2Battle the Heat Identify the causes and risk factors for heat stress. OBJECTIVESIdentify the causes and risk factors for heat stress.List the preventive measures for heat stress.Identify symptoms of heat stress and take appropriate first aid measures.
3Battle the HeatWHAT IS HEAT STRESSHeat stress is the name given to a number of illnesses caused when the body heats up and cannot cool down.These range from the more minor heat fatigue to the life threatening heat stroke.
4Battle the HeatHEAT GAINHeat generated within the body by muscle activity and other body functions.Direct radiation from the sun’s rays.Heat transfer from the air.High humidity which decreases the evaporation of sweat.
5Battle the Heat Evaporation of sweat HEAT LOSS IS ACHIEVED BYEvaporation of sweatRadiation of heat outwards from the bodyTransfer of heat from skin to airBreathingUrination
6Battle the HeatHEAT STRESS IS LIKE BOILING EGGS IN WATER
7Battle the Heat Remove from heat. Allow to Rest and water will cool. WAYS TO COOL EGGS IN A POT OF BOILING WATERRemove from heat.Allow to Rest and water will cool.Add cool water.Place in a cool environment.
9Battle the Heat After 1-2 hours: Core temperature rises BODY TEMPERATURE CONTROLAfter 1-2 hours:Core temperature risesHeated blood is pumped to the skin’s surfaceBody heat is transferred to the environment if coolerHeat needs to be releasedSweating occursSweat evaporates to cool
10Battle the HeatBODY TEMPERATURE CONTROLThe longer the body sweats, the less blood to carry excess heat to skin or oxygen & nutrients to muscles due to heat overload of the body.After 3 hours, if dehydrated symptoms may be:HeadachesHeat crampsNauseaMuscle tirednessLoss of strengthLoss of accuracy & dexterityReduced alertness
11Recognize the Symptoms of Heat Injury Heat CrampsHeat ExhaustionHeat StrokeDescriptionPainful muscle spasms caused by loss of salt from excessive sweating.Advanced and serious stage of heat injury.Body’s temperature is increased and if not treated immediately may result in coma, brain damage or death.SymptomsMuscular pain and excessive sweatingTired, weaknessHeadacheGoosebumps, tingling skinIncreased heart rate and breathing, sweatingNauseaIncreased temperature (very warm to the touch)Mental impairment (agitation, confusion)Possible loss of consciousnessHeadache, nausea, vomiting, flu like symptomsRapid breathing, heart ratePossibly dry skinWhen In Doubt, Treat as a Heat Injury
12Battle the Heat Concrete Truck Driver, mid 40’s (IP) CASE STUDYConcrete Truck Driver, mid 40’s (IP)Late in his shift, temperature over 100 all day.Controls are malfunctioning, when team members are requesting stop, more concrete is being poured or visa versa.When the team assisted the IP to “fix” the problem they recognized the IP looked pale, was fatigued and sluggish. When questioned he complained of feeling tired.What was really going on?
13Battle the Heat Age (> 60 years old) Drug and alcohol use INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORSAge (> 60 years old)Drug and alcohol useLow level of physical fitnessLack of acclimatizationMedical conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular)DehydrationSome medications (High blood pressure)
14Battle the HeatWORKPLACE RISK FACTORSHigh frequency, duration or intensity of physical activityRequirement for use of personal protective equipment and clothing (may increase humidity levels and prevent air flow across the skin)
15Battle the Heat 60 year old male (IP, Injured Person) CASE STUDY60 year old male (IP, Injured Person)IP was trimming grass on right of way at 10:45 am in July.Passes out.Works with son who takes him to emergency room.ER administers IV fluids and discharges man.Back at work next day.What were his risk factors?
16Battle the Heat 24 year old male (IP or Injured Person) CASE STUDY24 year old male (IP or Injured Person)Out the night before drank 2 beers, 5 hours of sleep. Arrives at 7:00 am, 4th day on shift. He mixes mud for drilling.Drinks an energy drink within the first hour at work followed by a 12 ounce bottle of water. He is sweating while lifting heavy bags of mud for mixing.Passes out at 11:00 am, taken to ER, administered IV fluids. Discharged. Back at work next day.What could be some risk factors?
