Presentation on theme: "Academic Vocabulary Presenter: Amy Benjamin You may access any of today’s visuals at: www.amybenjamin.comwww.amybenjamin.com Today’s Agenda: 1.How do words."— Presentation transcript:
Academic Vocabulary Presenter: Amy Benjamin You may access any of today’s visuals at: www.amybenjamin.comwww.amybenjamin.com Today’s Agenda: 1.How do words get learned and stay learned? 2.What do we mean by “academic vocabulary”? 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction 4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary
Rich Gradual Cumulative Recursive The visuals for today’s presentation are available for your classroom use. Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.com Goals: 1.Vocabulary growth in authentic situations 2.Improved ability to derive meaning of unfamiliar words 3. Positive attitude about words and language Aggressive Purposeful Pervasive
Aggressive Purposeful Pervasive Persistent Implicit: Natural language acquisition through immersion Explicit: Planned instruction on targeted words: Etymology (word histories) Morphology (word parts Estimation: 3% to 20% of instructional time spent on vocabulary
“Lotus Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl Vocabulary Words: Algae—seaweed Bulwark—a wall built for defense Estuary– wide mouth of a river where it empties into the sea Incandescence—brightness given off by a hot object Mangrove—a tropical tree Poultice—herbal medicines applied to a wound or sore Undulating—waving, swinging
“Rose Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl Mangrove: a tropical tree that grows in clusters very close to a body of water What do we notice about mangrove trees? (other than “mangrove”) What might I google to get a picture of a mangrove tree? Did you ever see mangrove trees? where?
“Rose Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl Poultice: a mix of herbs or other plants, crushed and placed inside cloth, to be applied to a wound as a home remedy Poultices can be made of herbs, garlic, carrots, potatoes, ginger, lemon, etc.
“ Watering Can Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl incandescence: glow adj: incandescent eyes Related words: candle candidate kindle Sentence: Under an incandescent sliver of the moon, the trees appeared life-like.. Synonyms and Near Synonyms: illumination radiance gleam glistening glittering glint brilliance example non- example
What if ad executives taught vocabulary? repetition association with emotion association with an image humor story novelty
apprentice: (n) one bound by legal agreement to work for another for a specified time in return for his training in a trade, an art, or a business scheme: (n, v) a systematic plan of action Definition contains unfamiliar language Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading Limited information Usually, no context Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definition
“ Charlotte, are you thirsty? Would you like some juice? What kind of juice do you want? Do you want apple juice? That’s the yellow juice that you liked at Nana’s. No? Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice? OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup or the Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully. Two hands. Don’t squeeze it! It’ll spill all over the place. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.
Categories of Word Knowledge: New word/ new, complex concept Concept may be understood on progressively deeper level photosynthesis III. insulin quadratic equation calculus
Of Limited Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Of Durable Value… Words in clusters Leisure reading Multiple exposures in various contexts Chances to speak, hear, write Manipulation of forms of words Classify and categorize word lists Word games, puzzles
Rules of Thumb New learners need SIX (meaningful) exposures to a new word during the initial lesson and at least THIRTY additional exposures during the ensuing month. The chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context are 10-15%. We learn most words through non-conscious effort, in pursuit of information of interest.
Explicit Teaching: Etymology Illuminates Meaning nostalgia algia: pain neuralgia Gr: nostos: return home Visuals illuminate meaning
Explicit Teaching: Personal connections Illuminate Meaning nostalgia Have you ever been homesick? Stories illuminate meaning
Explicit Teaching: Teaching morphology facilitates use nostalgia, nostalgic Have you ever felt nostalgic for elementary school? Teaching collocation facilitates use: I’m nostalgic for… I’m nostalgic about… feel nostalgic…. Connecting to related words facilitates use: sentimental, memories, forgotten, reminds me of, evokative, deja vu
Tier 3: glossary word: Multisyllabic Specific to a subject area Latin or Greek-based topography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle, sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographer Tier 2: Words of education, business, government, religion: Components: Prefix, root, suffix Latin-based elevation, formation, protrude, expansive, isolated, remote Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family 1 or 2 syllables Learned naturally, through exposure hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb, green, high…
Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation Sagacity: Sound judgment Hearkening: Giving careful attention Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined Over-acuteness: Very keen Concealment: A means of hiding Waned: Grown gradually less Scantlings: Small quantities or amounts
Complete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image. Target Word: Visual: Draw or find a picture: My guess: Dictionary Definition: Understanding the words we meet in reading Definition in my own words:
“A noble spirit embiggens the smallest man.” -Jebediah Simpson
Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly? Three Questions: 1.How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again soon? Is it necessary for comprehension? 2.Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning skills that can be applied to other words? 3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting?
