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1 Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area.
Before You Read Reading the Selection Responding to Literature Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Selection 5 Contents

2 To read and analyze a slave narrative on the loss of freedom 
To analyze the methods a slave narrative uses to expose the horrors of slavery  To write a press release Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Before 5-1

3 Click the Speaker button to hear more about Olaudah Equiano.
Olaudah Equiano was born in 1745 and died in 1797. Click the Speaker button to hear more about Olaudah Equiano. Before 5-2

4 BACKGROUND The Time and Place
From the 1500s to the 1800s, about twelve million Africans suffered unspeakable horrors on the forced journey from their homes to enslavement in the Western Hemisphere. The longest and most arduous portion of the journey, known as the Middle Passage, was a two-month voyage from West Africa to the West Indies. Almost two million Africans died from malnutrition, disease, suffocation, beatings, and despair. Before 5-3

5 VOCABULARY PREVIEW countenance: (n) face; facial features; p. 190 
apprehension: (n) fear of what may happen in the future; anxiety; p. 191  copious: (adj) large in quantity; plentiful; p. 192  gratify: (v) to satisfy or indulge; p. 193  clamor: (n) confused, insistent shouting; p. 194  scruple: (n) moral principle that restrains action; p. 194 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Before 5-4

6 FOCUS ACTIVITY Share It! Setting a Purpose
“No man has received from nature the right to give orders to others. Freedom is a gift from heaven, and every individual of the same species has the right to enjoy it as soon as he is in enjoyment of his reason.” –Denis Diderot  Share It! Discuss with a classmate this statement by French philosopher Diderot. Try to summarize the statement in just a few words. Consider how you might feel if someone took away your freedom.  Setting a Purpose Read to discover Equiano’s attitude toward his loss of freedom. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Before 5-5

7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Active Reading Predict Click the Speaker button to hear an excerpt from Equiano’s autobiography.  Predict what you think the selection will be about and what the narrator’s tale will reveal about his character. The art and description of the capture may indicate that this is a story about slavery. The narrator must have a degree of education since his diction and sentence structure sound very literate. Navigation Toolbar A B C D E F G H I J Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-A

8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Literary Elements Point of View: First Person Remember that an autobiography is in first-person point of view. Read the first column on page 190 in your textbook. How does point of view affect the message of this excerpt? Seeing slavery through Equiano’s eyes captures what the experience was really like, which can be more powerful than reading facts or statistics about slavery. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-B

9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Literary Elements Mood Although mood is usually considered an element of fiction, Equiano’s autobiography definitely conveys a particular mood. Identify the mood in this autobiography. How does Equiano create it? The mood is one of confusion, fear, and despair. By telling how he felt as a young boy, Equiano shows the confusion of the situation and the horror of being held captive by cruel strangers. He uses both descriptive details and loaded words to capture the desperation of the situation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-C

10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions To Equiano, certain aspects of the white people on the ship seem most menacing. What are these aspects? Support your choices. At first, Equiano is afraid of them simply because they are unfamiliar. His fear grows when they are cruel to the Africans. He is even more alarmed by their brutality to each other, which shows that they have no regard for people in general–Equiano had previously thought they lacked regard only for the Africans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-D

11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Literary Elements Purpose What reasons could Equiano have had for writing this narrative? Which reason do you think was foremost in Equiano’s mind? Equiano could have written this narrative for several reasons, including simply to describe his experiences. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-E

12 Active Reading F Question
Pause during your reading on page 192 and shape your purpose for reading by asking questions about Equiano and what will happen to him next. Reading 5-F

13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
G Literary Elements Character Think about what kind of person Equiano is. What actions, comments, or descriptions can help you infer his character? He is observant–he can remember in vivid detail events that happened to him long ago. He is empathetic toward his fellow passengers. He is also very curious when he watches the sailors use their strange instruments. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-G

14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Synthesizing Synthesize Equiano’s arguments against slavery, based on the information in the selection. Slaves underwent both the physical and mental anguish. Equiano argues that the cruelest treatment of slaves came when they were separated from family and friends with no chance for being reunited. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-H

15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Literary Elements Direct Address On page 194 you will notice an abrupt change in the audience to whom the selection is addressed. What marks the change in audience? Why does Equiano make this change? Equiano directs questions at those who trade or keep enslaved people rather than just addressing general readers. Equiano challenges those who maintain the institution of slavery to think about what they are doing and decide if their actions are just. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reading 5-I