18Battle the Heat STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 TO PREVENT DEHYDRATION Ensure you begin hydrating 2 hours before your shift.STEP 2Drink water until you're are no longer thirsty and then a little more.STEP 3While working, drink water every minutes, targeting one (1) quart per hour.(limit 12 quarts per day)
19Battle the Heat PHYSICAL INDICATIONS OF DEHYDRATION Skin Less Elastic; on pinch test, the skin regains its shape slowly.UrineReduced in Volume and Frequency; concentrated and darker.SweatHigher Sweat Rate; if sweat production suddenly stops, despite continued heat exposure, dehydration has reached a severe level.Physical Work CapacityReduced Endurance; accelerated onset of fatigue.Heart RateFaster Heart Rate; work seems increasingly more tiring and increases the heart rate rapidly.AppetiteSuppressed Appetite; food intake is reduced during water deprivation, and water intake reduced during starvation.Mental IndicatorsLess Alert; increased lethargy; difficulty in concentrating; confusion and irrational behavior.
20Battle the Heat Compressor Station Worker mid 40’s (IP) CASE STUDYCompressor Station Worker mid 40’s (IP)Stopped at convenient store in the morning on the way into work to buy an energy drink every morning.Filled cooler with ice and water at the shop before going to work site. Slowly increased to several energy drinks.One day passed out by noon.What happened?
22Battle the Heat 23 year old machine shop worker (IP) CASE STUDY23 year old machine shop worker (IP)Day 1 Complained of flu like symptoms while working in non AC building moved to trailer with AC.Day 2 Refused MD visit from managerNausea and vomiting, IP said “stomach flu” Still working in AC trailer.Day 3 Working in AC trailer IP vomiting often early in shift, alert, bright.Manager took IP to clinic.
23Battle the Heat CASE STUDY Clinic- IP alert, looked fine. MD took a blood sample.IP rushed to hospital in renal failure and placed on dialysis.Kidneys and IP saved.What are the key lessons?
24Battle the Heat Buddy-Up BUDDY SYSTEMThe buddy system is a culture in which two people (the buddies) operate together as a single unit so that they are able to monitor and help each other.The main purpose of the system is improved safety.Each Buddy may prevent the other from becoming a casualty of Heat Stress.
25Battle the Heat Buddy-Up BUDDY SYSTEMBuddies need to identify the causes and risk factors for heat stress.To be able to identify symptoms of heat stress and if appropriate first aid measures.
26Battle the Heat Buddy-Up BUDDY SYSTEM SCREENINGHave you worked more than 7 days in a row in a hot workplace?Have you been treated for heat stress in the past?Have you eaten today? Have you checked your urine for hydration level?Did you sleep at least 5 hours in the past 24 hours?Is there anything that has changed in the past 24 hours that would affect your fitness to work today?
27Battle the Heat Buddy-Up BUDDY SENSETry to do the most physically demanding jobs during the coolest part of the day.STOP the job if your buddy exhibit any signs or symptoms of heat injury.
28Battle the HeatWEAPONS-HEAT INDEXThe heat index can be used to help determine the risk of heat- related illness for outdoor workers, what actions are needed to protect workers, and when those actions are triggered.NOAA Heat Index chart, which was developed for the public. The NOAA bands have been modified for use at worksites:
29Battle the Heat WEAPONS-Flag Conditions Red Flag >115°F Heat IndexRisk LevelProtective Measures>115°FVery High toExtremeReschedule non-essential activityMove essential work tasks to the coolest part of the work shift;Consider earlier start times, split shifts, or evening and night shifts.Strenuous work tasks and those requiring the use of heavy or non-breathable clothing or impermeable chemical protective clothing should not be conducted when the heat index is at or above 115°F.If essential work must be done, in addition to the steps above:Alert workers of extreme heat hazardsEstablish water drinking schedule (about 4 cups/hour)**Develop and enforce protective work/rest schedulesConduct physiological monitoring (e.g., pulse, temp.,etc)Stop work if essential control methods are inadequate or unavailable.
30Battle the HeatCASE STUDYManager arrived at shop to find worker with coveralls cut off into shorts and short sleeves.When questioned worker stated “It’s over degrees, it’s hot out there”.Manager went to location and found ice and water but no shade.No vehicle idle policy was in effect.What should be done?
31Battle the Heat Purpose: Identify Strategies Scope: WEAPONS-Heat Stress Management PlanPurpose:Identify StrategiesScope:Personnel working in high temperatures combined with high humidity.Content:Performance CriteriaAwareness and EducationPreparationPrevention ChecklistsImplementationTraining
32Battle the Heat Manager Supervisor Employee Buddy ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIESManagerSupervisorEmployeeBuddy