Presentation on theme: "Learning Standards as Tools for Assessment and Literacy Development in Kindergarten Present by: Gayle Mindes DePaul University George Morrison University."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Standards as Tools for Assessment and Literacy Development in Kindergarten Present by: Gayle Mindes DePaul University George Morrison University of North Texas
Best Practice Learning is multi-dimensional Developmental areas are inter- related Kindergarteners are competent Development is individualized Expect range of skills across children Active exploration facilitates learning
Starting with State Standards Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. Apply reading strategies to improve understanding and fluency. Comprehend a broad range of reading materials. Understand how literary elements and techniques are used to convey meaning.
Read and interpret a variety of literary works. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and structure. Compose well-organized and coherent writing for specific purposes and audiences Communicate ideas in writing to accomplish a variety of purposes
Texas Kindergarten Learning Standards READING recognize that print represents spoken language and conveys meaning, – such as their own name, and signs such as Exit and Danger recognize upper and lower case letters in print and understand that print represents language manipulate sounds in spoken words (phonemic awareness)
decode simple words using letter-sound knowledge identify words that name persons, places or things, and actions learn new vocabulary words through selections read aloud retell or act out important events in a story gather important information and ask relevant questions.
Texas Kindergarten Learning Standards WRITING write their own name and each letter of the alphabet write messages using their knowledge of letters and sounds record or dictate questions, ideas, stories write labels, notes, and captions for illustrations, possessions, charts, and centers. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Learning Standards for Texas Children
Talents of Young Children Judy Harold Luis Arturo Phillip Adriana Jonathan
Parts are cast Boy who is never chosen for anything I’ll be the pig There is no pig in Cinderella I’ll be the pig What does the pig do The pig demonstrates Cinderella’s words Fulgham,R. Cinderella Updated
Do we have room for the pig in our classrooms? What accommodations are necessary Can the pig feel secure What is the teacher’s role Where do content issues fit
Enhance Talents Scaffold the task Set up learning centers Create supportive learning climate Differentiate outcome expectations
Scaffolding Adjusting support during a teaching session – Direct instruction – Breaking down the task into manageable units – Suggesting strategies – Offering rationale for using strategies – Gradually withdraw support – Turn over responsibility to the child Examples: Working a puzzle Tying shoes
Scaffolding Uses Cues: symbols, words, or phrases to help student recall Cues: over-reminders, such as “Starts w… Probes: – Look for reasoning behind an incorrect response – or ask for clarity when the response is incomplete
Redirects: – Pose the same question to a different student Holds accountable later: – check back with the student who responded incorrectly – to make sure that child has correct answer (privately) Walsh, J. A. & Sattes, B. D. (2005) Quality Questioning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
Scaffolding Strategies Sit and listen closely Ask questions – What have you tried so far – What do you think will happen if – Can you find a way to…
– What are you thinking about? – I’m wondering what you meant when you said – Can you tell me why you decided to… – Can you tell more about… – Why do you think it happened that way? – How would you explain? – What questions do you have now?
When do you feel good about a piece of work you have done? When do you like to work hard on something? Do mistakes help you learn? How? Do other people help you learn? How?
Non-verbal support Eye contact Facial expressions Body posture Hand signals Physical distance Silence (wait time)
Benchmarks Make predictions based on cover, title, and pictures. Connect text to prior experiences and knowledge. Engage in shared/independent reading of familiar predictable text.
Understand that pictures and symbols have meaning and that print carries a message. Demonstrate understanding of concepts about books (i.e., front and back, turning pages, knowing where a story starts, and viewing page on left before page on right). Demonstrate understanding of concepts about print (i.e., words, letters, spacing between words, and left to right).
Demonstrate phonological awareness (i.e., rhymes and alliterations). Demonstrate phonemic awareness (i.e., segmenting and blending syllables and phonemes, and substituting sounds). Demonstrate alphabet knowledge (i.e., recognizes letters and their most common sounds). Read one syllable and high frequency words.
Retell information from a story. Respond to simple questions about reading. Compare/contrast a variety of literary works. Demonstrate understanding that different text forms are used for different purposes. Demonstrate understanding of literal meaning of stories by making comments.
Understand the structure of a story. Recognize narrative, informational texts and rhymes. Show independent interest in and knowledge about books and reading. Comprehend and respond to fiction and non-fiction.
