2Technology Comparisons New Era Treatment Zones Power Process IntroductionTime LapseTechnology ComparisonsNew EraTreatment ZonesPower ProcessMaintenanceProcess Flow DiagramDesalinationOperator ControlsConstructionPlant ListMobile PlantContact Details1829310411512613714
4INTRODUCTION TO WACS1Waste Away Consultancy Services have been formed as a “One Stop Shop” to deal with waste from creation to final destruction and disposal, avoiding landfill and contamination to the environment.The process of turning waste materials into energy through the Pyro-Thermic Reactor (PTR) is environmentally effective. What WAS the vision of using the Ultra High Temperature Reactor to extract virtually all of the calorific value from unwanted waste material and turning it into energy is NOW reality.This system is not only capable of providing the safe disposal of large variety of waste including more problematic materials, it is capable of simultaneously generating high volumes of electricity for resale or for the client’s own use.
5INTRODUCTION TO WACS1We use the Ultra High Temperature Reactor to extract virtually all of the calorific value from unwanted waste material.This process allows the waste to be transformed into energy, as well as allowing the waste itself to become the provider of energy release.The process is so efficient that it destroys an amazing 97% of the waste material.Due to the residue’s inert nature, the potential exists for the re-sale as a construction industry raw material.municipal wasteindustrial wasteclinical wasteasbestos wastetyres, rubber, plasticsoil wastenuclear wastechemical wastepharmaceutical wasteoffal wastesewage sludgecontaminated waterEXAMPLES OF WASTES DESTROYED
6INTRODUCTION TO WACS1The reactor is able to treat the waste in one process. This is because the reactor temperature is 1700°C using direct-fired burners of oil or gas combined with compressed air.The concept of thermal conversion began nearly 30 years ago, and is a proven technology with over 25 plants commissioned throughout the world.By combining the properties of a rotary thermal treatment process with a refractory lined lower chamber, various key stages of thermal action are created and achieved within this same item of equipment. Known as the Pyro Thermic Reactor.NontoxicNonporousContaminant-freeMineral compositionDust-freeSterileVitrified bead-like structureTotally inertPROPERTIES OF WHAT REMAINS
7TIME LAPSE, A WACS HISTORY 2Designed by our Principals, the Pyro Thermic Reactor has multiple installations throughout the world.Focus was then moved to United Kingdom and European sales, but complex regulations regarding waste treatment in these areas hampered efforts.Now, however the marketplace is changing with the arrival of the new Global Green Agenda, and WACS has refocused and renewed its efforts to take advantage of shifting opinions on renewable energy and waste disposal.MUNICIPAL WASTE GENERATION PER CAPITA
8TECHNOLOGY COMPARISONS 3MOVING GRATE FURNACETEMPERATURE800° TO 850°C °CPYRO THERMIC REACTORWASTE CONTROLuncontrolled, uncontained % containedThere are manypyrolysis systems in use but they have significant problems in conforming to WID, EPA and EU directives. We would emphasise that the Pyro Thermic Reactor is not a pyrolysis system but also incorporates gasification as a combined function.PYROTHERMIC SYSTEM COMPARISONPERCENT RESIDUE30% to 40% %POWER OUTPUTKWH/T KWH/T
9NEW ERA: THE MODEL PROCESS 4Pyrothermic Reaction is a thermal chemical decom- position of organic material at elevated temperatures without the participation of oxygen. It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase and is irreversible.STEP 1STEP 2STEP 3SHREDDINGDRYING ANDDEGASIFICATIONPYROTHERMICUnsorted waste is shredded down to 50 mm, transported via screw conveyor into the reactor.The only preparation required is the inclusion in the system of a multi- shafted shredder to reduce the feedstock to a standard size for ease of feeding to the reactor.The top of the screw conveyor compresses waste material, which forms a gas tight seal at the reactor entry point.Compressed waste passes into the reactor where the drying process begins. Released gases are drawn through the reactor. The top section of the reactor is supplied with pressurised returning heat from the latter end of the thermal process to accelerate this action through the gasification stage.Gasification breaks down waste hydrocarbons and also leads to the production of syngas. This is the first fuel stage for the waste material to pass through and it is similar to the effect widely used in the past of heating coal to produce a fuel called town gas.The Pyrothermic Reaction begins as the material descends further into the reactor, constantly mixed and goes through charring. At this point the material becomes very hot and descends still further into the reactor base.At the reactor base is a layer of refractory lining, engineered to cope with the extreme temperatures inside the reactor. A layer of molten slag like material gathers and behaves much like a liquid filter bed covering the reactor’s lower section. This residue then forms superheated particles which are rapidly cooled by means of the water filled quench tank to create nodes of glass like beads which render the residue material inert and sterile
10NEW ERA: THE MODEL PROCESS 4PRE-HEAT ZONEThis area is where the pre-heat chamber removes residual moisture and partial destruction commences.DE-GASIFICATION ZONEConverts all gases into fuel gasses, creating syngas to assist later combustion.THERMIC ZONEWaste is subjected to indirect high temperatures, destroying major pollutants, producing char like material, and releasing energy.MOLTEN ZONEA layer of slag is formed, acting as a filter for the super-heated material. Residue from here passes through the reactor base as molten granules, where quenching takes place in a controlled catchment base tank.
