Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

General License Class Chapter 5 Radio Signals & Equipment (Part 1)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "General License Class Chapter 5 Radio Signals & Equipment (Part 1)"— Presentation transcript:

1 General License Class Chapter 5 Radio Signals & Equipment (Part 1)

2 Continuous Wave (CW) A signal at one frequency whose amplitude never varies. Normally used to refer to turning the signal on & off in a specific pattern to convey information. Morse Code. Signal Review

3 Modulation Changing a signal in some manner to convey information. Can change amplitude (AM). Can change frequency (FM). Can change phase (PM). A signal with no information is “unmodulated”. Signal Review

4 Modulation Changing a signal in some manner to convey information. Voice mode or phone. Information is voice. Analog. Digital. Data mode or digital mode. Information is data. Signal Review

5 Amplitude Modulated Modes Amplitude Modulation (AM). Carrier plus two sidebands are transmitted. Higher fidelity. Single-Sideband (SSB). Carrier & one sideband are suppressed. Lower Sideband (LSB). Only lower sideband is transmitted. Upper sideband (USB). Only upper sideband is transmitted. Higher efficiency. Less bandwidth. Signal Review

6 Angle Modulated Modes Frequency Modulation (FM). Deviation = amount of frequency change. Phase Modulation (PM). Constant power whether modulated or not. Signal Review

7 Bandwidth Definition All modulated signals have sidebands. FCC defines bandwidth as: Signal Review §97.3(a)(8) -- Bandwidth. The width of a frequency band outside of which the mean power of the transmitted signal is attenuated at least 26 dB below the mean power of the transmitted signal within the band.

8 Bandwidth Definition Signal Review Type of SignalTypical Bandwidth AM Voice6 kHz Amateur Television6 MHz SSB Voice2 khz to 3 kHz Digital using SSB50 Hz to 3 kHz CW100 Hz to 300 Hz FM Voice10 kHz to 15 kHz

9 G8A01 -- What is the name of the process that changes the envelope of an RF wave to carry information? A.Phase modulation B.Frequency modulation C.Spread spectrum modulation D.Amplitude modulation

10 G8A01 -- What is the name of the process that changes the envelope of an RF wave to carry information? A.Phase modulation B.Frequency modulation C.Spread spectrum modulation D.Amplitude modulation

11 G8A02 -- What is the name of the process that changes the phase angle of an RF wave to convey information? A.Phase convolution B.Phase modulation C.Angle convolution D.Radian inversion

12 G8A02 -- What is the name of the process that changes the phase angle of an RF wave to convey information? A.Phase convolution B.Phase modulation C.Angle convolution D.Radian inversion

13 G8A03 -- What is the name of the process which changes the frequency of an RF wave to convey information? A.Frequency convolution B.Frequency transformation C.Frequency conversion D.Frequency modulation

14 G8A03 -- What is the name of the process which changes the frequency of an RF wave to convey information? A.Frequency convolution B.Frequency transformation C.Frequency conversion D.Frequency modulation

15 G8A05 -- What type of modulation varies the instantaneous power level of the RF signal? A.Frequency shift keying B.Pulse position modulation C.Frequency modulation D.Amplitude modulation

16 G8A05 -- What type of modulation varies the instantaneous power level of the RF signal? A.Frequency shift keying B.Pulse position modulation C.Frequency modulation D.Amplitude modulation

17 G8A07 -- Which of the following phone emissions uses the narrowest frequency bandwidth? A.Single sideband B.Double sideband C.Phase modulation D.Frequency modulation

18 G8A07 -- Which of the following phone emissions uses the narrowest frequency bandwidth? A.Single sideband B.Double sideband C.Phase modulation D.Frequency modulation

19 G8A11 -- What happens to the RF carrier signal when a modulating audio signal is applied to an FM transmitter? A.The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal B.The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal C.The carrier amplitude changes proportionally to the instantaneous frequency of the modulating signal D.The carrier phase changes proportionally to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal

20 G8A11 -- What happens to the RF carrier signal when a modulating audio signal is applied to an FM transmitter? A.The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal B.The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal C.The carrier amplitude changes proportionally to the instantaneous frequency of the modulating signal D.The carrier phase changes proportionally to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal

21 Overview Data speeds. (Clear as mud?) Data rate = Bits per second (bps). Symbol rate = Symbols per second (baud). Data rate = symbol rate only if 1 symbol = 1 bit. Duty cycle considerations. Most digital modes are 100% duty cycle. Most modern transmitters must reduce output power to avoid exceeding maximum average power output. Digital Modes

