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Preparing Students for Global Citizenship in the Foreign Language Classroom: Teacher Perceptions and Beliefs about Teaching Culture and the Effects of.

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Presentation on theme: "Preparing Students for Global Citizenship in the Foreign Language Classroom: Teacher Perceptions and Beliefs about Teaching Culture and the Effects of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preparing Students for Global Citizenship in the Foreign Language Classroom: Teacher Perceptions and Beliefs about Teaching Culture and the Effects of these Beliefs on Instructional Practices in an Era of Standards-based Instruction A Design Map for a Dissertation Proposal Preparing Students for Global Citizenship in the Foreign Language Classroom: Teacher Perceptions and Beliefs about Teaching Culture and the Effects of these Beliefs on Instructional Practices in an Era of Standards-based Instruction A Design Map for a Dissertation Proposal Melissa Ferro George Mason University Spring 2009

2 2 Purpose of Proposed Study The recent call for global citizens has led to an expansion of languages being offered in K-12 education. This expansion has affected not only the languages being taught, but who we hire to teach them. Today’s language teachers, many of whom may not be familiar with U.S. schools or the Standards for Foreign Language Learning (SFLLs), bring a new set of diverse needs to teacher preparation programs. I believe that teacher educators must gain a better understanding of these needs, specifically those related to teaching culture, if we are to better prepare FL/WL teachers to educate their students for global citizenship.

3 3 Overview of Study Through the use of a survey, observations, and interviews, I will collect data from FL/WL teachers to gain an understanding of their beliefs about culture, how they developed these beliefs, and how their beliefs about culture and their perceptions about teaching culture affect their instructional practicesThrough the use of a survey, observations, and interviews, I will collect data from FL/WL teachers to gain an understanding of their beliefs about culture, how they developed these beliefs, and how their beliefs about culture and their perceptions about teaching culture affect their instructional practices Using an integrative mixed methods design, I will analyze the data to:Using an integrative mixed methods design, I will analyze the data to: –Explain how FL/WL teacher develop their beliefs about culture, their perceptions about teaching culture, and how these beliefs and perceptions affect their instructional practices. –Identify possible trends by looking at differences among groups based on the number and type of teacher education courses completed, languages taught, and years teaching. –Determine if cultural lessons reflect the SFLLS and identify possible trends by looking at differences based on the number and type of teacher preparation courses completed, languages taught, and years teaching Finally, I would like to explore possible relationships between the type and number of teacher preparation classes taken, the teachers’ beliefs about culture, and their standards-based cultural lessons.Finally, I would like to explore possible relationships between the type and number of teacher preparation classes taken, the teachers’ beliefs about culture, and their standards-based cultural lessons. I believe that this analysis will allow me to draw conclusions about the current realities for teaching culture in today’s FL/WL K-12 classrooms and whether or not the current SFLLs facilitate educating for global citizenship.I believe that this analysis will allow me to draw conclusions about the current realities for teaching culture in today’s FL/WL K-12 classrooms and whether or not the current SFLLs facilitate educating for global citizenship.

4 4 Research Questions Goals Methods Conceptual Framework Validity Based on: Maxwell J.A. (2005). Qualitative Research Design 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage Publications.

5 5 Conceptual Framework Culture and the SFLLs Perspectives in SLA Research Hegemony and Language Education FL/WL Teacher Preparation Technology and Teaching Culture Researcher Background Defining Global Citizenship Integrative Mixed Methods Research I believe that language teachers should play a more significant role in developing global citizens. Cultural lessons in the language classroom have the potential to provide students with opportunities to think critically and to develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to serve as cultural mediators. To do so, teachers need to create cultural lessons based on the SFLLs that extend beyond culture factoids and challenge ethnocentrism, prejudice and cultural biases. I see a pressing need to gain a better understanding of teacher beliefs about culture, how they formed these beliefs, and how their beliefs affect their cultural lessons. Finally, I think we need to take a critical look at the SFLLs to determine if they facilitate educating for global citizenship.

