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Language Arts Curriculum for Advanced Learners Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska, EdD. College of William and Mary San Diego Schools, California May 25-26, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Language Arts Curriculum for Advanced Learners Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska, EdD. College of William and Mary San Diego Schools, California May 25-26, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Arts Curriculum for Advanced Learners Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska, EdD. College of William and Mary San Diego Schools, California May 25-26, 2011

2 Agenda Introduction to the ICM and Curriculum Framework Concept development Constructing Meaning Through Literature: The Literature Web Persuasive Writing Reasoning and Research Vocabulary and Word Study Interdisciplinary tools (metaphors, analogies, the arts) Assessment and research findings Supplementary programs

3 Workshop Outcomes Participants will be able to: --Understand the William and Mary language arts program --Apply differentiation strategies in literature, writing, vocabulary, and research to language arts --Implement a W&M unit

4 Learner Characteristics and Corresponding Emphases in the Curriculum THE LEARNER Precocity Intensity Complexity THE CURRICULUM Advanced content (Provides opportunities for new learning) Process/product depth considerations (Enhances engagement and creative production; allows utilization of information in a generative way ) Issues/concepts/themes/ideas across domains of learning (Allows students to make connections across areas of study and to work at a level of deep understanding) 4

5 The Integrated Curriculum Model Advanced Content Dimension Process-Product Dimension Issues/Themes Dimension - VanTassel-Baska, 1986

6 Language Arts Curriculum Goals >To develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature >To develop persuasive writing skills >To develop linguistic competency >To develop listening/oral communication skills >To develop reasoning skills in LA >To understand the concept of change in the LA

7 Language Arts Curriculum Framework The Literature Understanding Change Using the Reasoning Process Learning Language Arts Content and Skills Concept Process Content Literary Analysis and Interpretation Persuasive Writing Linguistic Competency Oral Communication

8 Language Arts Units Beyond Words (gr. 1-2) Journeys and Destinations (gr. 2-3) Literary Reflections (gr. 4-5) Patterns of Change (gr. 4-6) Autobiographies (gr. 5-6) Persuasion (gr. 5-7) The 1940s: A Decade of Change (gr. 6-10) Utopia: Man’s Changing Ideas of the Ideal (gr. 7-10) Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature (gr. 7-11)

9 Research-Based LA Teaching Models Concept Development Model Literature Web Hamburger Model Dagwood Model Reasoning Model Research Model Vocabulary Web

10 Concept Development

11 Concept of Change Cite examples. Categorize. Cite non-examples. Generalize.

12 Generalizations About Change Change is everywhere. Change is linked to time. Change may be positive or negative. Change may be perceived as orderly or random. Change may happen naturally or be caused by people.

13 Change Generalizations and Outcomes

14 Change may happen naturally or be caused by people. Change Model Change is linked to time. CHANGE Change is everywhere. Change may be perceived as orderly or random. Change may be positive or negative.

15 Change: Beyond Words Write or draw pictures to show examples of change.

16 Change Matrix: Journeys and Destinations

17 Constructing Meaning Through Literature

18 Criteria for Selecting Unit Literature Challenging for high-ability learners Appropriate multicultural literature Concept of change

19 Criteria for Selecting Literature for Gifted Readers Rich, varied, precise, complex, exciting language Open-ended, with capacity to inspire contemplative behavior Complex, leading to interpretive and evaluative behaviors Help build problem-solving skills Role models Broad-based in form Baskin & Harris, 1980

20 Considerations for Multicultural Literature General accuracy Avoidance of stereotypes Authentic, up-to-date, age-appropriate language Attention to author’s perspective Currency of facts and interpretations Concept of audience Integration of cultural information Balance and multidimensionality Accurate and appropriate illustrations -- Miller-Lachman, 1992

21 Literature Web - Full Form Key Words READING Feelings Ideas Structure Images/Symbols

22 Literature Web Key Words: What were some words and phrases that were especially interesting or important? What words were new to you? Feelings: What feelings did you get reading the passage? What feelings did the characters have? How were those feelings expressed? Ideas: What was the main idea? What other major ideas and concepts were important? What was the author trying to say about those ideas? Images/Symbols: How did the author use description and imagery in the novel? What sensory images came to your mind? How did the author use symbols? Structure: What type of writing was this? What literary and style elements did the author use? How did the structure of the writing contribute to the meaning of the novel? May identify such features as: use of unusual time sequence in narrative, use of voice, use of figurative language, etc.

23 Wild Geese You do not have to be good You do not have to walk on your knees for a hundred miles through the desert, repenting. You only have to let the soft animal of your body love what it loves. Tell me about despair, yours, and I will tell you mine. Meanwhile the world goes on. Meanwhile the sun and the clear pebbles of the rain are moving across the landscapes, over the prairies and the deep trees, the mountains and the rivers. Meanwhile the wild geese, high in the clean blue air, are heading home again. Whoever you are, no mater how lonely, the world offers itself to your imagination, calls to you like the wild geese, harsh and exciting – over and over announcing your place in the family of things. --M. Oliver

24 Building Textual Understanding Underlying Assumption: Discourse that promotes understanding needs direction, focus, and movement towards goal. Marking (focusing) Revoicing (repeating student ideas) Turning back (textual or student-based) Recapping (synthesizing) Modeling (thinking aloud) Annotating (providing information) Beck & McKeown, 1996

25 Video Analysis Analyze the teacher implementing the W&M literature web and provide suggestions for her on improving the lesson. What are her strengths? What is she doing well? What are areas that need improvement?