11POWER PROCESS TRANSMISSION CERTIFICATION 5REACTOR1Exhaust gases move from the reactor base to a heat exchanger. Some of the gas is used to maintain the reactor’s pre-heat zone.In the U.K. the generated power is suitable for inclusion within the latest Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) program administered by Ofgem, qualifying for ROC certificates that can be traded internationally. The process is also rated as “Carbon Neutral”.BOILER2The rest of the gas is converted to hot exhaust that is sent to a specialized boiler to create high-energy superheated steam.TRANSMISSION CERTIFICATIONGENERATOR3The superheated steam is then sent to a steam turbine to generate electricity.
12One of our earlier generation PTRs on the job in Japan. MAINTENANCE6Based on previous installations, over a ten- year period the total maintenance budget amounted to less than 1% of the capital cost, mostly relating to cleaning the waste heat boilers.All the wearing parts are external to the unit, enabling replacement without downtime.Cold start lead time is between 6 and 8 hours. Shutdown would require a similar time, though this could be dramatically reduced by the utilization of reverse flow fan action.One of our earlier generation PTRs on the job in Japan.
14DESALINATION8DESALINATION PLANTThe system makes large quantities of low-pressure steam at no additional cost and thus is able to feed thermal desalination plants.Regarding drainage and sewage derived water, a pre-treatment process would be recommended prior to the desalination plant, ensuring that the desalination unit is being presented with water that could be processed safely.
15OPERATOR CONTROLSOperator control is by touch- screen. Each screen is dedicated to an area of the plant with all streams interlaced allowing the presented data to be viewed.10
16OPERATOR CONTROLSOperator control is by touch- screen. Each screen is dedicated to an area of the plant with all streams interlaced allowing the presented data to be viewed.10The converter screen details plant status. In this screen the reactor’s vital statistics are monitored, and the whole process is automatically controlled by software.Each critical plant operation is also monitored by a hard- wired backup system, allowing the operator to override any section for comprehensive control on all systems operation.
17OPERATOR CONTROLSOperator control is by touch- screen. Each screen is dedicated to an area of the plant with all streams interlaced allowing the presented data to be viewed.10The Water Systems Screen monitors stages of water flows and levels, giving the operator are no-nonsense, fast, and clear input of plant operations at all critical process stages.The consumption of water is negligible; the mobile unit carries a 500-gallon storage tank on the trailer.Water has two uses in the system: first to form airtight seals around the rotating section of the main body, and second within the quench tank that receives the residue as it falls from the lower section of the main body.
18OPERATOR CONTROLS10The Emissions Screen allows the operator to closely monitor and record all emission levels. The recorded data is used to evaluate compliance and give an early warning system in the unlikely event of higher than normal output from any of the large group of monitored elements.The PTR unit meets all WID, EU, US EPA, and the Japanese National Standard levels. All of the PTR units are fitted with an emission monitor connected by Internet to our UK offices.
19CONSTRUCTIONPlease see the accompanying brochure provided by our WACS representative for technical diagrams, inclu- ding Mass Balance Diagram, electrical schematic, and plant drawings113D concept drawings are used to verify individual component performance; computer aided design is utilised throughout construction. Benefit is derived from an engineering team with skills gleaned from years of experience.While responsibility for design rests with our Principals, they occasionally use the services of local manufacturers to produce certain parts. This is primarily when the PTR is being sold overseas. This saves shipping costs and creates fabrication work in the client area, benefitting local business.Although subcontractors are occasionally used the overall quality control and routine inspection remains with our Principals. This is essential, as all projects are underwritten However, all critical sections of our units are manufactured in house to ensure quality, performance and service.All PTR electrical controls are engineered exclusively in house and systems are updated regularly.
20PLANT LIST MODEL: TONNE/HOUR TONNE/DAY Bio Therm 500 B 0.5 t 12 t Mobile 150 M 2.5 t 60 tStatic 100S 1 t 24 t120S 1.7 t 41 t150S 3 t 72 t200S 5 t 120 t250S 6 t 144 t300S 7.5 t 180 t350S 8.5 t 204 t450S 10 t 240 t500S 14 t 336 t550S 17.5 t 420 tWORLDWIDE PTR UNITSTwenty nine PTR units have been designed, built, and are operating in seven different countries.One company in Japan purchased and installed 7 units.
21MOBILE PLANTOne of two mobile units WACS has constructed.13The mobile version of the Pyro thermic reactor (PTR) is completely self-contained. The entire operation can be controlled by a single operator from his high-level control position, from which he can monitor digitally and visually all aspects of the entire reactor.The mobile reactor is capable of disposing most known waste materials. In order to produce electrical power, a second trailer with the waste heat boiler, the steam turbine, generator, and condenser and control panel is needed.The mobile PTR is carried upon a standard 15- meter trailer, and when fully equipped weighs approximately 30 tons. The unit is sufficiently low to pass beneath most “A” road bridges once the exhaust stack been lowered.The mobile PTR can handle up to 3 tonnes per hour and will produce 3MWe of power.
22CONTACT14(Managing/Technical Director) Mobile(Business Development Director) Mobile(Asia & Pacific Region) Mobile(Australia) Mobile