of change in the LA

9 Language Arts Units Beyond Words (gr. 1-2) Journeys and Destinations (gr. 2-3) Literary Reflections (gr. 4-5) Patterns of Change (gr. 4-6) Autobiographies and Memoirs (gr. 5-6) Persuasion (gr. 6-7) The 1940s: A Decade of Change (gr. 7-9) Utopia: Man’s Changing Ideas of the Ideal (gr. 7-9) Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature (gr. 8-10) Change Through Choices (gr. 10-12)

10 Research-Based LA Teaching Models Concept Development Model Literature Web Hamburger Model Dagwood Model Reasoning Model Research Model Vocabulary Web

11 Assessment of Learning Outcomes Pre- and post-assessments for literary analysis and interpretation, persuasive writing, and grammar Portfolio of writing assignments, literature and vocabulary webs, other work Research project and oral presentation Response journal Unit evaluation

12 Grading Considerations Assessing student growth Portfolio materials (persuasive writing; literary analysis) Research project and oral presentation Response journal Homework

13 Major Findings - Language Arts Significant and important treatment effects for literary analysis and interpretation and for persuasive writing No significant gender effects Student performance showed that additional attention was needed to enhance higher-level thinking and elaboration skills. Students were able to improve significantly after unit instruction regardless of the grouping model employed. Students enhanced their learning each time they were exposed to the units and maintained their level of achievement between interventions across the years.

14 Concept Development

15 Sample Social Science Concepts

16 Concepts from The Syntopicon Aristocracy Honor Progress Astronomy Immortality Reasoning Beauty Infinity Religion Being Judgment Revolution Cause Justice Rhetoric Chance Knowledge Science Change Labor Sense Citizen Language Signs and Symbols Courage Law Sin Custom And Convention Liberty Soul Democracy Life and Death Space Desire Logic State Dialectic Love Temperance Duty Matter Theology Emotion Metaphysics Time Eternity Mind Truth Evolution Monarchy Tyranny Family Nature Virtue and Vice Fate Necessity and Contingency Wealth Form Oligarchy Will Good and Evil One and Many Wisdom Happiness Pleasure and Pain World Adler, M.J. (1952). The great ideas: A syntopicon of great books of the Western World. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

17 Concept of Change Cite examples. Categorize. Cite non-examples. Generalize.

18 Generalizations About Change Change is everywhere. Change is linked to time. Change may be positive or negative. Change may be perceived as orderly or random. Change may happen naturally or be caused by people.

19 Change Generalizations and Outcomes

20 Change may happen naturally or be caused by people. Change Model Change is linked to time. CHANGE Change is everywhere. Change may be perceived as orderly or random. Change may be positive or negative.

21 Change: Beyond Words Write or draw pictures to show examples of change.

22 Change Matrix: Journeys and Destinations

23 A class-generated generalization: Sometimes we make plans and things change!

24 Relating the change generalizations to literature: Change Ghost Cat Change can be orderly or random. It seemed random when Mrs. Judson offered her husband to fix the front stoop too. When Jodi’s dad died, it might have been either. Jodi’s mother seemed to know that they had to move, it seemed orderly. Change can be perceived as negative or positive. It was positive that the Ghost Cat came to Jodi to calm her down. It was negative that their dad died. Change can happen naturally or be caused by people. Jodi’s feelings were caused by people. Her dad died so she was scared. Jodi’s dad dying was either. However he died, it was going to come sometime in his life. Change is linked to time. After time Jodi’s dad died. Jodi lets go of her dad and the cat. Change is everywhere. The stairs rotting and the cat dying show that change is everywhere.