26 Persuasive Writing

27 Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing (primary) Introduction (State an opinion.) Conclusion Reason

28 Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing Reason Introduction (State an opinion.) Conclusion Reason Elaboration

29 Dagwood Model Reason Claim/Opinion/Introduction Background Elaboration Other Points of View Elaboration ReasonOther Points of View Elaboration ReasonOther Points of View Conclusion Details Elaboration

30 Reasoning

31 Elements of Reasoning -- Paul, 1992 Issue/ Problem Evidence/ Data Point of View Implications/ Consequences Inferences Concepts/ Ideas Purpose/ Goal Assumptions

32 Simplifying Reasoning Terms Assumption: beliefs, understandings, “taking for granted Evidence: information, details, facts, experiences Inference: conclusions, reasons to support point of view Concept: ideas, main topics, what the assumptions are about Implication: consequences, what might happen, what we would have to think about if…

33 Reasoning Applications Issue analysis (academic, societal, school/personal) Analysis of reading selections Foundation for questioning Review of sources Persuasive writing Assessment of writing Research Reading organizer

34 Standards of Reasoning Are there enough reasons to make a convincing argument? Is the evidence correct or right? Are the reasons clear? Are specific reasons or examples included rather than vague generalizations? Are the arguments and reasons strong and important? Is the thinking logical?

35 Reasoning about a Situation or Event What is the situation? Who are the stakeholders? What is the point of view for each stakeholder? What are the assumptions of each group? What are the implications of these views?

36 Developing Questions Using the Standards of Reasoning What is the issue or problem the character is facing? How is the concept of ______ important in the story? What are the implications of the character’s actions? What assumptions might we make about the story from the title and opening?

37 Questioning Model 37 Memory/cognition level questions – factual, one right answer Convergent level questions – multiple right answers Divergent level questions - hypothetical, multiple answers that may be wide-ranging Evaluative level questions – judgmental, answers derived from interpreting criteria or selecting best perspective based on options

38 Lower to Higher Order Questions Memory/ Cognition Level When did the play take place? What was the setting? Convergence Level What were the causes of Hamlet’s indecision? Divergence Level What would have happened if he had killed his uncle when he had the opportunity? Evaluative LevelThe play is about revenge. How effective is that theme throughout? What criteria do you use to make your judgment? 38

39 Activity: Creating Questions Think of a book you teach and identify a literary theme in it & create a question tree based on it, using the four questions. OR choose one of the following themes and create questions for a selected work (novel or short story): Oppression Conflict Resilience 39

40 Unit Walk-Through Table of contents Curriculum Framework Preassessments Lesson plans (student handouts) Post assessments Resources Teaching models Student readings (separate booklet)

41 Day 1 Reflection What new ideas and strategies did I learn today about working with gifted and promising learners? What accommodations will I need to make in order to use the strategies with ELL students? What questions do I have about our work today?

42 Day 2 Unit Questions Other? The models? What questions do I have about the reading selections?

43 Research

44 Characteristics of an Issue Real world Multiple points of view Researchable and substantial information available Worthy topic and personal involvement 44

45 Developing an Issue 45

46 Sample Issues 46 Select one of the following issues and complete the “Developing an Issue” form: Should library resources intended for older students be withheld from younger students? Should books be censored? Should technology as an educational tool be controlled?

47 Research Model 47 1.Identify your issue or problem.  What is the issue or problem?  Who are the stakeholders and what are their positions?  What is my position on this issue? 2.Read about your issue and identify points of view or arguments through information sources.  What are my print sources?  What are my media sources?  What are my people sources?  What primary and secondary source documents might I use?  What are my preliminary findings based on a review of existing sources?

48 48 3.Form a set of questions that can be answered by a specific set of data:  What would be the results of _____________?  Who would benefit and by how much?  Who would be harmed and by how much?  My research questions: 4.Gather evidence through research techniques such as surveys, interviews, or analysis of primary and secondary source documents.  What survey questions should I ask?  What interview questions should I ask?  What generalizations do secondary sources give?  What data and evidence can I find in primary sources to support different sides of the issue?

49 49 5. Manipulate and transform data so that they can be interpreted.  How can I summarize what I found out?  Should I develop charts, diagrams, or graphs to represent my data? 6.Draw conclusions and make inferences.  What do the data mean? How can I interpret what I found out?  How do the data support my original point of view?  How do they support other points of view?  What conclusions can I make about the issue?

