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MANAJEMEN KETAHANAN EKO- SISTEM Mk. Analisis Ekosistem Diabstraksikan: smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.2012/13.

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Presentation on theme: "MANAJEMEN KETAHANAN EKO- SISTEM Mk. Analisis Ekosistem Diabstraksikan: smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.2012/13."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAJEMEN KETAHANAN EKO- SISTEM Mk. Analisis Ekosistem Diabstraksikan: smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.2012/13

2 ECOLOGY is The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, AND the flows of energy and materials between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012


4 1.Ecosystem: Defined area in which a community lives with interactions taking place among the organisms between the community and its non-living physical environment. 2.Suatu Ekosistem dibentuk oleh interaksi antara benda hidup dan benda mati 3.Bagaimana benda hidup dan benda mati berinteraksi dalam suatu lingkungan? Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 DEFINISI

5 APAKAH EKOSISTEM ? 1.System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole 2.Ekosistem = Sistem ekologis; = suatu komunitas dan lingkungan fisiknya yang diperlakukan bersama sebagai suatu sistem fungsional. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

6 Jasa-jasa Ekosistem 1.Ekonomi manusia tergantung pada jasa-jasa yang disediakan secara bebas oleh ekosistem. 2.Jasa-jasa nekosistem yang dihasilkan setiap tahun bernilai triliunan dolar. 3.Economic development that destroys habitats and impairs services can create costs to humanity over the long term that may greatly exceed the short-term economic benefits of the development. 4.These costs are generally hidden from traditional economic accounting, but are nonetheless real and are usually borne by society at large. Sumber: Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

7 Structure: – Living (biotic) – Nonliving (abiotic) Process: – Energy flow – Cycling of matter (chemicals) Change: – Dynamic (not static) – Succession, etc. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 KARAKTERISTIK EKOSISTEM

8 Kompoinen ABIOTIK: 1.Energi matahari menyediakan semua energi untuk ekosistem. 2.Senyawa Inorganik, mis., sulfur, boron, cenderung bersiklus dalam ekosistem. 3.Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 KOMPONEN ABIOTIK

9 The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition. In this type of classification, there are: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Organisms that produce their own food from an energy source, such as the sun, and inorganic compounds. Organisms that consume other organisms as a food source. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 KOMPONEN BIOTIK

10 Modified from: General Ecology, by David T. Krome TROPHIC LEVEL: All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

11 TINGKAT TROFIK A trophic level is the position occupied by an organism in a food chain. Trophic levels can be analyzed on an energy pyramid. Producers are found at the base of the pyramid and compromise the first trophic level. Primary consumers make up the second trophic level. Secondary consumers make up the third trophic level. Finally tertiary consumers make up the top trophic level. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

12 Level-level Trofik pada Piramida Energi 1.The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the pyramid. 2.The least amount of energy is found at top of the pyramid. Source: Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

13 Eltonian pyramids Number of individuals per species Is this pyramid stable? Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 STRUKTUR TROFIK

14 Bagaimana kalau setiap species ditransformasi menjadi biomasa, menggantikan jumlah individu? Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 STRUKTUR TROFIK

15 BIOMASA 1.Energy is sometimes considered in terms of biomass, the mass of all the organisms and organic material in an area. 2.There is more biomass at the trophic level of producers and fewer at the trophic level of tertiary consumers. (There are more plants on Earth than there are animals.) 3.Bio=life Mass=weight 4.Bio + Mass = Weight of living things within an ecosystem. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

16 Trophic Structure Reminder 1.Express trophic structure as energy transfer 2.Energy pyramids can never be inverted 3.Is there room for anyone else the top of this food chain? Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

17 Rantai Makanan 1.Producers, Konsumers, dan Decomposers dari setiap ekosistem membentuk RANTAI MAKANAN. 2.There are many food chains in an ecosystem. 3.Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats who. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012


19 All the food chains in an area make up the food web of the area. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 JARING-JARING MAKANAN

20 © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers JARING-JARING MAKANAN : the harp seal. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012


22 What is an ecosystem? System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

23 OR, MORE SIMPLY an ecosystem is composed of the organisms and physical environment of a specified area. SIZE: micro to MACRO Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

24 THE RULES OF ECOLOGY F. A. BAZZAZ: 1. Everything is connected to everything else. 2. Everything must go somewhere. 3. There is no such thing as a free lunch. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

25 H. T. Odum: To understand any system you must understand the next larger system. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

26 Attributes of Ecosystems Order Development Metabolism (energy flow) Material cycles Response to the environment Porous boundaries Emphasis on function, not species Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

27 ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS All organisms require energy, for growth, maintenance, reproduction, locomotion, etc. Hence, for all organisms there must be: A source of energy A loss of usable energy Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

28 Types of energy heat energy mechanical energy (+gravitational energy, etc.) chemical energy = energy stored in molecular bonds Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

29 Transformations of energy How is solar energy converted to chemical energy? How does this process influence life as we see it on earth? The transformations of energy from solar radiation to chemical energy and mechanical energy and finally back to heat are a traditional topic of Ecosystem Ecology. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

30 An ecosystem has abiotic and biotic components: ABIOTIC components: Solar energy provides practically all the energy for ecosystems. Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems. Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