25 Constructing Meaning Through Literature

26 Criteria for Selecting Unit Literature Challenging for high-ability learners Appropriate multicultural literature Concept of change

27 Criteria for Selecting Literature for Gifted Readers Rich, varied, precise, complex, exciting language Open-ended, with capacity to inspire contemplative behavior Complex, leading to interpretive and evaluative behaviors Help build problem-solving skills Role models Broad-based in form Baskin & Harris, 1980

28 Considerations for Multicultural Literature General accuracy Avoidance of stereotypes Authentic, up-to-date, age-appropriate language Attention to author’s perspective Currency of facts and interpretations Concept of audience Integration of cultural information Balance and multidimensionality Accurate and appropriate illustrations -- Miller-Lachman, 1992

29 Literature Web - Full Form Key Words READING Feelings Ideas Structure Images/Symbols

30 Literature Web - Primary Key Words READING Feelings Ideas Symbols Images

31 Literature Web Key Words: What were some words and phrases that were especially interesting or important? What words were new to you? Feelings: What feelings did you get reading the passage? What feelings did the characters have? How were those feelings expressed? Ideas: What was the main idea? What other major ideas and concepts were important? What was the author trying to say about those ideas? Images/Symbols: How did the author use description and imagery in the novel? What sensory images came to your mind? How did the author use symbols? Structure: What type of writing was this? What literary and style elements did the author use? How did the structure of the writing contribute to the meaning of the novel? May identify such features as: use of unusual time sequence in narrative, use of voice, use of figurative language, etc.

32 . Grandmother Moon Each day is a journey, a leaving home, over paths that wind between rocks and bog. Behind each rock is a shadow; behind each shadow, a flower, or a wellspring, or a trembling rabbit, or an unfolding fern Only if you look will you find. Only if you leave will you arrive. One step, then another, as day unrolls itself along the road toward night. And at evening, look who welcomes us Grandmother Moon, waiting in the doorway, the stars in her hands – to lead us safely home. Jane Yolen

33 Building Textual Understanding Underlying Assumption: Discourse that promotes understanding needs direction, focus, and movement towards goal. Marking (focusing) Revoicing (repeating student ideas) Turning back (textual or student-based) Recapping (synthesizing) Modeling (thinking aloud) Annotating (providing information) - Beck & McKeown, 1996

34 Follow-Up Questions What is a journey? What words or phrases can you use to describe a journey? How is a journey like a day? What important characteristics of a day is the poet trying to emphasize by calling a day a journey? How are a day and a journey different? What does the poet mean by the words “as day unrolls itself along the road toward night”? How is traveling, or movement in a place or space, like living in time?

35 Assessment for Literary Analysis and Interpretation Short reading selection (poem, short story, fable, essay) Four short-answer questions assess analysis and interpretation through focus on main idea/central theme (2 questions), quote analysis, and explication of connection to unit concept. Rubric rates responses on 0-8 scale per question, for total possible score of 32 points. Pre- and post-assessments are drawn from same genre.

36 Resource Book Writing about Literature: Step by Step by Patricia McKeague ISBN-10: 0757560296 ISBN-13: 978-0757560293

37 Online Resources Poetry and Literature Center of the Library of Congress: Poem a day for American High Schools: Academy of American Poets: Shakespeare on the Web: Glossary of Poetic Terms: Glossary of Literary Terms:

38 Persuasive Writing

39 Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing (primary) Introduction (State an opinion.) Conclusion Reason

40 Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing Reason Introduction (State an opinion.) Conclusion Reason Elaboration

41 Dagwood Model Reason Claim/Opinion/Introduction Background Elaboration Other Points of View Elaboration ReasonOther Points of View Elaboration ReasonOther Points of View Conclusion Details Elaboration

42 Assessment for Persuasive Writing Writing assessment follows literature assessment and discussion of selection. Prompt asks students to argue for or against requiring the literature selection to be read. Rubric rates claim (0-6 points), data (0-8 points), warrant/elaboration (0-8 points), and conclusion (0-6 points) for total possible score of 28 (based on Burkhalter, 1995).