22 Bandwidth Required bandwidth increases as symbol rate increases. BW = B x K B = Symbol rate in bauds. K = Factor relating to shape of keying envelope. Digital Modes

23 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modes. Radioteletype (RTTY). Oldest digital mode. Still very popular. Normal shift = 170 Hz. Baudot code. Characters = combinations of 5 bits each. Each element = 1 data bit. Maximum of 32 (2 5 ) characters. LTRS & FIGS (shift codes). Start & stop bits frame each character. Digital Modes

24 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modes. Multiple Frequency Shift Keying MFSK tones, Hz apart. Data rate = 63 bps (42 wpm). Bandwidth = 316 Hz (approx). Good weak signal performance even though does not use error correction. (ERROR: MFSK16 uses FEC.) MT63. Uses 64 tones to modulate signal. Bandwidth = 1 kHz. Includes extensive error correction. Digital Modes

25 Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Modes. PSK31. G3PLX developed PSK31 for keyboard-to-keyboard communications. 31 = data rate (31.25 baud). Uses variable-length code (Varicode). Number of bits per character varies. Most common characters have shortest code. Uses 00 as separator between characters. Bandwidth = 37.5 Hz. Narrowest of all HF digital modes, including CW. Digital Modes

26 Packet Modes. Packet basics. Data to be sent is divided into “chunks”, control/status information is added before & after each "chunk” forming a “packet”. Header -- Control & routing information and sometimes error correction information. Data -- Typically 128 or 256 characters. Trailer -- Check sum & possibly additional control & status information. Digital Modes

27 Packet Modes. Packet basics. Error detection. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). A number calculated from all of the other bytes in the packet which is appended to the end o the packet. Receiving system can calculate the CRC of the incoming packet, & if they don’t match ask the packet to be sent again. Forward Error Correction (FEC). Additional information is added to each packet to help receiving system reconstruct the packet if CRC fails. Digital Modes

28 Packet Modes. Packet radio. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). Characters = combinations of 7 elements each. An 8 th bit called a parity bit may be added. Or the 8 th bit could be an additional data bit. Each element = 1 data bits. Maximum of 128 (2 7 ) characters 256 (2 8 ) maximum characters if 8 data bits. Start bit & 1, 1.5, or 2 stop bits frame each character. AX.25 Protocol. Digital Modes

29 Packet Modes. Packet radio. HF packet. Limited to 300 baud. Not well suited for HF propagation conditions. VHF/UHF packet. AFSK using FM transmitters at 1200 or 9600 baud. Basis of APRS. Digital Modes

30 PACTOR & WINMOR Teletype-Over-Radio (TOR). TOR modes developed to improve reliability over RTTY. Data sent in short bursts with error detection & error correction information. AMTOR. G-MOR. More reliable, but slow. Digital Modes

31 PACTOR & WINMOR PACTOR. PACTOR-I developed by DL6MAA & DK4FV. Uses FSK modulation. Overcomes shortcomings of AMTOR & HF packet. Works well in weak-signal & high-noise conditions. Digital Modes

32 PACTOR & WINMOR PACTOR. PACTOR-II & PACTOR-III used today. Uses PSK modulation. Automatic repeat request (ARQ) used to eliminate errors. Adjusts speed (“trains”) to match conditions. 5 kbps data rates possible. Most popular modes for transferring large amounts of data. WINMOR. Like PACTOR but can use either FSK or PSK modulation. Digital Modes

33 G2E01 -- Which mode is normally used when sending an RTTY signal via AFSK with an SSB transmitter? A.USB B.DSB C.CW D.LSB

34 G2E01 -- Which mode is normally used when sending an RTTY signal via AFSK with an SSB transmitter? A.USB B.DSB C.CW D.LSB

35 G2E02 -- How many data bits are sent in a single PSK31 character? A.The number varies B.5 C.7 D.8

36 G2E02 -- How many data bits are sent in a single PSK31 character? A.The number varies B.5 C.7 D.8

37 G2E03 -- What part of a data packet contains the routing and handling information? A.Directory B.Preamble C.Header D.Footer

38 G2E03 -- What part of a data packet contains the routing and handling information? A.Directory B.Preamble C.Header D.Footer

39 G2E05 -- Which of the following describes Baudot code? A.A 7-bit code with start, stop and parity bits B.A code using error detection and correction C.A 5-bit code with additional start and stop bits D.A code using SELCAL and LISTEN

40 G2E05 -- Which of the following describes Baudot code? A.A 7-bit code with start, stop and parity bits B.A code using error detection and correction C.A 5-bit code with additional start and stop bits D.A code using SELCAL and LISTEN

