Presentation on theme: "SpLD/Dyslexia across languages Monolingual and bilingual learners."— Presentation transcript:
SpLD/Dyslexia across languages Monolingual and bilingual learners
Are all bilingual learners the same? No……. Linguistic diversity Linguistic diversity Social and cultural context Social and cultural context Orthographies Orthographies Tensions surrounding identification and support of bilingual children with dyslexia
Linguistic Diversity Learning profiles Cognitive Cognitive Case history Case history Behavioural and social Behavioural and social Difficulties in both phonology and orthography, experienced in first language, will impact upon second language learning ( Ziegler et al, 2005) Use of less flexible strategies by Dyslexic learners (Wahn & Gregg, 2005; Wahn & Romonath, 2005) ( Levels of language competence Levels of understanding and literacy in L1 Introducing children to L2 – simultaneously or consecutively?
The social and cultural context Impact of affective factors on second language acquisition individual e.g. attitude; aptitude societal e.g. status of L1; home/school environment
What do we know about developing literacy across languages? Orthographic differences?
Differences Types of system Logographic Logographic Syllabic Syllabic alphabetic alphabetic Levels of complexity Shallow to deep Shallow to deep Transparent to opaque Transparent to opaque
LogographicSyllabicAlphabetic KanjiChinese No phonological representation Potential phonological RepresentationCyrillicIndo-IranianSlavicTurkicAsianRoman Mixture of alphabetic and syllabic Transparent‘shallow’simpleOpaque‘deep’complex Adapted from Joshi (2005) Kana(Japanese)DevanagarKannutakaFinnishSpanishGreekHungarianItalian Swedish Turkish FrenchPortugeseEnglish Three types of language system
Levels of complexity syllabic/alphabetic orthographies Orth.depthShallowShallowDeeperIncreaseddifficultyDeepestopaque SimpleFinnishTurkishHungarianGreekItalianSpanishPortugueseFrench ComplexAdapted from from Seymour, Seymour, 2005 2005HebrewCzechSerbianCroatianVowelled Persian PersianGermanNorwegianIcelandicDutchSwedishPortugueseDanishEnglish
Developing literacy across languages Transparent orthographies and ‘pathways in the brain’ Deep orthographies and complex processing A slower decoding process –words that violate the rules More ‘catch-up’ time in complex orthographies (Hutzler et al, 2005)
How might dyslexia and bilingualism connect? Each type of orthography makes different cognitive demands Impact of early literacy in L1 Impact of acquiring literacy in a more transparent language Role of phonological processing in identifying dyslexia?
The Dyslexia-friendly School The Road to Inclusion Dr. Tilly Mortimore
If they cannot learn from the ways in which we teach, we must teach them in the ways in which they learn. Harry Chasty If you are not learning, am I a teacher ?
Levelling the playing field… “There is nothing so unfair as the equal treatment of unequal people.” (Thomas Jefferson)
The impact upon children’s behaviour The classroom context Sources of conflict What do we mean by Dyslexia friendly?
Dyslexic behaviour in your context What might I see and how might I interpret it? Work in your away group Select a task or situation that might emerge in your context. When might this situation/task cause conflict for a learner with a dyslexic difference? Where might this occur? What people might be involved?
Dyslexic differences: Cracking the code Reading difficulties - even if well compensated. Planning and writing Handwriting Spelling Note taking Phonological processing Word retrieval - written or oral Sequencing Organisation Memory Automaticity Maths Direction – left/right Extra effort
What does the task/situation demand of the learner? Why is he/she responding in this way? How can I adjust the task or context? Three questions to ask yourself……
everyone feels welcome collaboration rather than competition differences celebrated support and respect learners’ self-esteem nurtured positive language CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE Booth and Ainscow, 2002
Being inclusive Altering our approaches Build on the strengths Compensate for weaknesses Being multi-sensory Exploiting the multi-modal Encouraging the strategic
How would you imagine a dyslexia-friendly school? What would be essential in your context? Home groups 4 Principles 4 Don'ts
THE UK DYSLEXIA-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS INITIATIVE - The background Swansea LEA 1997 – crisis in provision Neil Mackay (education consultant) working with SEN advisor – originated ‘dyslexia- friendly’ ‘Model’ set up at Hawarden High School Rolled out through training Mackay with SENCO groups set up national accreditation scheme for schools BDA ‘Standards’: Leadership and Management Leadership and Management Teaching and Learning Teaching and Learning The Classroom Environment The Classroom Environment Partnership and Liaison Partnership and Liaison
The UK Dyslexia-friendly School Principles into practice Policy – putting practice into policy Training – walking the talk Identification, assessment and monitoring – scrutiny and immediate intervention Responses to needs – walking the talk Parents as partners – completing the loop McKay (2004) BDA Dyslexia Friendly Schools Pack: http://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/files
Dyslexia-friendly schools are Empowering schools because they …. recognise the importance of emotional intelligence and the ‘feel good factor’ individual differences are recognised and celebrated everyone is important all pupils empowered to be “the best they can” individual approaches to learning recognised and harnessed.