Prior Knowledge: How well do I know these words? StrangersAcquaintances Friends
The Academic Word List (AWL): Background: The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts. These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency. A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the word adjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words). The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learners studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law. This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one, specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage. Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek. Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly boost a student’s comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation. The following link gives you a two-page version of the list: http://www.doe.in.gov/TitleI/pdf/Word_List_Feldman.pdf Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.
Academic Word List: Subset 1 analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary Academic Word List: Subset 2 achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS) Daily Practice: analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long. achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme sequence shift specify sufficient technical technique technology valid volume
“ Elevated language used in class by teachers; students given motive and opportunity to use elevated vocabulary in speech and writing. Students have more opportunities to read for a variety of purposes, including self-selected material. IMPLICIT INSTRUCTION Academic Word List Open Field EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION “Focus 40” words from the Academic Word List selected by grade level teachers: 1 word per week 2-3 words related to or associated with each of the “Focus 40”; each subject area teacher decides on related words Subject-specific words, such as those found in a glossary A Plan for School-wide Vocabulary Instruction
Vocabulary Concordance 1. 7. 6. 4. 5. 2. 3. Spanish consists of two- thirds Latin-based and one third Arabic-based words. Catalan of roughly half Spanish and half French words.. consistent in your daily practice. Jazz consists of African elements. consists The U.S. government of three branches: legislative, judicial, executive. of nine Justices.The Supreme Court Cake batter should have a smoothconsistency before you bake it. To learn to play a musical instrument, you must be Subset 1
Vocabulary Concordance 1. 7. 6. 4. 5. 2. 3. concept Conception of life on other planets is intriguing. begins with the union of two cells. concept to learn, at first. Idealists Conceptually a world of justice and opportunity.conceptualize concept The of the Pythagorean theorem is still used today.. speaking, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity could some day help us time travel. He was unable to grasp theconcept of derivatives in math. Quantum physics can be a difficult The Subset 1
Academic Vocabulary Concordance 1. 7. 6. 4. 5. 2. 3. perceived perceive the teacher’s attitude as rude and therefore unprofessional. that she might.need alternative methods of instruction. perception of the viewer. perception and observations of the scientist must be objective. perceptions Perceiving a potential problem because of the river’s current, the captain changed course. of its role in the people’s lives is the basis of its philosophy. Iperceive a problem with the safety rules not being properly posted. The angle of a plane can depend on the The class The government’s The The student’s unwillingness to comply with directives led the teacher to Subset 2
Vocabulary Concordance 1. 7. 6. 4. 5. 2. 3. When doing origami precise folding is essential. The measurements are required for figuring out the dimensions of the angle. precision tools require high maintenance. Synthetic diamonds require precisely cutting. precise The Boeing 787 is the result of engineering. how to assemble the bicycle. The owner’s manual illustrates GPS satellites afford precisegeographic locations. Subset 5
Consequence It occurs later. It happens as a result. An event’s effect. Subset 2
Incorporate Bring into the mix— Creating a new oneness— Integrate the parts. Subset 6
Implement Employ and apply Put to immediate use. Get the plan to work. Subset 4
It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms. Morphology Chart NOUNS: The_____. VERBS: I_____; He______ Yesterday he_____ He is___________. ADJECTIVES: The ______truck ADVERBS Do it___________.