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BLR’s Safety Training Presentations

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1 BLR’s Safety Training Presentations
Warehouse Safety I. Speaker’s Notes: The safety program at many companies focuses on the manufacturing or production areas because of the heavy use of machinery, equipment, chemical use, etc., and the hazards of the warehouse area may seem to be less important. However, that should not be the case. The warehouse has many of the same hazards and potential for injury as production areas. In fact, the warehouse has some hazards that do not exist in production areas, such as loading docks. In this training session we will focus on the hazards of material handling as well as other warehouse specific hazards. Once we understand these hazards, we can work to prevent injuries.

2 Warehouse Safety Goals
Material handling Warehouse hazards Quiz I. Speaker’s Notes: Obviously, the main hazard of a warehouse environment is material handling. Manually handling material presents hazards, such as back and muscle strains, and handling material with equipment presents other hazards. Then, we will discuss warehouse-specific hazards including slips, trips, falls, emergency procedures, etc. Finally, we will wrap up the training session with a quiz.

3 Back Safety Tips Don’t lift more than 50 pounds by yourself
When reaching up, don’t overextend If standing in one place, put a foot on a footrest Push—don’t pull Squat—don’t bend Turn—don’t twist To reduce back pain—see your doctor I. Background for the Trainer: For the third bullet point in the slide, do a demo for the class. Show the employees how your back is arched when standing with both feet flat, then place one foot on a short stool. II. Speaker’s Notes: We will start with the most important warehouse safety topic. The majority of injuries in a warehouse environment are back-related. Here are some back safety tips. Ask for help when you need to move a heavy load. Do not try to be a hero. Be willing to help others with heavy loads and be willing to ask others to help you. Reaching or overextending can also cause a back injury. There are many instances in a warehouse when we need to get a package or box from a high shelf. We are tempted to reach up, over extend, or even climb the rack or stack to gain access to the box. This can put the back, arms, and shoulders in an unnatural posture and result in an injury. Use a step stool or stepladder to gain access to items stored high. Putting a foot on a footrest when standing in place can really improve back posture. Notice how using one brings your rear end forward and more in line with your back. This posture is more comfortable. Your back is stronger and in better posture when pushing, rather than pulling, a hand truck, lawn mower, etc. Obviously, bending at your knees and not at your waist will help you maintain better back posture. When turning while carrying or lifting—move your feet instead of twisting your back. Twisting at your waist will put strain on your back. Finally, if you do experience back pain—see a doctor.

4 Lifting Technique Stand close with a shoulder-wide stance
Squat by bending your knees and hips Pull the load close and grip it Tighten your stomach, lift your head Rise up with your legs I. Background for the Trainer: Have the class stand up and all do this with you. They may think it’s silly, but it’s good exercise and it will help keep them awake. II. Speaker’s Notes: Let’s talk about safe lifting techniques. Stand close to the object. Feet shoulder-width apart and toes naturally pointed outward. Squat down next to the object by bending at your knees and hips. Maintain your back’s natural curve. Pull the load close to you and grasp it firmly Tighten your stomach; it will act as a back support. Lifting your head will help you lift with your legs rather than your back. Stand up with you legs. Keep your back straight. Raising your chin while lifting will help your back maintain its natural curves.

5 Forklift Operating Trained and authorized operators only
Capacity and stability Operator inspections Rules of the road Pedestrian safety I. Background Information: This slide is not intended to be a forklift training class. It is primarily intended for awareness in connection with material handling. BLR has a Forklift Safety Training video program that will help you meet the training requirements of the new OSHA training standard. II. Speaker’s Notes: Forklifts are probably the most used and most effective tools for material handling. OSHA has new forklift operator training standards. Only trained and authorized operators can drive a forklift. If you are not trained and authorized, do not touch a forklift. While they are very effective tools, they can also kill or severely injure workers. Forklift operators are trained to check the weight and stability of every load they pick up. If the load is beyond the rated capacity of the lift truck, another truck must be obtained or the load must be broken down so that it is below the forklift’s capacity. Forklifts operators must inspect their lift trucks at the beginning of each shift. If not safe to operate, forklifts may not be used until it has been satisfactorily repaired. Forklift operators receive instruction in a detailed list of operating rules that will help keep them safe and the workers around them safe. Pedestrians must not take the hazards of a forklift lightly. Always stay away from forklifts when they are in operation. The driver should also warn you to stay away if he or she feels you might be in a danger zone.