Inclusive schools because they….. balance needs for basic skills and broad, varied curriculum social, emotional and intellectual inclusion a top priority weak basic skills not a bar to “top sets” the focus on strengths rather than weaknesses progress monitored via achievement of “can do” statements
How did this match your idea of the dyslexia-friendly school? Similarities? Differences? Why?
Walking in the dyslexic learner’s shoes What do you think dyslexic learners would say here? What Hurts? Thomson & Chinn, 2001
If you shoutIf you go too fastIf you rush themIf you don’t stick to the pointIf you give him too many instructionsToo much copying or dictatingIf you patronise themIf you show them upIf you ridicule themIf you confuse dyslexic with stupid…(Thompson & Chinn, 2001) What will they hate?
What Helps? What do you think dyslexic learners might say? Be Clear, concise, pleasant, calm, patient and prepared to repeat information
Dyslexia-friendly ground rules Avoid overloading weaknesses Planning written work and getting thoughts down on paper Reading slowly even when reading seems compensated Completing tasks at speed Remembering tasks, learned facts, arrangements, especially if under pressure or overloaded Copying any material from a black/white board Secretarial skills
Teach to strengths Identify the learner’s stronger channels Teach in a multi modal way Use peers and your team Be multi-sensory
Ground rules for an inclusive environment Adjust without changing outcomes Change instructional arrangements Change lesson format Change delivery style Adapt curricular goals Change environment or location Change instructional materials Personal assistance? Alternative activity for student and some peers. Be critical of differentiation. Nind, 2006 How to help
A different way of thinking Practical examples …. Why am I asking you to do this?
What might dyslexic learners fear? Here is Milo…..
Success: ‘more of this please!’ Tip: Two “doable” checkable tips Only mark target spellings Think – target one doable improvement the learner can consider for next piece Success-tip-think Hughes (1999) The feedback sandwich
Assessing knowledge Write a paragraph Prove you have learnt something…. How many ways?
Assessing knowledge Write a paragraph Share with a friend Bullet points or post its Drawings and labels Flow chart Comic story board Design a quiz Create a poster Time Line Mind map Model making Radio/hot seat interview Dance drama Build a volcano and explain how it works Prove you have learnt something…. How many ways?
MINIMISING FEARS ( Mackay, 2006; Mortimore &Dupree,2008) Fear of disapproval/lack of understanding Fear of reading aloud Fear of not being able to understand Fear of not being able to keep up Fear of tests Fear of not being able to start Fear of not being able to spell Fear of handing in work to be marked Fear of leaving ‘comfort zone’ Fear of not being able to show what I know Fear of having to write
Task In your home groups (8) Look at the list of fears Your group will be allocated one What adjustments could you make to ensure that this fear is not part of your school. Make your school dyslexia- friendly………
Star Tips Anticipate and avoid failure Task analysis Understand the Impact of failure One bite at a time
Dyslexia-friendly schools Audit Checklist Adapted with permission from Mackay (2004) Mortimore & Dupree (2008) 1. Identification, assessment and monitoring Criteria Date/ In Place? What? Action needed Second check Documented ways of identifying issues with regard to basic skill development Classroom based intervention strategies Needs assessment processes in place Dyslexia friendly marking systems Dyslexia friendly testing assessment
Criteria Date/ In Place? What? Action needed Second check Good-practice in policies Classroom management strategies in staff handbook Information about students fully available Dyslexia friendly materials used by all staff Dyslexia friendly testing and marking systems used by all staff Dyslexia friendly homework practices Work acceptable in range of forms Strategies in place to access material for exam revision and research Strategies in place to compensate for poor literary skills 2 : Responses to needs
‘Dyslexia friendly settings’ Recommended Reading British Dyslexia Association (BDA) 2005 Achieving Dyslexia-friendly Schools (5th edn) Reading: BDA. available online at www.bdaweb.co.uk/bda/downloads/wholedocument.pdf McKay, N. (2006) Removing Dyslexia as a Barrier to Achievement: The Dyslexia Friendly Schools Toolkit Oxford: SEN marketing Mckay, N. & Tresman, S. (2006) Achieving Dyslexia-friendly Schools. Oxford: SEN Marketing Mortimore,T. & Dupree, J. (2008) Dyslexia-friendly Practice in the Secondary Classroom. Exeter: Learning Matters Pavey, B. (2007) The Dyslexia-Friendly Primary School. London: Paul Chapman Reid, G. (2005) Dyslexia and Inclusion. Classroom Approaches for Assessment, Teaching and Learning. London; David Fulton DfES (2002) Learning and Teaching for Dyslexic Children. www.standards.dfes.gov.uk CD Rom available