16 Active Reading J Respond
What do you think of the words and images in this piece of literature? How does the narrative connect to your own life? How does it compare to other books you have read or movies you have seen? Reading 5-J

17 End of Reading 5

18 Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area.
Personal Response Analyzing Literature Literary Elements Literature and Writing Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Responding 5 Contents

19 PERSONAL RESPONSE What images or details from this narrative linger in your mind? Personal Response 5

20 End of Personal Response 5

21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
RECALL AND INTERPRET What does Equiano fear will happen to him when he is taken aboard the ship? Why might he be so afraid? He fears that the white men will eat him. His fears probably result from his never having seen a white person before. He is also young and has been taken by force. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing 5-1

22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
RECALL AND INTERPRET How does Equiano react to the fatal flogging of a white crew member? Why do you think the incident has such a strong impact on Equiano? He becomes even more terrified of the white men on the ship. Their flogging and discarding one of their own shows their inhumanity. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing 5-2

23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
RECALL AND INTERPRET Although terrified, Equiano also displays great curiosity. Relate an incident that reveals his curiosity. What does it reveal about his character? Equiano observes the sailors to see how they use instruments. He remains curious and eager to learn, despite the conditions. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing 5-3

24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
RECALL AND INTERPRET In the last paragraph, what does Equiano describe as perhaps the greatest tragedy of slavery? What do you think he means when he says it “adds fresh horrors even to the wretchedness of slavery”? Equiano feels that the greatest tragedy is the separation of families. He probably means that slavery is made even more horrible without family support. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing 5-4

25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
EVALUATE AND CONNECT Theme Connections In this part of his story, does Equiano give any indication that he might soon break free of his enslavement? Explain. Possible answer: Equiano uses strong images and powerful words to display his will to be free and become educated. His words challenge slavery directly. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing 5-6

26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
EVALUATE AND CONNECT Describe the tone of this work. At what point does the tone shift? Evaluate the effectiveness of this change in tone. The tone for most of the piece is objective. In the last paragraph, the tone directly challenges those who trade and hold slaves. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing 5-7

27 EVALUATE AND CONNECT Think back to your discussion for the Focus Activity on page 188. How would you describe Equiano’s attitude toward his loss of freedom? How might you react to such an extreme loss of freedom? Analyzing 5-8

28 EVALUATE AND CONNECT What insights have you gained from reading this work? For example, has it affected your attitudes about personal freedom, human nature, or our nation’s history of enslavement of Africans? Analyzing 5-9

29 End of Analyzing 5

30 LITERARY ELEMENTS A slave narrative is an autobiographical account of a former enslaved person’s life. By personally documenting their own experiences, African Americans helped to expose the cruelty and inhumanity of slavery.  Briton Hammon wrote the first slave narrative in After Equiano’s account was published in 1789, many other formerly enslaved people published their autobiographies during the 1800s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Literary Elements 5-1

31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
LITERARY ELEMENTS To whom do you think Equiano wrote this account? Equiano addressed his last comments to those who keep slaves. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Literary Elements 5-2

32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
LITERARY ELEMENTS How might this audience have shaped Equiano’s tone? Equiano probably wrote objectively in the beginning to capture the reader’s attention. Then, when the reader has become involved, Equiano changes his tone to challenge the reader directly. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Literary Elements 5-3

33 LITERARY ELEMENTS Equiano wrote this account to expose the horrors of slavery. In your opinion, how well did he fulfill his purpose? Literary Elements 5-4

34 End of Literary Elements 5

35 Literature and Writing 5-1
Two Thumbs Up Imagine that you have just produced a feature film based on the life of Olaudah Equiano. Write a press release that summarizes the story and encourages viewers to attend a screening of the film. Literature and Writing 5-1

36 End of Literature and Writing 5

37 Selection Focus Transparency 5-1

38 Grammar and Language Transparency 5-1

39 Grammar and Language Transparency 5-2

40 Literary Elements Transparency 5-1

41 Literary Elements Transparency 5-2
He fears that he is going to die. He fears he may be eaten by his captors. The hold smells terrible. The captives are shrieking and groaning in misery. The captives are flogged. Many die. Literary Elements Transparency 5-2

42 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
What does “breaking free” mean to you? What are your thoughts about oppression and independence? Your mind is deep, and when you take the trouble to explore it, you can find surprising wisdom.  The selections you have read so far express ideas about oppression, freedom, and crucial choices. One way to explore such ideas is to write a reflective essay, a piece of writing that examines in-depth your own thoughts on a particular subject.  In this workshop, you will write a reflective essay. You will examine, develop, and write about your own insights on one of the ideas in this theme. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. Writing Workshop 1