6 Forklift Traffic Walk along the sides of aisles (let forklifts have center of aisles). Listen and look for horn sounds, warning lights, and back-up alarms. Don’t approach a forklift until the operator indicates that it is safe to do so. Forklift’s steer from the rear. Never ride on a forklift, be lifted by a forklift, or fool around near a forklift. I. Background for the Trainer: Does your facility have designated forklift and pedestrian lanes? If so, discuss how these designated lanes function. II. Speaker’s Notes: Being struck by a forklift or other powered industrial truck is another common injury in warehouse environments. Be aware of forklift traffic and driving lanes. Stay out of the center of aisles. Always listen for the forklift’s horn or, back-up alarm, and watch for the warning lights. Pay particular attention to the sights and sounds of forklift’s warning when going around corners, approaching blind intersections, etc. Make sure the forklift operator sees you before approaching. Do not assume that he or she can see you. The back of a forklift swings wide when making turns. Remember that forklifts steer from the rear so do not walk along side a forklift, because it could hit you even though it is turning away from you. Riding on a forklift breaks a number of safety rules, since there is no seat for the rider, the rider is not wearing a seatbelt, and the rider’s body is outside of the protection of the overhead guard/cage. Do allow yourself to be lifted by a forklift on a pallet or the forks, but only in an approved manlift and only when wearing appropriate fall protection (note that some states do not permit lifting someone by a forklift under any circumstance). Horseplay on or near a forklift can be fatal.

7 Manual Pallet Jacks Stabilize the load Keep proper back posture
Keep the load under control Do not use as a skateboard I. Background Information: Bring a manual pallet jack into the class if possible. Demonstrate how it works. II. Speaker’s Notes: Pallet jacks seem to be simple devices and do not appear to require training; however, they do have inherent hazards. Stabilize the load on the pallet with interlocked stacking, plastic wrap, or straps. Inspect the pallet to make sure it is not broken. As always maintain proper back posture when maneuvering the pallet jack. Keep your back strong and straight. Keep the load under control. Pallet jacks can be difficult to use on slopes, particularly when the load is heavy. Pallet jacks are also designed for smooth surfaces. They are difficult to push or pull on uneven surfaces or in areas that have debris, such as small pieces of wood (from breaking pallets) or pebbles. Finally, pallet jacks are not skateboards. What if you were to fall and injure yourself when using a pallet jack as a toy? How silly would you feel?

8 Hand Trucks Choose the right hand truck for the job
Stack the load so that you can still see over it Secure the load if necessary I. Background Information: Bring in a hand truck for demonstration purposes if available. Discuss all the different types of hand trucks that are available in your workplace. II. Speaker’s Notes: Most of us have used hand trucks at work or at home. They seem so simple, so what is there to be trained on? We need to choose the right hand truck for the job. For most jobs (e.g., a few boxes) we can use a standard flat-bottomed, flat-backed hand truck. Should we use that same standard hand truck to move a refrigerator or a drum of liquid solvent? No. Consider the load you are carrying. Special hand trucks are designed for handling drums, compressed gas cylinders, appliances, etc. Using the incorrect hand truck could damage the object or hand truck or cause injury. Stack the load so that you can see over it. Do not try to pile up so many boxes that you cannot see where you are going. Secure the load. Strap loose boxes to the hand truck. Most hand trucks designed for drums, cylinders, or appliances have built-in securing systems, such as straps.

