2EOSDN The Thinking Symposium Lucy WestPower Point Available Next Week on Web Site
3Characteristics of the 21st Century Ever-accelerating changeInformation continually multiplying and simultaneously becoming obsoleteIdeas are continually restructured, retested, rethoughtOne cannot survive with simply one way of thinkingOne must continually adapt one’s thinking to the thinking of otheresRespect the need for accuracy, precision, meticulousnessJob skills must continually be upgraded, perfected even transformedRichard Paul
4Are we ready for the 21st Century? Education has never before had to prepare students for such dynamic flux, unpredictability, complexity and for such ferment, tumult and disarray.Are we willing to fundamentally rethink our methods of teaching? The way we manage our organizations?Are we willing to learn new concepts and ideas?Are we willing to bring new rigor and discipline to our own thinking in order to help our teachers and students bring that same rigor to theirs?Richard Paul
5It’s what you can’t see Results Culture & Behavior Strategy Structure ContentProcessCulture & Behavior
6What is thinking? How would you describe/define thinking? What evidence would you collect to convince others that thinking was taking place in a given lesson?What is the relationship between thinking and learning?To what degree is it necessary to know what students are thinking in order to facilitate their learning?How do we develop “disciplined” thinking in ourselves and our students?
73-Year-Olds Can!Critical thinking is not a set of skills that can be deployed at any time, in any context. It is a type of thought that even 3-year-olds can engage in—and even trained scientists can fail in.And it is very much dependent on domain knowledge and practice.At it’s best it is a “disciplined” way of thinking that requires many kinds of questioning.
8What doeach of the6 C’s look,feel, andsound like?Where do the 6 C’sfit into thepresentcurriculum?What newskills, beliefs,or pedagogy isneeded toincorporate the6 C;sHow committedare you to the6 C’s?
9What does thinking critically entail? Seeing both sides of an issueBeing open to new evidence that disconfirms your ideasReasoning dispassionatelyDemanding that claims be backed by evidenceDeducing and inferring conclusions from available factsSolving problems
10What questions might people who think critically habitually ask? How do you know that?What is your source? What is the source of that source?What evidence do you have? What further evidence do we need?How might I be wrong about this?What other perspectives might be valid here?What are the possible pitfalls? LWhat haven’t we yet considered?
12What does it mean to think reflectively? To suspend judgment during further inquirySuspense is likely to be somewhat painfulAn attitude of suspended conclusionMastering various methods of searching for new materials to corroborate or to refute the belief, hypothesis, claimMaintaining the state of doubtTo carry on systematic and protracted inquiryJohn Dewey, 1909
13Specific Domains Require Particular Kinds of Thinking Think like a mathematicianThink like a scientistThink like an historianThink like an art critiqueEach require a relatively deep knowledge of the domain
14Why can we thinking critically in one situation and not another? Thought processes are intertwined with what is being through about.Experts see the underlying structure and patterns, novices see the superficial structure.The deep structure of a problem is harder to recognize.
15Solve this ProblemTreasure hunter is going to explore a cave on hill near a beach.Many paths inside cave and might get lost.—No map.Has only a flashlight and a bag.What could he do to make sure he does not get lost when trying to get back out of the cave?75% of westerners come up with some Hansel and Gretel approach—our prior knowledge impacts our solution.
16What kind of practice?It takes a good deal of practice with a problem type to get know it well enough to immediately recognize its deep structure, irrespective of the surface structure.Knowing to look for deep structure is part of critical thinking.How often in class are we asking students to unpack the structure of a problem? To compare various situations that are related for structural cues?
17Transforming Tendencies At present, the work of teaching must not only transform natural tendencies into trained habits of thought, but must also fortify the mind against irrational tendencies current in the social environment (e.g. prejudice), and help displace erroneous habits already produced (e.g. through family influence, media, advertising).Dewey
18Reflective ThinkingIs always more or less troublesome because it involves overcoming the inertia that inclines one to accept suggestions at their face value;It involves willingness to endure a condition of mental unrest and disturbance.How We Think, John Dewey p.13
19Thinking DeeplyThinking deeply involves a willingness to persevere.