43 Persuasive Writing Scoring Rubric Claim or Opinion 0No clear position exists on the writer’s assertion, preference, or view, and context does not help to clarify it. 2Yes/no alone or writer’s position is poorly formulated, but reader is reasonably sure what the paper is about based on context. 4 Meets expectations: A clear topic sentence exists, and the reader is reasonably sure what the paper is about based on the strength of the topic sentence alone. 6Exceeds expectations: A very clear, concise position is given and position is elaborated with reference to reasons; multiple sentences are used to form the claim. Must include details that explain the context. Data or Supporting Points 0No reasons are offered that are relevant to the claim. 2One or two weak reasons are offered; the reasons are relevant to the claim. 4At least two strong reasons are offered that are relevant to the claim. 6Meets expectations: At least three reasons are offered that are relevant to the claim. 8Exceeds expectations: At least three reasons are offered that are also accurate, convincing, and distinct. Elaboration 0No elaboration is provided. 2An attempt is made to elaborate at least one reason. 4More than one reason is supported with relevant details. 6Meets expectations: Each reason (3) is supported with relevant information that is clearly connected to the claim. 8Exceeds expectations: The writer explains all reasons in a very effective, convincing, multi-paragraph structure. Conclusion 0No conclusion/closing sentence is provided. 2A conclusion/closing sentence is provided. 4Meets expectations: A conclusion is provided that revisits the main ideas. 6Exceeds expectations: A strong concluding paragraph is provided that revisits and summarizes main ideas.

44 Guiding Persuasive Writing Share models or examples that highlight positive aspects of writing or missing elements. Use color to mark varied parts of the writing, outlining key components. Discuss areas for improvement within the examples. Use the rubric as a class to assess models.

45 Online Resources

46 Reasoning

47 Elements of Reasoning -- Paul, 1992 Issue/ Problem Evidence/ Data Point of View Implications/ Consequences Inferences Concepts/ Ideas Purpose/ Goal Assumptions

48 Simplifying Reasoning Terms Assumption: beliefs, understandings, “taking for granted Evidence: information, details, facts, experiences Inference: conclusions, reasons to support point of view Concept: ideas, main topics, what the assumptions are about Implication: consequences, what might happen, what we would have to think about if…

49 Reasoning Applications Issue analysis (academic, societal, school/personal) Analysis of reading selections Foundation for questioning Review of sources Persuasive writing Assessment of writing Research Reading organizer

50 Influences on Points of View Culture Discipline Religion Profession Gender Peer Group Economic Interest Emotional State Knowledge of the Event Social Role Experience Age Group Emotional Involvement

51 Reasoning Sample In mid-July, I called the county office that handles streetlights. I pointed out that low-growing tree branches in my neighborhood were obscuring a number of the streetlights. I further pointed out that some of the streets were nearly totally dark. The county informed me that trimming trees away from lights was not one of its duties and I was told to call Virginia Power. When I called Virginia Power, I was informed that trimming limbs away from streetlights was not its responsibility and I should call the county. I told the electricity company that the county had stated that Virginia Power was responsible for the work. I also informed the county that Virginia Power’s position is that the county must do the work. These two organizations are in no hurry to resolve this problem, for the limbs are growing longer as the streets grow darker. I can only hope that if you print this note, maybe I’ll get some action. -- from The Virginia Gazette, October 3, 1998

52 Standards of Reasoning Are there enough reasons to make a convincing argument? Is the evidence correct or right? Are the reasons clear? Are specific reasons or examples included rather than vague generalizations? Are the arguments and reasons strong and important? Is the thinking logical?

53 Developing Questions Using the Standards of Reasoning What is the issue or problem the character is facing? How is the concept of wisdom important in the story? What are the implications of the character’s actions? What assumptions might we make about the story from the title and opening?


55 Reasoning about a Situation or Event What is the situation? Who are the stakeholders? What is the point of view for each stakeholder? What are the assumptions of each group? What are the implications of these views?