9 Hand Truck Operation Get a firm grip; watch your fingers
Proper back posture Keep the load ahead of you and under control Designed for pushing—not pulling I. Speaker’s Notes: Again, using a hand truck seems so simple, why are we talking about it? Have you ever pinched your finger between the handle and a solid object, tweaked your back, slipped when going down a ramp or hill? Like any tool, we need to be aware of what could go wrong so that we can take steps to prevent an incident from occurring. Get a firm grip on the hand truck. There are many different handle styles available. Find one that works best for you. Watch your fingers when in tight area such as when going through a doorway, down a hallway, etc. Pinching your fingers can be very painful. When possible, position your hands so that they are inside the framework of the hand truck. Back posture is always important when lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, etc. Just because you are using a material-handling aid does not mean that you aren’t putting pressure on you back Keep the load in front of you and under control. Walk to the side, holding the hand truck with one hand; don’t run down ramps, etc. Remember, a wrong move could cause you to lose control and try to react quickly to gain control. This reaction might result in a strained muscle. Hand truck are designed for pushing, not pulling. Remember from the back safety slides that our backs are stronger and in a better posture when pushing a load rather than when pulling it.

10 Powered Conveyors Use only if trained and authorized
Do not climb over or under conveyors Do not ride conveyors Rollers and pinch points can catch hands, long hair, or loose clothing Emergency stops I. Speaker’s Notes: Most of us have encountered powered conveyors. If we do not have them at work, we have probably used an escalator at a shopping mall—which is essentially a powered conveyor designed for moving people. The conveyors at work are not designed for moving people. They are for objects only and can be dangerous. Do not operate a conveyor unless you have been trained on its hazards and authorized to operate it. Do not climb over or under conveyors, because the moving parts might catch your hands, hair, loose clothing, etc. Riding on a conveyor, unless designed to move people, is also dangerous and could result in a severe injury. The hazards of powered conveyors include powered rollers and pinch points. Hands, hair, or loose clothing can be caught between rollers or between the support members and the conveyor belt. Have you ever seen a child get loose shoelaces sucked into the end of an escalator? It happens. The same type of thing could happen with our conveyors. Know where the emergency stops are located. Usually they are located on both ends of the conveyor and sometimes they have emergency stop cables that run the length of the conveyor.

11 Warehouse Safety Goals
Material handling Warehouse hazards Quiz I. Speaker’s Notes: Are there any question regarding safe lifting procedures or the use of material handling equipment? Let’s discuss warehouse specific hazards including slips, trips, falls, emergency procedures, etc.

12 Loading Dock Safety Congestion and forklift traffic
Use caution when opening trailer doors Open dock doors are potential fall hazards Do not jump from docks Communication with truck drivers I. Speaker’s Notes: Many injuries occur at the loading dock because of the manual labor of loading material onto pallets, congestion of people and forklifts, and the high volume of activity. Take extra caution to always be aware of all the activity around you. Trailers are often not loaded correctly and the load will shift during transit. This exposes the person who opens the door to the potential of falling boxes or product. Open the doors quickly and step back as you watch for falling loads. Dock doors that are open, without a trailer in the dock, present a fall hazard. Avoid working near open or exposed dock doors. Do not jump from docks. You are putting unnecessary strain on your knees, feet, and back. You never know when you will land wrong and injure yourself. Communication with truck drivers prevents early departure. This is very dangerous for forklift operators; however, early departure is also hazardous to workers that are in the trucks because of loads shifting and falling when the truck moves. Use hand signals, lighting systems, signs, etc., so the driver is aware of what is happening at the dock.