20Talk MovesWhat specific moves did the teacher make to ensure that students were listening to one another?What evidence is there that these students are used to sharing their ideas and questioning each other’s thinking?How close is this image to yours of effective mathematics instruction and learning?Specifically what do you think is important in this exchange?How might you foster the effective aspects of this exchange in the practice of the teachers at your school?
21VideoTurkey Problem--24 lb. Turkey--15 minutes per pound to cook--How long to cook the turkey?Grade 3—prior to any teaching of any multiplication algorithmsSharing student work after students have solved the problem.Teacher deliberately determines the order in which selected partners will share.Is this an example of making student thinking visible and/or effective feedback? What’s your evidence?
22Excerpt 1-Focus on Meaning Amber: So um we kept doing it and then we got here. Um, 360.D: And what is the 360?Amber: How long it…Vicky: 360D: 360, and what does that mean, Vicky?Vicky: That means that it is … you have to… you have to let it cook for 360 minutes.D: 360 minutes. Who thinks they can explain how Amber and Vicky figured this out? What did they do?
23Excerpt 2-Connecting Explanation to Equation Rafe: They counted by 15s all the way up to 360.D: Can you tell from there (the chart) how many 15s? How many jumps of 15 they have to make?Rafe: 24, because I can see the number sentence.D: And what did the number sentence say?Rafe: 15 x 24 = 360.D: Equals 360.
24Excerpt 3-Clues & Questions Nellie: Yeah. I know what they did, but there’s one thing that they didn’t figure out: how many hours 360 is.D: How many hours 360 is. Without telling Victoria and Amber how many hours um 360 minutes is, can somebody give them a clue about how they might want to figure that out? How could they figure that out? Emma F?Emma F.: I don’t know how to explain it, but….how did they know when to stop?D: Well, that’s a great question.Vicky: Because…Amber: We counted 24 jumps. We counted 15, I mean 24 jumps.D: You counted 24 jumps. OK. Did you understand that, Emma? How they did that … they counted each jump and they counted 24 times. (nod from Emma) Let’s get back to the clue.
25Excerpt 4-Student to Student Mackenzie: You can count up to 60 minutes and then like circle that and keep on circling 60 minutes and then that would be how many hours there is.Amber: How do we know it’s 60 minutes? What do you mean?Mackenzie: ‘Cause 60 minutes is an hour.Amber: I mean, what do we circle? Like…Mackenzie: You would get 10, 20, 30…Amber: We’re counting by 15s not ones.Mackenzie: I know, but…Vicky: How much 15s would we have to circle to make 60?Griffin: You circle up to the 60 and then … wait. You circle up to the 60 and then you keep going like that.
26Excerpt 5-Effort-Based Iterative Process Vicky: I figured it out myself. I know how much you have to circle.D: How much do you have to circle?Vicky: You circle 4 because if you circle 2 …Amber: She means how much circles—hours—is 4.D: So you know what you have to do to figure it out now, right? You know what you have to do. Great.
27Was there evidence of the following characteristics of an environment conducive to talk in Dana’s class?Dialogue requires a climate where it is safe for learners (adults and students) to:Come up with ideas (incomplete, way out)Think out loud (partial, confusion)Explain their reasoning (misconceptions)Explore their understanding (dive deeper)
28 Instructional Rounds in Education City, Elmore, Fiarman and Teitel There are only three ways to improve student learning at scale:Increase the level of knowledge and skill that the teacher brings to the instructional processChange the role of the student in the instructional processIncrease the level and complexity of the content that students are asked to learn
29What’s so hard about increasing student discourse? Teacher habits, beliefs, pressuresStudent habits, beliefs, historyWorthiness of the task at hand
30 Instructional Rounds in Education City, Elmore, Fiarman and Teitel There are only three ways to improve student learning at scale:Increase the level of knowledge and skill that the teacher brings to the instructional processChange the role of the student in the instructional processIncrease the level and complexity of the content that students are asked to learn
31Video 8th Grade Class--not yet engaging in discourse 28 students present--100% African American15 Coaches and Teacher leaders observe (PLC)6% School-wide passing rateClassroom Arrangement AlteredPartial Purpose, demonstrate how to get reluctant learners to engage in dialogueConnected Mathematics—Bridge Problem—Linear Algebra—Reading Issues
32Directions for Assignment Read pages 5 and 6 (CMP Unit-Thinking with Mathematical Models, Invest. 2.1)Problem 1.1 A and B (Paper Bridges)Talk to a neighbor and explain what it is you need to doCreate teams of 3 peoplePenny counterBridge alignerData recorder
33Directions for Assignment For each bridge thickness, predict the number of pennies it will take to collapse your bridge.Find out how many pennies it took to collapse your bridge for each thicknessMake a tableMake a graphWrite statements about what you notice about the dataPut your team data on:Class tableClass graphYou have 20 minutes to complete the work
34Paper Bridges Data 8th Grade Class, Baltimore, MD.