6 6 Research Goals Personal Goals My passion for languages and cultures led me to the field of FL/WL education. I believe I can learn from my participants about standards-based instruction and teaching target language cultures in ways that facilitate the development of global citizens. Practical Goals As a teacher educator, I would like to understand how FL/WL teachers develop their own beliefs about culture and how these beliefs affect their practice so that I can better prepare them to be educate their students for global citizenship. Intellectual Goals As a researcher, I would like to gain an understanding of the relationship between beliefs about culture, FL/WL teaching practices, the SFLLs, and the development of the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that promote global citizenship

7 7 Research Questions Educating Global Citizens in an Era of Standards-based Instruction I. What are FL/WL teachers’ beliefs about teaching culture? How do they form these beliefs? II. What are FL/WL teacher’ perceptions about teaching culture? Is there a difference in perceptions based on courses taken, languages taught, and/or years teaching? III. To what extent do FL/WL teachers’ cultural lessons reflect the SFLLs? Is there a difference between groups based on courses taken, languages taught and/or years teaching? IV. To what extent do the current SFLLs facilitate educating for global citizenship?

8 8 Methods Purposive Sample Participants Surveys Data Collection Data Analysis Instruments Interviews Coding Categorizing Descriptive Statistics Observations The two-way arrows in data analysis indicate a dialectic approach for integrating qualitative and quantitative data analysis. I will call on participants to verify my interpretation s as needed. The two way arrow between data analysis and instruments indicates that I will begin analysis of observations and interviews as they are completed—making changes to my protocols if necessary

9 9 Validity What are my assumptions about what is going on with these teachers? How might I be wrong? Is my data reliable? How have I triangulated my data? Are their unexplainable inconsistencies in the teachers’ responses? Do my conclusions make sense? What other plausible explanations are there?

10 10 Perspectives in SLA Research I connect most with Sociocultural Theory as I believe that language learning occurs in social contexts and that our social experiences shape our identity. My thinking has been influenced by:My thinking has been influenced by: –Lev Vygotsky—Social Learning Theory –Pierre Bourdieu—Language and Symbolic Power –Mikhail Bakhtin– Heteroglossia –James Lantolf—Sociocultural theory and SLA –Sandra Savignon—Sociocultural contexts of communicative competence –Joan Kelly Hall— Teaching and Researching Language and Culture –Bonnie Norton (Peirce)—Language learning and identity—Critical Pedagogy in Language Learning I believe that our identity is shaped by the positions that we occupy in various social groups. Studying Critical Pedagogy has made me acutely aware that not all languages and cultures are valued equally in our society, our schools, and our language classrooms. My thinking has been influenced by: –Paolo Freire—Pedagogy of the Oppressed –Gloria Ladson-Billings—Educational and moral debt –Timothy Reagan and Terry Osborn—Power and authority in the L2 classroom –Luis Moll and Norma González—Funds of Knowledge –Shirley Brice Heath--Language and cultural differences between home and school –Lisa Delpit—Cultural differences between teachers and students Through what theoretical and/or epistemological lenses do I view second language learning? How did I form these lenses? How will they affect my research?

11 11 Culture and the SFLLs What did language teaching and learning look like before the national standards? How were these standards developed? How have they changed the way we teach languages and cultures? Late 1970s thru the 1990s: Seminal work of Stephan Krashen, Tracy Terrell, Bill VanPatten, and Howard Gardner provided new theories and/or new methods/approaches that affected how we teach and learn languagesLate 1970s thru the 1990s: Seminal work of Stephan Krashen, Tracy Terrell, Bill VanPatten, and Howard Gardner provided new theories and/or new methods/approaches that affected how we teach and learn languages Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century - National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century - National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999 My Pilot Study: “Technology Integration in Foreign/World Language Standards- based Instruction: The Effects of the ACTFL Video Podcast Contest.”My Pilot Study: “Technology Integration in Foreign/World Language Standards- based Instruction: The Effects of the ACTFL Video Podcast Contest.” EDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher EducationEDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher Education –Final Paper: “Intercultural Communicative Competence in World Language Education: –Where are we? And where should we be going? Recent articles on the SFLLs with focus on “culture”Recent articles on the SFLLs with focus on “culture” –Renate Schulz // Sandra Savignon and Pavel //Sally Sieloff Magnan //Heidi Byrnes