41 G2E06 -- What is the most common frequency shift for RTTY emissions in the amateur HF bands? A.85 Hz B.170 Hz C.425 Hz D.850 Hz

42 G2E06 -- What is the most common frequency shift for RTTY emissions in the amateur HF bands? A.85 Hz B.170 Hz C.425 Hz D.850 Hz

43 G2E10 -- What is a major advantage of MFSK16 compared to other digital modes? A.It is much higher speed than RTTY B.It is much narrower bandwidth than most digital modes C.It has built-in error correction D.It offers good performance in weak signal environments without error correction

44 G2E10 -- What is a major advantage of MFSK16 compared to other digital modes? A.It is much higher speed than RTTY B.It is much narrower bandwidth than most digital modes C.It has built-in error correction D.It offers good performance in weak signal environments without error correction

45 G2E12 -- How does the receiving station respond to an ARQ data mode packet containing errors? A.Terminates the contact B.Requests the packet be retransmitted C.Sends the packet back to the transmitting station D.Requests a change in transmitting protocol

46 G2E12 -- How does the receiving station respond to an ARQ data mode packet containing errors? A.Terminates the contact B.Requests the packet be retransmitted C.Sends the packet back to the transmitting station D.Requests a change in transmitting protocol

47 G2E13 -- In the PACTOR protocol, what is meant by an NAK response to a transmitted packet? A.The receiver is requesting the packet be re- transmitted B.The receiver is reporting the packet was received without error C.The receiver is busy decoding the packet D.The entire file has been received correctly

48 G2E13 -- In the PACTOR protocol, what is meant by an NAK response to a transmitted packet? A.The receiver is requesting the packet be re- transmitted B.The receiver is reporting the packet was received without error C.The receiver is busy decoding the packet D.The entire file has been received correctly

49 G8B08 -- Why is it important to know the duty cycle of the data mode you are using when transmitting? A.To aid in tuning your transmitter B.Some modes have high duty cycles which could exceed the transmitter's average power rating. C.To allow time for the other station to break in during a transmission D.All of these choices are correct

50 G8B08 -- Why is it important to know the duty cycle of the data mode you are using when transmitting? A.To aid in tuning your transmitter B.Some modes have high duty cycles which could exceed the transmitter's average power rating. C.To allow time for the other station to break in during a transmission D.All of these choices are correct

51 G8B11 -- How does forward error correction allow the receiver to correct errors in received data packets? A.By controlling transmitter output power for optimum signal strength B.By using the varicode character set C.By transmitting redundant information with the data D.By using a parity bit with each character

52 G8B11 -- How does forward error correction allow the receiver to correct errors in received data packets? A.By controlling transmitter output power for optimum signal strength B.By using the varicode character set C.By transmitting redundant information with the data D.By using a parity bit with each character

53 G8B12 -- What is the relationship between transmitted symbol rate and bandwidth? A.Symbol rate and bandwidth are not related B.Higher symbol rates require higher bandwidth C.Lower symbol rates require higher bandwidth D.Bandwidth is constant for data mode signals

54 G8B12 -- What is the relationship between transmitted symbol rate and bandwidth? A.Symbol rate and bandwidth are not related B.Higher symbol rates require higher bandwidth C.Lower symbol rates require higher bandwidth D.Bandwidth is constant for data mode signals

55 Break

56 Oscillators Generates sine wave. Amplifier with positive feedback. A V = Amplifier gain. β = Feedback ratio. Loop Gain = A V x β If loop gain > 1 and in phase, circuit will oscillate. Radio’s Building Blocks

57 Oscillators Colpitts oscillator. Hartley oscillator. Radio’s Building Blocks Frequency determined by values of L & C.

58 Oscillators Pierce oscillator. Crystals. Usually small wafer of quartz with precise dimensions. Piezoelectric effect. Crystal deforms mechanically when voltage applied. Voltage generated when crystal deformed. Radio’s Building Blocks Frequency determined by crystal.

59 Oscillators Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO). Make either L or C adjustable (usually C). Not as stable. Used to tune radio to different frequencies. Radio’s Building Blocks

60 Oscillators Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO). “Crystal-controlled” VFO’s. Phase-Lock-Loop (PLL). Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) Stability of crystal oscillator. Can be controlled by software. Radio’s Building Blocks

61 Mixers Mixing is also known as heterodyning. Used to change the frequency of a signal. Mathematically multiplies 2 frequencies together, generating 4 output frequencies. f 1 x f 2  f 1, f 2, f 1 +f 2, f 1 –f 2 Operation of a mixer is similar to operation of detectors & modulators. Radio’s Building Blocks