35Classroom Video Summary Discussion after group work Discourse so far: Expectations to listen and be able to paraphrase or ask questionCan be called on with or without volunteeringWill do most of the talkingExpected to make statements about dataSome of the data seems to double-examples examinedOne of the samples has the same data at levels 4 and 5
36What are the teacher moves? Call on a student whether or not student volunteersStay with student for several exchangesFocus the student on the specific question at handGive student “heads-up” that you will check in againTurn and TalkGet another student to answer; paraphraseReturn to studentI believe in you; I’m here for you; you can do it.
37Talk, Task and FeedbackEffective feedback requires discourse that makes students thinking visibleOne important variable in generating student discourse is the richness of the taskIf the task is not rich enough, there is little for students to think or talk aboutIf the teacher’s questions are focused on right answers, it is unlikely the discourse will ever get beyond short responses by individual students
38Student to Student Discourse To generate discourse that exposes and deepens student thinking, teachers and students need to listen to and reflect on the ideas contributed by each studentTo generate discourse, listening habits need to be cultivated and modeled by the teacherTo generate robust classroom discourse student voices must be given almost as much weight as teacher voices
39English Language Acquisition Our Class This Year—Special EducationEnglish Language AcquisitionTruancy57%78%52%State Test Scores75% Unsatisfactory20% Partially Proficient0% Proficient0% Advanced
40Observations Session 1Part-Time Coaches—retired teacher; teacher on staffCoaches did not have shared values, beliefs, pedagogy, or shared practicesCulture—regular meetings without strong focus on instruction and learning; teacher preference normKristen—Math Teacher, third year teachingMichelle—Special Needs, about 12 years teaching, not comfortable with mathematics contentStudents unskilled at talking and listening; engagement by a few students and expectations and evidence of student learning not clear
41Session 2—Uh Oh Trigonometry lesson Consultant’s content expertise is stretchedTeacher’s lesson plan is questionedLessons have been procedurally focusedEmotions and stress levels are highConsultant teaches the lessonStudents reveal several misconceptions and partial knowledgeStudents are challenged to talk and listen to one another and to write down their ideas
42Session Three Lesson design is more conceptually based Have been working on talk moves, clear/higher expectationsKristen and Michelle teach the lesson (with a bit of coaching from Lucy)Significant difference in student discourse and engagementCoach worked with Kristen and Michelle 3-4 time between sessions with Lucy
43Video Clip--Lesson Overview ProbabilityAddition Rule: The students were having trouble with what it means to be mutually exclusive.Example:Mutually Exclusive:P(roll sum of 7 or you get doubles)=Not Mutually Exclusive:P(roll a sum of 8 or you get doubles)=
44The Video Lesson takes place in February 2011 Unit on Probability One Week Into the Unit26 Students EnrolledTwo Teachers—Math Teacher, Special Ed.About mid-lesson—had done some simple probabilities using area models, now into the investigationThis exchange is an organic response to student statement—not in plan
45VideoAs you watch the video, listen for the things the teacher is saying and watch the things she is doing to ensure students are talking and listening to each other.
46Analyzing the Talk Moves Read the transcript and underline the “moves” the teacher makes to ensure that kids are talking and listening to one another.