12 12 Defining Global Citizenship I will define the concept of global citizenship by looking at the scholarly writings on similar terms such as “international mindedness” and “intercultural communicative competence”. I will begin with the following: EDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism/SLA Theory and ResearchEDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism/SLA Theory and Research –Michael Byram & Anwei Feng--Teaching and Researching Intercultural Competence –Robert Sternberg--What constitutes intelligent acts? –Suresh Canagarajah—Critical perspectives of L2 pedagogy including the native speaker fallacy EDUC 853: World Perspectives on Teacher Education EDUC 853: World Perspectives on Teacher Education –Harriett Marshall—Defining Global Education and a Movement for Social Change –Ian Hill—Overview of IB programs including the development of knowledge, skills and dispositions –Terry Haywood—typologies of international minded-ness and implications for education –Rajagopalan Sampatkumar—Defining global citizenship and the role of education –Michael Byram—Intercultural Communicative Competence –Lies Sercu–International study on language teachers and teaching for intercultural communicative competence –Eva Lam-- Multilingual learning and identity formation with digital and transnational media –Nada Dabbagh and Angela Benson: Models for distance learning and impact of technology on education in a global market

13 13 FL/WL Teacher Preparation I will establish FL/WL teacher preparation using the following sources: ACTFL/NCATE StandardsACTFL/NCATE Standards EDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism and SLA ResearchEDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism and SLA Research –Final Paper: From Licensure Coursework to the Student-Teaching Internship: Building Bridges in the Era of ACTFL/NCATE Standards EDUC 853—World Perspectives in Teacher EducationEDUC 853—World Perspectives in Teacher Education –--Final Paper: Intercultural Communicative Competence in World Language Education: Where are we? And where should we be going? EDUC 994-Advanced Internship: Teaching EDRD 620--My experiences as a teacher educatorEDUC 994-Advanced Internship: Teaching EDRD 620--My experiences as a teacher educator The following sources will help me to establish a framework for preparing teachers to become educators for global citizenship: EDUC 853—World Perspectives in Teacher EducationEDUC 853—World Perspectives in Teacher Education –Martin Skelton—Brain research and the process of developing international mindedness –Trevor Grimshaw—Critical perspectives on language in international education including power relationships, native speaker fallacy, and the idea of culturally deficient non-native speakers –Lies Sercu–International study on language teachers and teaching for intercultural competence EDUC 874: The Achievement GapEDUC 874: The Achievement Gap –Gary Howard—We Cant’ Teach What We Don’t Know” and the concept of “transformativa” –Linda Darland Hammond-- Teacher preparation in the global era—what can we learn from other countries?

14 14 Hegemony and Language Education EDUC 800: Ways of KnowingEDUC 800: Ways of Knowing –Pierre Bourdieu-Cultural capital –Mary Belenky et. al – Women’s Ways of Knowing –Mikhail Bahktin—heteroglossia –Norma González—Cultural reductionism –Homi BhaBha—hybrid languages & cultures EDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher EducationEDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher Education –Trevor Grimshaw—Critical perspectives on language in international education EDIT 725: Technology and DiversityEDIT 725: Technology and Diversity –NCES Data on FL/WL enrollments among minority students –My role as a teacher and teacher educator to close enrollment gaps EDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism/SLA Theory and ResearchEDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism/SLA Theory and Research –Suresh Canagarajah—Call for Critical Pedagogy in L2 classrooms EDUC 874: The Achievement Gap –Timothy Reagan and Terry Osborn— Language and power in the L2 classroom –Lisa Delpit— Cultural conflict in schools –John Ogbu—Voluntary and involuntary minority groups –Gloria Ladson-Billings—Educational debt –Yvonne Freeman, David Freeman, and Sandra Mercuri– Long-term ESL student failure –Jim Cummins—Power relations between teachers and minority language students EDUC 893: Seminar in Educational Anthropology –John Ogbu—understanding cultural diversity –Shirley Brice Heath—Differences between home and school--multiple literacies –Jan Nespor—Tangled Up in School My doctoral journey has provided me with many opportunities to look at the role of language, power, and authority through various lenses. I believe that if we are to educate for global citizenship, we should start by addressing the inequitable social capital of languages and cultures in our classrooms, schools, and communities.

