2 MODALS Modals are auxilary verbs. Use simple modals (modal+base form) for the present and future.Use perfect modals (modal+ have+ past participle) to show degrees of necessity in the past.
3 OBLIGATIONPRESENTMUSTHAVE TOHAVE GOT TOPASTHAD TO
4 PRESENT MUST HAVE TO HAVE GOT TO Use must formally to show very strong obligation that can’t be escapedHAVE TOUse have to in all forms and situations, formal and informal.HAVE GOT TOUse have got to informally in conversations. It is rarely used in the negative. Use don’t have to instead.
5 PAST HAD TO Use had to to show past necessity BE CAREFUL! Don’t use must have + past participle to show past necessity
6 NEGATİVE FORMS BUT, Must and have to have similar meanings Must not and don’t have to have very different meanings.
7 We use don’t/doesn’t have to to say that something is not necessary. We use must not to say that it is necessary not to do something ( that it is prohibited ).You must not smoke here.We use don’t/doesn’t have to to say that something is not necessary.You don’t have to eat everything offered to youIn the past, we use didn’t have to+ base form to show that something was not necessary.You didn’t have to bring a gift.
8 REQUESTMAYCANWİLLCOULDMİGHTWOULDDO YOU MİND …WOULD YOU MİND …
9 We use these modals to say our demands politely. We use generally these modals as simple modals (modal + base form) for the present and future.
10 MIGHT MAY CAN COULD WİLL WOULD Might I leave a little early today? I have got an appoinment.COULDCould you bring some water, please?WOULDWould you buy a pocket of butter for us, please?MAYMay I go out with my friends tonight, mum?CANCan I use your printer? I don’t have one.WİLLWill you please pass that dictionary over here?
11 DO YOU MİND … WOULD YOU MİND… Would you mind turning off the heater? Dou you mind turning off the heater?(ısıtıcıyı kapatmanızın sakıncası var mı?)Do you mind if I turn off the heater?(ısıtıcıyı kapatmamın sakıncası var mı?)WOULD YOU MİND…Would you mind turning off the heater?(ısıtıcıyı kapatmanızın sakıncası var mı?)Would you mind if I turn off the heater?(ısıtıcıyı kapatmamın sakıncası var mı?)