47Naming the Moves Asks student to take a stand Gives him space, but promises to come backRestates expectations re: listeningInsists speakers speaks loudly enoughRevoices—infusing new languageFeigns confustionHighlights a specific part for clarificationRevoices/clarifiesGets students to rephrase/summarize
48Balentine: Carlos, did you believe that this was mutually exclusive or that it is not mutually exclusive?Carlos: I don’t know, I was busy doing work.Balentine: So you were on another problem. Ok, can somebody help out Carlos and then I’m going to come back to you.Guillermo: I didn’t say.Balentine: You didn’t say. Do I have a volunteer to help us out before I call on someone else?
49Balentine: Brooke. Remember we’re listening because I’m going to go back to Carlos and then I’m going to ask at least one more person to rephrase.Brooke: Not mutually exclusive because….Guillermo: Can you repeat that?Balentine Yes, because I’m going to need you to be way louder because I can barely hear you.
50Guillermo: It’s not mutually exclusive because she can own black shoes and white shoes. Balentine So it’s not mutually exclusive because she can own black shoes and white shoes.Balentine Susana, can you rephrase why this is not mutually exclusive one more time because I’m not understanding the difference between mutually exclusive and not
51Susana: Because you can own them both black and white shoes. Balentine: So what does mutually exclusive actually mean?Susana: They could not happen.Balentine So it is not possible?Susana: YeahBalentine So you’re saying that, this is possible?
52Brooke : It isBalentine: So it’s not mutually exclusive.Balentine: Gerardo, can you rephrase Brooke and Susana’s thinking one more time before Carlos sums it all up for us?Gerardo: That it’s impossibleBalentine: This is impossible
53Balentine: Carlos in your own words, why is this not mutually exclusive? Carlos: Um not mutually exclusive…Balentine Just a second, I’m so sorry I couldn’t hear him because somebody was talking. Carlos nice and loud, why is this not mutually exclusive?Carlos: Not, because she can own both of the shoes at once.Balentine: Excellent. Does anybody have any questions on mutually exclusive?
54Analyzing VideoScaffolds for the student’s success and then returns to the student as promisedTeacher is scripting students’ ideas on boardWriting important terms on the board as they come upUses popsicle sticks with students names on them to determine who to call on when no one is volunteeringCalls on students whether or not their hands are raised
55Advice from KristenUse your first day of school lesson to introduce accountable talk.Have the students turn and talk to a partner and tell them to be prepared to share out their responses.Remind the students to use names when speaking to each other.
56Planning Is Important Plan with others Concentrate on big ideas— Collaboration makes a huge differenceConcentrate on big ideas—Hone in on the focusIdentify student misconceptions; confusionScaffold for students
57Daily Expectations During this turn and talk… …I should see you facing your assigned partner…I should hear math talk about the question askedWhile others are sharing out……you are looking at the person speaking…you are listening…you are prepared to explain, rephrase, clarify, or add on
58Give Them Time Think/Pair/Share (Turn and Talk) Pre-write Let them know ahead of time
59Always Come Back Tell the student that you will come back to them. Learn how to listen and learn from classmatesTeacher stance is, “You can do this. I will help.”Clear/high expectations to participate.Have 1-3 students speak.Go back to the student.If they still don’t have a response—turn and talk—revoice—don’t give up—go back to student again
60Listening is a Learned Skill This skill takes time to developPatience with students a mustThis is not natural for anyone—students/adultsNot an easy processNot always a valued part of our culture
61This is making a difference in the classroom. Student to student questioning has improved within and beyond the whole class discussions.Students are not afraid to make mistakes.Students are no longer satisfied with just an answer.Why do you think that? How do you know?Improved mathematical writing.Different from copying off the board.Teacher scripting and recording vocabulary in use gives ELL kids entryKids are coming to class.
