Presentation on theme: "The principle of unit loads Goods should be kept together in form of a transport unit adapted to all present vehicles and handling equipment. The unit."— Presentation transcript:
The principle of unit loads Goods should be kept together in form of a transport unit adapted to all present vehicles and handling equipment. The unit should be formed as early as possible and be broken as late as possible in the material flow. Preferably should be formed at the consignor ’s, ad broken at the consignee ’s.
Unit loads Unit loads are parts of a shipment that can be treated as a single unit during cargo handling and transportation. The size or dimensions of the unit load can vary according to requirements and to the means of transport and packaging container available. To optimize the cargo handling, transport and storage processes, standardization of unit loads is desirable. The most common unit loads are pallets and components with bases that resemble pallets, such as pallet, etc. The most important properties of a unit load are that it can be loaded to ensure a tight fit, its modularity and its stability, the last of which ensures that it can be stowed safely and will not be damaged by load securing measures.
Characteristics of an unit load Large as possible Formed as early as possible Broken as late as possible Be stable and rough Be able to be handled by all equipment in the transport chain
Benefits of using unit loads Simpler, faster and cheaper trans- shipments between transport modes Reduced terminal times for vehicles leading to better resource utilisation Less goods damage and costs for wrapping Easier to choose load unit type Easier document handling
Costs of using unit loads Need for technical adaptation Need for larger and more costly transhipment equipment Economies of scale cause less flexibility Extra costs for unit loads, empty positioning and returning
Unitizing Cargo Unitizing is the assembly of one or more items into a compact load, secured together and provided with skids and cleats for ease of handling. Provide water damage protection by using plastic shrink wrap or stretch wrap on individual items, before assembly into unit load, or on entire load. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) publishes a guide to aid manufacturers, consumers and the general public in selecting unit-load and transport-package sizes to efficiently fit within truck trailers, intermodal containers, or railroad box-cars.
Recommended max weight manual handling
Attività della movimentazione
Full loads and parcels simple operations low entry barrier more difficult operations consolidation in terminals requires a network large economies of scale speed is essential
Unit loads Container Container capacities are stated in terms of twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU). Swap body Semi-trailer Roll-on frame
The module of 600 x 400 mm
The modular design of the pallet system
Moving floor to allow external sequence loading (Moving deck)
A swap body (Cassa mobile)
A swap body frame
The principle of swap-bodies
Handling principles for roll-on frames with hook exchangers
Load carrier in terminal on the roadon railwaysat the sea semi-trailer swap-body container
Incorrect load distribution
The stability of the goods The ratio a/hs, whether the unit has been scotched or not, shall be equal to or higher than 0.6 longitudinally and the ratio b/hs shall be equal to or higher than 0.5 transversely. If the load is subjected to wind (loading on a flat), the ratio b/hs shall be equal to or higher than 0,7.