13 Forklift Dock Safety Chock the wheels Support the trailer nose
Inspect the trailer floor Inspect the dock plate Open dock doors I. Speaker’s Notes: Pedestrians are not the only ones that face hazards on the dock. Forklift drivers also face many hazards. One of the forklift driver’s main concerns involves driving into and out of trailers. Before even attempting to drive into a trailer, the forklift driver must check/inspect these four items: 1. Trailer wheels chocked. Make sure that trailer will not move or “creep” away from the dock when traveling into or out of the trailer. 2. Trailer nose supported with a stand. Trailers, particularly the short 20 footers, have the capability of tipping forward when a heavy forklift is loading heavy product into the nose of the trailer. This is especially dangerous to workers who may be inside the trailer to help offload the material. 3. Safety of the trailer floor. Ensure that the heavy forklift will not break through any cracked or rotted wood flooring. 4. Dock plate used to bridge the gap between the dock and the trailer. Make sure the dock plate is secured, designed for the weight of the forklift, and not structurally damaged. Open dock doors are the other main concern for forklift drivers. Obviously, driving off the edge of a dock will result in severe injuries or even death. Stay away from dock edges and do not park the forklift next to the edge of a dock.

14 Pallets and Stable Loads
Use the correct pallet Stabilize the load with interlocked stacking, plastic wrap, or straps Keep the pallet and load low when moving it Repair damaged pallets Not a manlift or used for scaffolding I. Background Information: Bring an undamaged pallet into the class, if possible, for demonstration. II. Speaker’s Notes: Pallets are an essential tool used in stacking, storing, and transferring materials. It is important to use the correct type of pallet for the job. Most facilities use wood pallets; however, there are also aluminum, plastic, and cardboard pallets. Stabilize the load by interlocking the stacked material, stretching plastic wrap around the items, or using straps to tie down the load. Ensure that the weight of the load is balanced on the pallet. For example, you do not want to stack bricks on one side and pillows on the other side. When moving the pallet and its load, keep the pallet low to the ground. Material raised high during transfer could fall and injure another employee and damage the item. However, do not allow the pallet to be dragged across the floor, because it could be damaged. Damaged pallets must be taken out of service until repaired. Be sure to inspect every pallet before loading it. Workers have been killed when a damaged pallet was loaded with material, stacked high in a rack, and then failed, causing the load to fall on someone. Finally, pallets are designed for material handling only. They are not to be used as part of scaffolding or to lift a person.

15 Stacking Loads Heavy objects under light objects
Large loads under smaller loads Stacked evenly Objects not sticking out into aisles I. Speaker’s Notes: When stacking loads, such as pallets, it is important that the stacks do not fall over or product falls. Here are some basic tips to help make your stacks more stable. Put the heavy items on the bottom of the stack and place lighter objects on top. This seems obvious; however, it is also often ignored. The lighter objects will be crushed by the weight of the heavier objects and the stack will begin to lean and eventually fall over if not corrected. The same principle applies to placing large loads on top of small loads. Unless the large pallet is perfectly balanced on top of the small pallet, the large pallet will cause the small pallet to lean one way and the stack will eventually fall. Keep the stacks even. Placing a pallet at a slight angle may cause the load to be off balance and start the stack leaning process. Make sure all pallets in a stack are lined up straight and centered on top of each other. Objects sticking out into aisles may be struck by forklifts, which could cause the stack to fall or the object may strike pedestrians who do not see them as they walk down aisles. Keep the aisles clear and make sure product is stacked within the confines of the pallet and not sticking out.

16 Drum Handling Dollies and hand trucks Forklift attachments
Drums on pallets Stacking drums Incompatible chemicals I. Speaker’s Notes: Drum handling can be hazardous because of the shifting weight of the drum due to sloshing liquids and the awkwardness of the drum’s shape. Do not attempt to handle drums with material-handling aids that are not designed for managing them. Using the wrong tool can result in injury and a spill of a hazardous chemical. Drum handling can be done with many different tools. The standard drum-handling aids include specially designed hand trucks and dollies. The hazards associated with drum hand trucks and dollies are basically the same as using a standard hand truck or dollie. Forklift attachments are available to lift and carry a drum as well as tilt and dump the drum. These attachments come in many varieties and can usually carry one, two, or even four drums at a time. Take the time to make sure the attachment has properly grabbed the drum before lifting it. Drums may be delivered or shipped on pallets. If this is the case, make sure the pallet is in good condition and that the drums are adequately strapped to the pallet before stacking or shipping the drums. Drums by themselves can be stacked if done properly. They cannot be safely stacked directly on top of one another, because the top drum will usually slip off. However, drums can be stacked like a pyramid such that they are almost interlocked. Be careful not to stack them too high—three is probably the maximum height for safe stacking. Do not stack incompatible chemicals together. Some materials will react with each other potentially cause a fire. Read the material safety data sheets to find out what materials should not be stacked together.