62Truancy Kids are Coming to Class Gerardo126 total absences only 4 for our classYesenia70 total absences only 3 for our classDevante’66 total absences only 5 for our classGabriel142 total absences only 12 for our class
63Student Testimonials“I know what to write about because the class said it five times.” Guillermo“I like to tell the class what I know.” Brooke“It helps me when other students say it before me.” Gerardo“It (accountable talk) makes me pay attention even when I don’t want to.” Susanna
64This is making a difference at our school. Share your work with other teachers.Visit each other’s classes.Get your coaches or department chairs involved in what you want to work on.Volunteer for initiatives; coaching support, etc.
65Welcome To Day 2We invite you to take a few minutes to engage individually and reflectively in this minds on activity:3 things from yesterday that resonate with you about thinking and how we can make it visible with colleagues and students.2 things you want to take back and go more deeply with in your practice with colleagues and students.1 thing you will try, starting Monday, with colleagues and/or students around talk moves.
66Make Public Your Commitment Please do a quick round robin at your table during which each person reads aloud the two things they want to think more deeply about and the one thing they are committed to doing on Monday in terms of talk moves.Were there any themes? If so, post the themes so we can learn what wants to emerge.
67KaizenWhat is the smallest step you can take to begin to achieve your goal?If you take that step for days, you will create a new habit and will be ready to take the next step.
69Learn To LearnThe number one characteristic of people who will be successful in the 21st century are those who know how to learn.FriedmanThe World Is Flat
70Learning At Levels Individual In the classroom, the faculty room, the principal’s office, the boardroom.Transform schools into learning organizations in which everyone has something to learn and something to contribute to the learning of others and the profession.Agents of Change: How Content Coaching Transforms Teaching and Learning
71What is a learning organization? An organization that is continually curious about what is and isn’t working and making incremental adjustments aligned with its primary purposeThe players at every level inhabit an inquiry stance and practice asking difficult, challenging questions
72Influencers Attend to 6 Variables Schedules have to be changed to accommodate group work around practiceNew roles have to be developed (coaches) to bring new knowledge into the classroom
73Accountable talk includes: Accountable to the communityAccountable to the contentAccountable to the reasoning employed in that domain
743 Basic Essential Talk Moves Turn and Talk—has the potential to get 100% of the students engaged and willing to take a standTell me more…OR Why do you think that?—puts the emphasis on finding out what others think and how they came to the conclusion they did. (Develops awareness, capacity to think about one’s thinking, reasoning, precision)Who can repeat/paraphrase what was just said? (Establishes clear expectation to listen; hones capacity to reflect on ideas, construct viable arguments)Talk moves on web site
75When to use turn and talk: When lots of hands are raisedWhen no one seems ready to speak whole groupStudents need time think something throughDecide where you stand (agree/disagree/not sure)Explain an idea under discussionClarifyOpportunity to explore and participate in order to listen/engage in whole groupArticle available on web site:
76Talk Matters A LotThe environment in successful high poverty schools is more conversational and less interrogationalInteractions invited conversationTeachers worked to get kids to think aloud and modeled thinking aloudWhen classes are conversational the achievement gains are twice as largeRichard Allington
77Learning from other countries: Instruction between teacher and individual student is often sustained over a sequence of several question-answer exchangesQuestions are designed to encourage reasoning and speculation, not just elicit right answersTeacher feedback provides information and diagnosis on which the child can build, rather than judgment aloneTeaching has pace, but without the clock watching pressure—cognitive pace verses organizational paceAlexander, 2010
78Learning from other countries: Talk tends to display greater attention to discrimination and precision in vocabulary, grammar and syntax, to volume, clarity and expressiveness, and to the development of the distinctive registers required for different subjects (the oral equivalent of writing genres)The culture of classroom talk is more public and confident. Children talk loudly and clearly. They listen and expect to be listened to. And the making of mistakes in front of other children is intrinsic to learning rather than shameful or embarrassing.Alexander, 2010
79Learning from other countries: Oracy is regarded as no less important than literacyRelationship between talking, reading and writing is clearly articulated—talk intrinsic to literacySustained oral work in most lessonsSome formal assessments are oralPurpose of classroom talk is mainly cognitive rather than about developing confidence—focuses on developing thinkingTeachers model talk at its best.Alexander, 2010
80Why the focus on discourse? John Hattie’s 750+ meta analyses to identify major influences on achievement—50,000 studies involving 200 million students-Effect size: .72Average effect size of interventions that matter .40
81Achievement Strategies Related to Discourse No. of StudiesNo. of EffectsEffect SizeFeedback12761928.72Questioning214312.49Challenging Goals454671.56Metacognitive Strategies43123.67Teaching Students Self-Verbalization921061Cooperative Learning22851519
82What doeach of the6 C’s look,feel, andsound like?Where do the 6 C’sfit into thepresentcurriculum?What newskills, beliefs,or pedagogy isneeded toincorporate the6 C;sHow committedare you to the6 C’s?