50 50 7.Determine implications and consequences.  What are the consequences of following the point of view that I support?  Do I know enough or are there now new questions to be answered? 8.Communicate your findings. (Prepare an oral presentation for classmates based on note cards and written report.)  What are my purpose, issue, and point of view, and how will I explain them?  What data will I use to support my point of view?  How will I conclude my presentation?

51 Discussion at tables: What issues could I ask students to research? How would I organize research for a group of gifted learners? What school resources could be used to help students complete their research study? 51

52 Vocabulary and Word Study

53 Vocabulary Web Source (sentence where you saw the word): WORD: Example: Analysis Word Families: Part of Speech: Stems: Origin: Definition: Synonyms: Antonyms:

54 Recommended Dictionaries American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4 th ed.) Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (11 th ed.)

55 Creative Thinking Tools

56 What is Metaphor? “Our species thinks in metaphors and learns through stories” – Mary Catherine Bateson, 1994 A figure of speech in which a term is transferred from the object it ordinarily designates to an object it may designate only by comparison or analogy. A relationship between two unlike objects, ideas, or situations. A physical picture of an abstract condition A story form to link ideas and persuade others

57 Examples of Metaphor The universe as a mechanical system ( e.g. the solar system as clockwork) The human body as a machine (e.g. the heart is a pump) Time is money. Modern capitalism as a cancer on the social immune system Life is a roller coaster, full of ups and downs. Life is a river and we make decisions about how to navigate it. The interconnected world as a whispering pond Leaders as improvisational jazz musicians

58 Metaphoric Thinking Approaches Using basic structural properties of an object to define a person (eg. She is a warm towel, wrapped around me.) Building metaphor as a way to grasp an important yet difficult concept (e.g. leadership, love, justice) Change is a ___________ because _________________(describe why)

59 Using visual stimuli to promote creativity What do you see in your picture? What could you change in the picture that would make it more appealing to you? What aspect of the picture do you identify with and why? Create a poem, metaphor, or graphic organizer that captures the essence of your picture.

60 Frida Kahlo Self-Portrait 1926

61 Roy Lichtenstein Still Life with Goldfish 1972

62 Pablo Picasso 3 Musicians 1921

63 Assessment of Learning Outcomes Pre- and post-assessments for literary analysis and interpretation, persuasive writing, and grammar Portfolio of writing assignments, literature and vocabulary webs, other work Research project and oral presentation

64 Performance-Based Example 64 Should _______ be required reading for students in your grade?

65 Pre-Assessment 65 Persuasive Writing Pre-Assessment Student B, Grade 3 –Yes, I think the story The Wolf and the Lion should be required reading for all the students. Why? It’s a great story with a very interesting topic. They could also learn from the story. Also they could get lots of interesting questions. That’s why I think 3rd grade students should read The Wolf and the Lion.

66 Post-Assessment 66 Persuasive Writing Post-Assessment Student B, Grade 3 Yes, I think all the students in 3rd grade should read this book. It’s such an excellent moral. One reason I think everyone in third grade should read The Miser is because it does teach a good lesson. It could help them learn that things they never use are worthless. Another reason I think all the students in third grade should read this story is they use great, funny words. It basicly is a funny story. One of the parts I likes was “He pulled his hair out (not really). It would make our writing better. Also, the students should read this because it’s similar to a true story. If you have a good, healthy body and you never use it, the muscles will be very weak, and you’ll miss out on a lot of things. As you see, it’s a good moral for all the students in third grade. They could learn great details for their own stories, and they can compare it with a true happening like this story. It’s a great story.

67 Major Findings - Language Arts Significant and important treatment effects for literary analysis and interpretation and for persuasive writing for students in Grades 2-8. No significant gender effects. Students were able to improve significantly after unit instruction regardless of the grouping model employed. Students enhanced their learning each time they were exposed to the units and maintained their level of achievement between interventions across the years.

68 Supplementary Materials Jacob’s Ladder Navigators

69 Jacob’s Ladder Reading Comprehension Program: A Supplemental Reading Curriculum to Build Higher Level Thinking Skills

70 Overview of the Program Includes 10 reading selections of each of the following genres: –Fables/myths (level 1), short stories and Essays (level 2 and 3) –Poetry –Nonfiction NEW! Each reading selection (except poetry in Level I) includes 2 ladders based on best fit with the reading selection

71 Jacob’s Skill Ladders Jacob’s Ladder A n A 3 A 2 A 1 Questions inserted here. Sequencing Questions inserted here. Cause and Effect Questions inserted here. Consequences and Implications

72 Jacob’s Skill Ladders Jacob’s Ladder D

73 Navigators: Differentiated Novel Study Guides Use of literature webs, vocabulary webs, hamburger model with activities Higher level questions prepared Interdisciplinary research projects delineated

74 Day 2 Reflections How can you use these models of differentiation in language arts to change your current practice? How will using these differentiation approaches benefit gifted ELL students in your class, in your school?

75 Center for Gifted Education The College of William and Mary Contact Information: Center for Gifted Education The College of William and Mary P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 757-221-2362 (ph) 757-221-2184 (fax)

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