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MODALS (obligation and request). MODALS  Modals are auxilary verbs.  Use simple modals (modal+base form) for the present and future.  Use perfect modals.

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Presentation on theme: "MODALS (obligation and request). MODALS  Modals are auxilary verbs.  Use simple modals (modal+base form) for the present and future.  Use perfect modals."— Presentation transcript:

1 MODALS (obligation and request)

2 MODALS  Modals are auxilary verbs.  Use simple modals (modal+base form) for the present and future.  Use perfect modals (modal+ have+ past participle) to show degrees of necessity in the past.

3 OBLIGATION PRESENT  MUST  HAVE TO  HAVE GOT TO PAST  HAD TO

4 PRESENT  MUST Use must formally to show very strong obligation that can’t be escaped  HAVE TO Use have to in all forms and situations, formal and informal.  HAVE GOT TO Use have got to informally in conversations. It is rarely used in the negative. Use don’t have to instead.

5 PAST  HAD TO Use had to to show past necessity  BE CAREFUL! Don’t use must have + past participle to show past necessity

6 NEGATİVE FORMS  Must and have to have similar meanings BUT,  Must not and don’t have to have very different meanings.

7  We use must not to say that it is necessary not to do something ( that it is prohibited ).  You must not smoke here.  We use don’t/doesn’t have to to say that something is not necessary.  You don’t have to eat everything offered to you  In the past, we use didn’t have to+ base form to show that something was not necessary.  You didn’t have to bring a gift.

8 REQUEST  MAY  CAN  WİLL  COULD  MİGHT  WOULD  DO YOU MİND …  WOULD YOU MİND …

9 o We use these modals to say our demands politely. o We use generally these modals as simple modals (modal + base form) for the present and future.

10  MAY  May I go out with my friends tonight, mum?  CAN  Can I use your printer? I don’t have one.  WİLL  Will you please pass that dictionary over here?  MIGHT  Might I leave a little early today? I have got an appoinment.  COULD  Could you bring some water, please?  WOULD  Would you buy a pocket of butter for us, please?

11  DO YOU MİND …  Dou you mind turning off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmanızın sakıncası var mı?)  Do you mind if I turn off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmamın sakıncası var mı?)  WOULD YOU MİND…  Would you mind turning off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmanızın sakıncası var mı?)  Would you mind if I turn off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmamın sakıncası var mı?)

12 E.PINAR KARAHAN ELT 1


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