15 15 Technology and Teaching Culture I do not think my discussion about the need for global citizens would be complete without addressing the role of technology. I will focus my discussion specifically on how FL/WL teachers use technology to teach culture. EDUC 897: Independent Study in Technology and Teacher EducationEDUC 897: Independent Study in Technology and Teacher Education –Proposal for pilot study included the following: Tara Brown L’ Bahy: Critical perspective of preparing teachers to teach with technologyTara Brown L’ Bahy: Critical perspective of preparing teachers to teach with technology William Sadera and Constance Hargrave—technology use and teacher beliefs about teaching and learningWilliam Sadera and Constance Hargrave—technology use and teacher beliefs about teaching and learning Yong Zhao—Technology and Second Language LearningYong Zhao—Technology and Second Language Learning Pilot Study: “Technology Integration in Foreign/World Language Standards-based Instruction: The Effects of the ACTFL Video Podcast Contest.”Pilot Study: “Technology Integration in Foreign/World Language Standards-based Instruction: The Effects of the ACTFL Video Podcast Contest.” EDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher EducationEDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher Education –Eva Lam-- multilingual learning and identity formation with digital and transnational media –Nada Dabbagh and Angela Benson: Models for distance learning and impact of technology on education in the global era

16 16 Researcher Background Personal and Professional Experiences with Languages and Cultures:Personal and Professional Experiences with Languages and Cultures: –As a language learner: I experienced first-hand what Spanish accent and dialect is valued among family members and professors.I experienced first-hand what Spanish accent and dialect is valued among family members and professors. –As a language teacher: I became acutely aware of my biases and stereotypes with minority students and minority language learnersI became acutely aware of my biases and stereotypes with minority students and minority language learners I know that learning to value student diversity is not easy, but is a critical step to narrowing the achievement gap as well as educating for global citizenshipI know that learning to value student diversity is not easy, but is a critical step to narrowing the achievement gap as well as educating for global citizenship –As a teacher educator-- I find it a challenge to provide pre-service teachers with opportunities to develop their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions as global citizensI find it a challenge to provide pre-service teachers with opportunities to develop their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions as global citizens I have written about these experiences in:I have written about these experiences in: –EDRS 812: Researcher Identity Memo –EDUC 893: Proposal—Researcher Background What are my beliefs and perspectives about culture? How did I form these beliefs? And how might they affect my research?

17 17 Integrative Mixed Methods Research EDRS 797b: Mixed Methods in Educational ResearchEDRS 797b: Mixed Methods in Educational Research –John Platt—Alternative hypotheses based on “strong inferences” –Lee Shulman—Research bias in qualitative and quantitative research –JenniferGreene—Dialectic approach has generative power –Maurice Trend—Reconciliation of qualitative and quantitative analysis –Bill Muth—Engaging in dialectic data analysis EDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism / SLA ResearchEDUC 882: Seminar in Bilingualism / SLA Research –Linda Harklau—Ethnography and SLA –Firth and Wagner—SLA Research through a sociocultural lens EDUC 893: Seminar in Educational AnthropologyEDUC 893: Seminar in Educational Anthropology –Hugh Mehan—Designing research studies for social change –Margaret Eisenhart—Cultural ethnography—past, present and future perspectives –Frederick Erickson—Collaborative action ethnography--working side by side with teachers –Jerry Rosiek—documenting teacher practical knowledge through case studies EDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher EducationEDUC 853: World Perspectives in Teacher Education –Fox and Greenberg—Researching culture and the SFLLs in teacher education programs –Hugh Lauder—Setting a research agenda for international schools, education and globalization –Michael Allan—World perspectives on educational research and cultural diversity I believe that how teachers develop their beliefs about culture is a complex topic and therefore requires research methods that embrace that complexity, rather than reducing it to a list of observable variables.


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