17 Slips and Trips Water on the floor Plastic on the floor
Straps and bands Electrical cords or air hoses Pallets and boxes I. Background for the Trainer: Discuss the slip and trip hazards that may be present at your company. Do the floors get wet? Are electrical cords or air lines draped across aisles? Change the slide to reflect specific slip and trip hazards in your warehouse. II. Speaker’s Notes: Slip and trip hazards are common to a warehouse environment. Fortunately, the hazards can easily be eliminated with diligent housekeeping. Water accumulates on the floor in a warehouse, particularly near the docks when it rains. Clean up the water immediately with squeegees, a mop, or shop-vac. Plastic, such as shrink-wrap, on the floor is common throughout the warehouse environment. Plastic, when stepped on, will usually slide easily against the concrete floor and be very slippery. Broken straps and bands can accumulate and become trip hazards as they entangle feet. Electrical cords and air hoses are also trip hazards. Keep them off of stairways, out of the middle of aisles, and not draped in front of doorways. Not only are boxes and pallets trip hazards, particularly when placed in aisles, but when broken up they are especially hazardous. Wood with nails sticking up are dangerous. Pieces of cardboard are slippery when on concrete. Again, good housekeeping will prevent many hazards.

18 Falls from Elevation Ladders Stairways Climbing racks or stacks
I. Speaker’s Notes: Ladders are used in warehouse environments to reach products on higher shelves or racks. Inspect the ladder before using it for broken rungs, antislip feet, properly functioning ladder locks, etc. Keep the base of the ladder the right distance from the wall to provide a safe climbing angle. The 4 to 1 rule tells you to have the base of the ladder at least 1 foot away from the wall for every 4 feet of height. Stairs can also be a fall hazard. Portable stairs may be used in the warehouse to gain access to high items. Do not walk or run down stairs. Use the railings. Make sure there is adequate lighting. Do not put objects on the steps. When using portable stairs, lock the wheels in place before climbing the stairs. Climbing racks or stacks can be tempting if there are no ladders or portable steps nearby; however, it is also dangerous. Never climb a rack or stack.

19 Housekeeping Access to exits, fire fighting equipment, and electrical panels Keep aisles and stairwells clear Reduce accumulation of combustibles I. Speaker’s Notes: Housekeeping is a vital part of the safety program at every company and warehouse facility. Housekeeping is more than just making the workplace look nice, it is primarily for reducing workplace hazards. Keeping the workplace organized and putting everything back where it belongs will help maintain access to exits, firefighting equipment, first-aid supplies, and electrical panels. If these items cannot be reached during an emergency, it could have a devastating impact. Do not put things in aisles or stairwells. Even for a short time. It only takes a second for someone to trip, slip, or fall over that object. Cleaning and organizing will prevent the accumulation of combustible materials such as paper, cardboard, rags, etc.

20 Personal Protective Equipment
Eye protection Back supports Gloves Sturdy work shoes Dust mask Hard hats Earplugs Cold weather gear I. Background for the Trainer: Feel free to change this slide to reflect the PPE that is used in your warehouse. Bring samples of the PPE that is provided for your warehouse workers II. Speaker’s Notes: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is often only associated with manufacturing environments; however, PPE is also essential in the warehouse. Eye protection is used to prevent dust or debris from getting in the eyes. If you use a back support, make sure you understand how to wear it properly. Gloves are often used to keep your hands safe when manually handling boxes, straps, bands, pallets, etc. Sturdy work shoes with slip-resistant soles are a vital tool for warehouse environments, because you need a sturdy foothold when handling material. Dust masks may be required in some dusty warehouse environments or just recommended to wear as an extra precaution or comfort. Remember, OSHA’s new respiratory standard requires that voluntary users of dust masks be provided with basic information on the use of respirators. Hard hats are encouraged in some warehouse environments because of the potential of objects falling from racks, stacks, or other heights. Ear plugs are used in noisy warehouse environments. If this affects you, you should review and be trained on the company’s hearing conservation program. Cold weather gear may be useful if working in a refrigerated warehouse or during the winter because many warehouses are not heated.