Projects My family My school My neighborhood My community
Assessment Artifacts Autobiography Booklet Book Jacket Book Report Commercial Brochure CD Cover Collage Diagram Graph Dialogue Graphic Organizer CD Cover Diary Tall Tale Radio Announcement
Monument Oral Report Role-Play Outline Photo Essay Sculpture Play or skit Poem Television Newscast Display Animation Artifact Collection Drawing Fairy Tale Illustration Journal Map Toy
Presentations or dramatizations – Include photos, video clips, sound, writing Require a “tell the story” product Write: what a good ___________ looks like Demonstration of concept Create demonstration for younger student Create a product based on the concept Create a “how-to manual”
7 Guidelines for Authentic Assessment Assess children based on their actual work. Assess children based on what they are actually doing in and through the curriculum Assess what each individual child can do. Make assessment part of the learning process. Learn about the whole child Involve children and parents in a cooperative, collaborative assessment process Provide ongoing assessment over the entire year.
Authentic Assessment Recommended Practices for Young Exceptional Children Teachers and families collaborate in planning and implementing assessment. Assessment is individualized and appropriate for the child and family Assessment provides useful information for intervention Teachers share information in respectful and useful ways Teachers meet legal and procedural requirements and Recommended Practices guidelines.
Current Practices in Kindergarten Assessment Report cards align with curriculum standards – Progressing satisfactorily – In progress – Not yet observed or introduced Narrative describing – Social emotional development – Work habits – Literacy and math development
LEVEL 1SAMPLE TASK/STRATEGY RECALL label define who what when identify list name repeat List the names of the main characters in the story.
LEVEL 1SAMPLE TASK/STRATEGYLEVEL IISAMPLE TASK/STRATEGY ANALYSIS subdivide breakdown sort categorize Break the story down into different parts. separate
LEVEL 1SAMPLE TASK/STRATEGYLEVEL IIISAMPLE TASK/STRATEGY COMPARISON compare differentiate relate distinguish Compare the themes of these two stories. contrast
LEVEL 1SAMPLE TASK/STRATEGYLEVEL IVSAMPLE TASK/STRATEGY INFERENCE apply what if anticipate speculate infer predict deduce conclude If I wanted to make this character more believable, how might I do it?
LEVEL 1SAMPLE TASK/STRATEGYLEVEL VSAMPLE TASK/STRATEGY EVALUATION critique debate argue recommend defend appraise assess judge evaluate Evaluate this story. Is it well written? Why or why not?
RUBRICS Scoring guides that differentiate among levels of performance Purposes – To access performance based on pre-established criteria – To make teachers’ expectations clear – To enable children to participate in the evaluation of their own work
A good scoring rubric will define excellence, as well as plan how to help students achieve it. Communicate to students what constitutes excellence, and how to evaluate their own work. Help teachers and other raters be accurate, unbiased, and consistent in scoring.
Elements of a Scoring Rubric Traits or dimensions that form the basis for judging the student’s response Precise definitions and examples, to clarify each trait’s or dimension’s meaning and purpose
A scale of values on which to rate each trait or dimension Standards of excellence for specified performance levels, including examples/models illustrating each level
Designing Rubrics What is the best response? Brainstorm all the qualities of this response. Make a checklist of all the criteria. Select format—analytic or holistic. Describe the levels—exemplary to poor or novice to expert. Define the four point-scale.
Analytic rubric Assesses product through consideration of essential features Acts as framework for teacher and student
Holistic rubric Assesses on basis of overall impression. Does the performance/product work? Am I convinced?
Activity Brainstorm the best chocolate chip cookies – Texture – Appearance – Contents – Smell Hall, E.W. & Salmon, S. J. Chocolate chip cookies and rubrics: Helping students understand rubrics in inclusive settings. Teaching exceptional children, Mar/Apr, 2003, 8-11.
Selecting or creating a rubric… Does it relate to the outcome(s) being measured? Is there anything extraneous being measured? Does the rubric include all the important dimensions of the student’s performance? Do the criteria reflect current conceptions of “excellence”? Are the categories/scales well defined?
Is there a clear basis for ascribing scores at each scale point? Can the rubric be applied consistently by different raters? Is it manageable? Will students, parents, and other stakeholders understand it? Is it developmentally appropriate? Apropos the student’s special learning needs?
When selecting or creating a rubric Can the rubric be applied to a variety of tasks? Is the rubric fair and free from bias? (
Sharing What works in your school? What challenges you?