43 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Click a hyperlink to explore that step of the writing process: Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing/Proofreading Publishing/Presenting Reflecting This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. Writing Workshop 2

44 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Explore Ideas Many selections in this theme are more than two hundred years old, yet they speak to people today. Look back through the theme for selections or passages that have special meaning for you. Ask yourself questions like these:  How do these selections make me feel? Proud? Angry? Hopeful? Why do I feel this way?  With which of Benjamin Franklin’s proverbs do I agree or disagree? Why?  What are Patrick Henry’s ideas about freedom? What are my ideas about freedom? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 3

45 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Explore Ideas (cont.) What parts of Thomas Paine’s The Crisis, No. 1, do I still remember from my first reading? Why?  What aspects of Abigail Adams’s personality do I like or dislike?  What current events or issues came to mind when I read the Declaration of Independence?  If Phillis Wheatley saw the world today, what would she think?  How can I understand or relate to Olaudah Equiano’s experience?  Of the selections I have read, which ones might apply to my life or to the lives of people I know? How do they apply? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 4

46 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Connect Your Thoughts To explore an idea further, try using a word web. In the center circle of your web, identify a striking passage.  In the connecting circles, write your initial reactions. Add circles to raise questions, respond to them, or give examples. Show how one thought leads to another. In Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography, the ship’s crew were cruel to the captives. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 5

47 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Choose an Audience You might want to express your thoughts by writing a column for your school newspaper, a letter to the editor of a local publication, or simply a journal entry.  Decide on your audience before you begin to write. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 6

48 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Consider Your Purpose Your main purpose will be to express your reflections on a subject in an essay. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 7

49 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Make a Plan Look over your notes. In a statement to yourself, sum up what you want to say.  Then select points to elaborate on your thesis.  Use a chart like the one on the next slide to arrange your points in an order that makes sense. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 8

50 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Prewriting: Make a Plan (cont.) This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. PW Writing Workshop 8b

51 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Drafting: Begin Your Draft Jump in and begin drafting, using your prewriting plan as a guide. Write as yourself, using the pronouns I and me. Put your thoughts, feelings, insights, and observations down on paper. Take the time to stop occasionally and reflect on your unfinished draft.  If your writing is leading you in an unexpected direction, follow it. You may gain new insights about your topic–and yourself. Don’t get bogged down trying to find the perfect word or make your ideas flow smoothly at this point. You can polish your essay later. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. D Writing Workshop 9

52 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Drafting: Flesh Out Main Points Your opinions and observations about your topic will be more believable if you back them up with details, facts, and examples.  Look over the main points in your draft and find two or more pieces of information to support each point. If you need more information, do some research or reread the selection for new ideas. Include them, and add transitions where necessary to guide readers from one main point or supporting detail to the next. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. D Writing Workshop 10

53 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Revising: Evaluate Your Work Take a break from your essay, then come back to it after several hours or a day. Reread your draft and mark parts that seem weak or confusing. Use the Questions for Revising as a guide.  How well does my writing reflect my thoughts on the topic?  How might I state my main idea more clearly?  How might I make the order of my ideas more logical or effective? Where might appropriate transitions help? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. R Writing Workshop 11

54 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Revising: Evaluate Your Work (cont.) Which (if any) parts wander off the point?  Which parts might be clarified by adding details or discussion?  How can I make my conclusion more effective?  How does the format and writing style fit my purpose and audience? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. R Writing Workshop 12

55 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Revising: Ask for Comments Read your work aloud to a classmate. Ask questions and discuss possible changes. Then make changes that seem right to you. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. R Writing Workshop 13

56 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Editing/Proofreading When you are satisfied with your essay, proofread for errors in grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling. Use the Proofreading Checklist on the inside back cover of your textbook. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. E/P Writing Workshop 14

57 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Publishing/Presenting If you plan to send your essay to a newspaper or a television station, attach a cover letter. In it, briefly explain who you are, why you wrote your essay, and why you are sending it.  You might also mention why you think the letter should be published or read on the air. Be sure your essay is neatly typed or printed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. P/P Writing Workshop 15

58 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay
Reflecting Look back on the experience of writing this essay. What did you learn about your own attitudes and ideas? How did the process of writing help you strengthen your ideas about the topic? For another reflective essay, what would you do differently? This feature is found on pages 196–200 of your textbook. R Writing Workshop 16


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