62 Mixers Radio’s Building Blocks

63 Mixers Single-balanced mixer. Local oscillator or input signal is suppressed, but not both. Radio’s Building Blocks

64 Signal Processing Mixers Double-balanced mixer. f RF & f LO are suppressed leaving only sum & difference frequencies.

65 Multipliers A multiplier stage creates a multiple of the input frequency. An amplifier stage designed to have a lot of distortion (harmonics) & output circuit is tuned to the desired harmonic. Class C amplifier. Used in VHF/UHF transmitters to generate FM/PM modulated signal at a low frequency & then multiplied to the desired frequency. Radio’s Building Blocks

66 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. Plate modulation. Originally, AM was produced by varying the DC plate voltage to the final stage of a CW transmitter. If solid-state transmitter, substitute collector or drain for plate. Requires a LOT of audio power. 1 kW transmitter needs 1 kW of audio! Screen modulation. Applied AF to screen voltage of final stage. Less AF power required, but worse quality. Radio’s Building Blocks

67 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. AM can be generated by mixing the modulating signal (f M ) with a carrier (f C ). f C x f M  f C, f M, f C +f M, f C –f M Using a single-balanced mixer, an AM signal is generated & you don’t have to filter out the modulating signal. f C x f M  f C, f C +f M, f C –f M Using a double-balanced mixer, a double-sideband (DSB) signal is produced. f C x f M  f C +f M, f C –f M Radio’s Building Blocks

68 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. AM can be generated by mixing the modulating signal (f M ) with a carrier (f C ). f C x f M  f C, f M, f C +f M, f C –f M Radio’s Building Blocks

69 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. Using a double-balanced mixer, a double-sideband (DSB) signal is produced. f C x f M  f C +f M, f C –f M Radio’s Building Blocks

70 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. The double-sideband signal is then converted to a SSB signal by filtering out the unwanted sideband. Filter method of SSB generation. Radio’s Building Blocks OR

71 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. Phase method of SSB generation. 2 double-balanced mixers. 2 carrier signals 90° out-of-phase 2 modulating signals 90° out-of-phase REALLY difficult to create in hardware. Easy to create in software. Radio’s Building Blocks

72 Modulators Amplitude Modulators. Advantages of SSB. Transmitter power used more effectively. In AM signal, 1/2 of power is in carrier. In AM signal, 1/2 of remaining power is in each sideband. Sidebands carry same information. In AM, only 25% of available power is used to transmit the information. In SSB, 100% of transmitter power is used. 1/2 the bandwidth of AM. Radio’s Building Blocks

73 Modulators Frequency & Phase Modulators. Frequency modulation (FM). Carrier frequency deviates in proportion to amplitude of the modulating signal. Phase modulation (PM). Carrier frequency deviates in proportion to both the amplitude and the frequency of the modulating signal. By changing the audio frequency response of the modulator, an FM modulator can be used to generate PM and vice versa. Radio’s Building Blocks

74 Modulators Frequency & Phase Modulators. Both FM & PM sound the same on the air (almost). Only difference is in frequency response of the audio. Both FM & PM can be demodulated with the same circuitry. Design of modulator circuit determines whether FM or PM. FM = modulation applied to oscillator circuit. PM = modulation applied to amplifier stage following the oscillator. Radio’s Building Blocks

75 G4D08 -- What frequency range is occupied by a 3 kHz LSB signal when the displayed carrier frequency is set to MHz? A to MHz B to MHz C to MHz D to MHz

76 G4D08 -- What frequency range is occupied by a 3 kHz LSB signal when the displayed carrier frequency is set to MHz? A to MHz B to MHz C to MHz D to MHz

77 G4D09 -- What frequency range is occupied by a 3 kHz USB signal with the displayed carrier frequency set to MHz? A to MHz B to MHz C to MHz D to MHz

78 G4D09 -- What frequency range is occupied by a 3 kHz USB signal with the displayed carrier frequency set to MHz? A to MHz B to MHz C to MHz D to MHz

79 G4D10 -- How close to the lower edge of the 40 meter General Class phone segment should your displayed carrier frequency be when using 3 kHz wide LSB? A.3 kHz above the edge of the segment B.3 kHz below the edge of the segment C.Your displayed carrier frequency may be set at the edge of the segment D.Center your signal on the edge of the segment

80 G4D10 -- How close to the lower edge of the 40 meter General Class phone segment should your displayed carrier frequency be when using 3 kHz wide LSB? A.3 kHz above the edge of the segment B.3 kHz below the edge of the segment C.Your displayed carrier frequency may be set at the edge of the segment D.Center your signal on the edge of the segment