56 Reasoning Sample School schedule shifts irk parents: Shorter week, later start force parents to alter routines By Karen Bouffard / The Detroit News LIVONIA — Debbie Cameron drops her two children off at Washington Elementary School each day on her way to work at Ford Motor Company. Now, a Livonia task force has proposed a plan to start school 40 minutes later on Wednesdays so teachers have time to develop plans for boosting student achievement — throwing a wrench into the Camerons’ morning routine and causing child care, transportation and bedtime headaches for parents in the 18,000-student Livonia School District. Under pressure of strict new accountability standards imposed under the No Child Left Behind Act, President Bush’s sweeping education reform, some teacher unions are demanding that creatively scheduled chunks of time be included in their new contracts. Districts everywhere are manipulating schedules to squeeze free hours into teachers’ hectic days. Officials in other districts are tweaking school schedules for reasons unrelated to academics — they’re proposing fewer days per week or per year to cut costs as districts struggle to cope with school funding crises. Parents — already frazzled by the logistics of getting kids to baby sitters, school, music lessons and after-school sports — are in a tizzy over it.

57 Vocabulary and Word Study

58 Vocabulary Web Source (sentence where you saw the word): WORD: Example: Analysi s Word Families: Part of Speech: Stems: Origin: Definition: Synonyms : Antonyms :

59 Recommended Dictionaries American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5 th ed.) Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (11 th ed.)

60 Online Resources Word of the day from Merriam Webster online dictionary: SAT Question of the Day: Word a Day Mailing List:

61 Additional Vocabulary Study Materials Word Within the Word by Michael Clay Thompson (Royal Fireworks Press) The Caesar’s English by Michael Clay Thompson (Royal Fireworks Press)

62 Research

63 Characteristics of an Issue Real world Multiple points of view Researchable and substantial information available Worthy topic and personal involvement

64 Developing an Issue

65 Research Model 1. Identify your issue or problem. What is the issue or problem? Who are the stakeholders and what are their positions? What is my position on this issue? 2. Read about your issue and identify points of view or arguments through information sources. What are my print sources? What are my media sources? What are my people sources? What primary and secondary source documents might I use? What are my preliminary findings based on a review of existing sources?

66 3. Form a set of questions that can be answered by a specific set of data: 1) What would be the results of _____________? 2) Who would benefit and by how much? 3) Who would be harmed and by how much? My research questions: 4. Gather evidence through research techniques such as surveys, interviews, or analysis of primary and secondary source documents. What survey questions should I ask? What interview questions should I ask? What generalizations do secondary sources give? What data and evidence can I find in primary sources to support different sides of the issue? 5. Manipulate and transform data so that they can be interpreted. How can I summarize what I found out? Should I develop charts, diagrams, or graphs to represent my data?

67 6. Draw conclusions and make inferences. What do the data mean? How can I interpret what I found out? How do the data support my original point of view? How do they support other points of view? What conclusions can I make about the issue? 7. Determine implications and consequences. What are the consequences of following the point of view that I support? Do I know enough or are there now new questions to be answered? 8. Communicate your findings. (Prepare an oral presentation for classmates based on note cards and written report.) What are my purpose, issue, and point of view, and how will I explain them? What data will I use to support my point of view? How will I conclude my presentation?

68 Criteria for a Good Learning Station  linked to curriculum objectives  allows continuation and extension of class activities  requires students to access prior knowledge  open-ended aspects  includes activities requiring various lengths of time and resource allocation  not busy work  includes opportunities for group and individual work  allows participation of students with different levels of ability and prior knowledge  allows student choice  challenging  requires students to document work and communicate progress  changes periodically

69 Learning Stations Language Study Station Vocabulary Station Writing Station Research Station Reading Station Listening Station Art/Music Station Poetry Station Advertising Station Autobiographical Essay Station


71 Consultant Contact Information Dr. Kimberley L. Chandler Center for Gifted Education The College of William and Mary P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 757-221-2588

72 Work/Planning Time

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