21 Emergency Equipment Fire extinguishers Sprinklers—18 inches
Evacuation routes Electrical panels First-aid supplies Alarms and phones I. Background for the Trainer: It may be a good idea to take employees on a tour of the warehouse and point out all of the emergency equipment so that they have a good visual understanding of their locations. II. Speaker’s Notes: All employees need to understand where emergency equipment is located and the importance of maintaining access to that equipment. If blocked, it could severely hamper the response to an emergency. Do not stack material closer than 18 inches from a sprinkler head. Stacking material too high will prevent the sprinkler from spraying in its pattern, which is designed to suppress a fire. Blocked sprinkler heads will only increase the damage caused by a fire. Know where your fire extinguishers are located. Fire extinguishers must not be used as coat hangers, hose reels, etc. These need to be kept clear for easy access. Evacuation routes must be kept clear in case a fire or other emergency requires everyone to evacuate the warehouse. Obviously, blocking an exit with pallets, a forklift, etc., could result in injuries or death to employees that tried to escape out that door and found it to be blocked. Electrical panels may need to be accessed in an emergency. In fact, the fire department requires clearance around all electrical panels. First-aid supplies also need access during a medical emergency. Alarms and phones must be accessible so that employees can report emergency situations.

22 Warehouse Safety Goals
Material handling Warehouse hazards Quiz I. Background for the Trainer: Distribute copies of the Warehouse Safety Quiz . II. Speaker’s Notes: Are there any questions regarding these warehouse specific hazards and safe work practices? Let’s wrap up the training session with a summary and a quiz.

23 Summary Back safety: correct posture and lifting technique
Use material handling aids, but be aware of their hazards Diligent housekeeping practices prevent accidents Inspect pallets and use good stacking practices Wear your PPE I. Speaker’s Notes: The quiz is intended to help reinforce our discussion today and make sure that everyone understands the material.

24 Quiz 1. List two potential slip and trip hazards that you might find in your warehouse: ______________________ 2. Material must not be stacked closer than ____ inches from a sprinkler head. 3. List the PPE that is required in your warehouse: _________________________________________ 4. Jumping down from docks is OK as long as you make sure the landing area is clear. True or False 5. Before moving a pallet of boxes, the worker should inspect the load to make sure it is stable. True or False

25 Quiz (cont.) 6. If a box is too heavy or awkward, what should you do? ____________________________________________ 7. Describe how you would know if a forklift was near you or approaching you. ________________________ 8. Describe the main hazard associated with a powered conveyor. ___________________________________ 9. When using a hand truck, you want to stack the boxes as high as possible to reduce the number of trips required. True or False 10. What should be done to help prevent trailer “creep”? ____________________________________________

26 Quiz Answers 1. Water on the floor, plastic, electric cords, air lines, broken pallets, cardboard, etc. 2. Keep material at least 18 inches from a sprinkler head. 3. Required PPE may include: safety glasses, back brace, dust mask, steel-toed work shoes, gloves, hard hat, ear plugs, etc. 4. False. You never know when you might land wrong and injure yourself. 5. True. The load should be stabilized by interlocking the boxes, using shrink wrap, or strapping/banding the load to the pallet.

27 Quiz Answers (cont.) 6. Ask a co-worker for help if the load is too heavy or awkward. 7. Hear the horn or back-up alarm, or see the warning light. 8. Pinch points can grab hands, hair, or loose clothing. 9. False. You do not want to stack the boxes so high that they will block your vision. 10. Chock the wheels of the trailer.

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