81 G4D11 -- How close to the upper edge of the 20 meter General Class band should your displayed carrier frequency be when using 3 kHz wide USB? A.3 kHz above the edge of the band B.3 kHz below the edge of the band C.Your displayed carrier frequency may be set at the edge of the band D.Center your signal on the edge of the band

82 G4D11 -- How close to the upper edge of the 20 meter General Class band should your displayed carrier frequency be when using 3 kHz wide USB? A.3 kHz above the edge of the band B.3 kHz below the edge of the band C.Your displayed carrier frequency may be set at the edge of the band D.Center your signal on the edge of the band

83 G7B07 -- What are the basic components of virtually all sine wave oscillators? A.An amplifier and a divider B.A frequency multiplier and a mixer C.A circulator and a filter operating in a feed- forward loop D.A filter and an amplifier operating in a feedback loop

84 G7B07 -- What are the basic components of virtually all sine wave oscillators? A.An amplifier and a divider B.A frequency multiplier and a mixer C.A circulator and a filter operating in a feed- forward loop D.A filter and an amplifier operating in a feedback loop

85 G7B09 -- What determines the frequency of an LC oscillator? A.The number of stages in the counter B.The number of stages in the divider C.The inductance and capacitance in the tank circuit D.The time delay of the lag circuit

86 G7B09 -- What determines the frequency of an LC oscillator? A.The number of stages in the counter B.The number of stages in the divider C.The inductance and capacitance in the tank circuit D.The time delay of the lag circuit

87 G7C05 -- Which of the following is an advantage of a transceiver controlled by a direct digital synthesizer (DDS)? A. Wide tuning range and no need for band switching B. Relatively high power output C. Relatively low power consumption D. Variable frequency with the stability of a crystal oscillator

88 G7C05 -- Which of the following is an advantage of a transceiver controlled by a direct digital synthesizer (DDS)? A. Wide tuning range and no need for band switching B. Relatively high power output C. Relatively low power consumption D. Variable frequency with the stability of a crystal oscillator

89 G8A04 -- What emission is produced by a reactance modulator connected to an RF power amplifier? A.Multiplex modulation B.Phase modulation C.Amplitude modulation D.Pulse modulation

90 G8A04 -- What emission is produced by a reactance modulator connected to an RF power amplifier? A.Multiplex modulation B.Phase modulation C.Amplitude modulation D.Pulse modulation

91 G8A06 -- What is one advantage of carrier suppression in a single-sideband phone transmission? A.Audio fidelity is improved B.Greater modulation percentage is obtainable with lower distortion C.The available transmitter power can be used more effectively D.Simpler receiving equipment can be used

92 G8A06 -- What is one advantage of carrier suppression in a single-sideband phone transmission? A.Audio fidelity is improved B.Greater modulation percentage is obtainable with lower distortion C.The available transmitter power can be used more effectively D.Simpler receiving equipment can be used

93 G8A12 -- What signal(s) would be found at the output of a properly adjusted balanced modulator? A.Both upper and lower sidebands B.Either upper or lower sideband, but not both C.Both upper and lower sidebands and the carrier D.The modulating signal and the unmodulated carrier

94 G8A12 -- What signal(s) would be found at the output of a properly adjusted balanced modulator? A.Both upper and lower sidebands B.Either upper or lower sideband, but not both C.Both upper and lower sidebands and the carrier D.The modulating signal and the unmodulated carrier

95 G8B01 -- What receiver stage combines a MHz input signal with a MHz oscillator signal to produce a 455 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal? A.Mixer B.BFO C.VFO D.Discriminator

96 G8B01 -- What receiver stage combines a MHz input signal with a MHz oscillator signal to produce a 455 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal? A.Mixer B.BFO C.VFO D.Discriminator

97 G8B03 -- What is another term for the mixing of two RF signals? A.Heterodyning B.Synthesizing C.Cancellation D.Phase inverting

98 G8B03 -- What is another term for the mixing of two RF signals? A.Heterodyning B.Synthesizing C.Cancellation D.Phase inverting

99 G8B04 -- What is the name of the stage in a VHF FM transmitter that generates a harmonic of a lower frequency signal to reach the desired operating frequency? A.Mixer B.Reactance modulator C.Pre-emphasis network D.Multiplier

100 G8B04 -- What is the name of the stage in a VHF FM transmitter that generates a harmonic of a lower frequency signal to reach the desired operating frequency? A.Mixer B.Reactance modulator C.Pre-emphasis network D.Multiplier

101 Questions?

102 Next Week Chapter 5 Radio Signals & Equipment (Part 2)


Download ppt "General License Class Chapter 5 Radio Signals & Equipment (Part 1)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google