84Like Role SeatingOnly one or two people from the same boards at a table.Fill up each table-- 10 to a table.Sit with people who do the same work you do:Left back quadrant—Support folks from Boards (e.g. Superintendents, Instructional Consultants, Coaches)Right back quadrant—Building level instructional leaders and administrators (e.g. principals, assistant principals, coaches)Left front quadrant—Secondary teachersRight front quadrant—Elementary teachers
85Practice Taking a Learning Stance Mindset: I wonder what I can learn from folks who do the same work I do in places outside my board?Commitment: To LISTEN well to the ideas and concerns of others and to INQUIRE more deeply into their thinking, experience and beliefs.Self-awareness: To notice when I’m open and willing to learn from others, what role I’m playing in the group, how I’m choosing to engage, when I’m acting like I already know, when I’m judging others, when I’m thinking critically and deeply, and so forth.
86InvitationIndependently and individually take a moment to think of a time when you gathered really useful information in an informal or unusual way that helped to guide your instruction, your coaching, your supervision and be willing to share this strategy with your colleagues.In a round robin fashion spending no more than 1-2 minutes per person, share the example you came up with. If you were unable to come up with an example, either pass or pose a question. (Do not answer the question during this first round please.)
87Invitation--Round 2What were one or two ideas that came up that you want to hear more about?Feel free to sit break into partnerships, triads, quads, whatever so you get to hear more details from the person who shared an idea that has you thinking.If no one had an idea you want to probe further, then make a list of questions and challenges you have regarding assessment independently or with a partner and be prepared to share you questions with the group.You have 5 minutes for this part of the work.
88Video Clips Clip 4—Dave—preconference Clips 1 and 2—Dave—lesson Clips of conferring with individual students
89Assessment What constitutes assessment? What are the purposes of assessment?In what ways are evaluation and assessment the same things?What is the difference between assessment for, as amd of learning and how would the tools used for each kind of assessment differ?How to both informally assess often and regularly AND grade with numbers, letters, etc. on report cards and so forth?
90Purposes of Assessment Assessing student prior knowledge to guide instructionAssessing student present thinking to guide instruction either individually or collectivelyAssessing student interests and learning preferences to differentiate instruction, provide choiceStudent/adult self-assessment to development next steps, metacognitive habits of mind, social/emotional awareness and skillsShared reflection on the learning process
91Stance of AssessorVisible listening—notes, slides, videos to understand student’s path’s, processes, thinkingPedagogy of listening throughout a lesson (e.g. classroom discourse, stop and jot, inviting questions)Inquisitive and responsive—tell me more, show us what you mean, give an example, draw, write, describe, explain, help me understand, convince me
92What question are you seeking to answer? Why? What do I (you) know about…How do I (you) know I (you) know that?How deeply do I (you) understand the content under study?Under what circumstances can I (you) apply the knowledge in question?What misconceptions, partial knowledge, questions do (I) you have? How might we address these?How can I (you) support further learning?What learning strategies work for (me) you?
93When and How Do We Assess Assessment through conversationAssessment through the use of videoAssessment through student work samplesAssessment through stop and jot momentsAssessment through exit ticketsSelf, peer, teacher, coach, authentic audience assessmentBefore, during, at the end and after through reflection
94What do you want next time? When we meet in the Spring, what do you want to go deeper in?Think individuallyRound RobinEach table submit 1-3 themes for next time.Please list table numbers when you respond so we can intentionally seat tables together based on interest.