31 BIOTIC components: The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition. In this type of classification, there are: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

32 Autotrophs Autotrophs (=self-nourishing) are called primary producers. Photoautotrophs fix energy from the sun and store it in complex organic compounds (= green plants, algae, some bacteria) photoautotrophs simple inorganic compounds complex organic compounds light Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

33 1.Chemoautotrophs (chemosynthesizers) are bacteria 2.that oxidize reduced inorganic substances 3.(typically sulfur and ammonia compounds) 4.and produce complex organic compounds. Chemo autotrophs reduced inorganic compounds complex organic compounds oxygen Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 Khemo-Autotrophs

34 Heterotrophs Heterotrophs (=other-nourishing) cannot produce their own food directly from sunlight+ inorganic compounds. They require energy previously stored in complex molecules. Hetero- trophs simple inorganic compounds complex organic compounds (this may include several steps, with several different types of organisms) heat Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

35 1.Consumers feed on organisms or particulate organic matter. 2.Decomposers utilize complex compounds in dead protoplasm. 3.Bacteria and fungi are the main groups of decomposers. 4.Bacteria are the main feeders on animal material. 5.Fungi feed primarily on plants, although bacteria also are important in some plant decomposition processes. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

36 The Laws of Thermodynamics Energy flow is a one-directional process. sun---> heat (longer wavelengths) FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS: Energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

37 SECOND LAW of THERMODYNAMICS Transformations of energy always result in some loss or dissipation of energy or In energy exchanges in a closed system, the potential energy of the final state will be less than that of the initial state or Entropy tends to increase (entropy = amount of unavailable energy in a system) or Systems will tend to go from ordered states to disordered states (to maintain order, energy must be added to the system, to compensate for the loss of energy) Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

38 Conto-contoh 1.Internal combustion engines in cars are 25% efficient in converting chemical energy to kinetic energy; the rest is not used or is lost as heat. 2.My house, particularly my girls' rooms, goes from a complex, ordered state to a simpler, disordered state. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

39 Simplistically: This pattern of energy flow among different organisms is the TROPHIC STRUCTURE of an ecosystem. heat Producers Konsumer Decomposers heat Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 ALIRAN ENERGI

40 It is useful to distinguish different types of organisms within these major groups, particularly within the consumer group. Consumers Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 ALIRAN ENERGI

41 Terminology of trophic levels We can further separate the TROPHIC LEVELS, particularly the Consumers: Producers (Plants, algae, cyanobacteria; some chemotrophs)-- capture energy, produce complex organic compounds Primary consumers--feed on producers Secondary consumers--feed on primary consumers Tertiary consumers--feed on secondary consumers Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

42 More trophic levels: Detritivores--invertebrates that feed on organic wastes and dead organisms (detritus) from all trophic levels Decomposers--bacteria and fungi that break down dead material into inorganic materials Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

43 Alternate Terminology Producers = plants etc. that capture energy from the sun Herbivores = plant-eaters Carnivores = animal-eaters Omnivores--eat both animals and plants Specialized herbivores: Granivores--seed-eaters Frugivores--fruit-eaters Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

44 1.Together, these groups make up a FOOD CHAIN 2.E.g., grass, rabbit, eagle Carnivore Herbivore Producer Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

45 Carnivores Carnivores can be further divided into groups: quaternary carnivore (top) tertiary carnivore secondary carnivore primary carnivore The last carnivore in a chain, which is not usually eaten by any other carnivore, is often referred to as the top carnivore. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

46 Rarely are things as simple as grass, rabbit, hawk, or indeed any simple linear sequence of organisms. More typically, there are multiple interactions, so that we end up with a FOOD WEB. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 JARING-JARING MAKANAN

47 TRANSFER ENERGI DI ANTARA LEVEL TROFI 1.How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next? 2.Bagaimana efisiensi transfer energi tersebut? Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

48 Biomass– massa kering material organik dalam organism(s). (the mass of water is not usually included, since water content is variable and contains no usable energy) Standing crop – JUMLAH BIOMASA yang ada setiap saat. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 TRANSFER ENERGI DI ANTARA LEVEL TROFI

49 PRODUKTIVITAS PRIMER Primary productivity is the rate of energy capture by producers. = the amount of new biomass of producers, per unit time and space Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

50 Gross primary production (GPP) = total amount of energy captured Net primary production (NPP) = GPP - respiration Net primary production is thus the amount of energy stored by the producers and potentially available to consumers and decomposers. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 PRODUKTIVITAS PRIMER

51 Secondary productivity is the rate of production of new biomass by consumers, i.e., the rate at which consumers convert organic material into new biomass of consumers. Note that secondary production simply involves the repackaging of energy previously captured by producers--no additional energy is introduced into the food chain. And, since there are multiple levels of consumers and no new energy is being captured and introduced into the system, the modifiers gross and net are not very appropriate and are not usually used. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012 PRODUKTIVITAS SEKUNDER

52 PIRAMIDA EKOLOGIS The standing crop, productivity, number of organisms, etc. of an ecosystem can be conveniently depicted using “pyramids”, where the size of each compartment represents the amount of the item in each trophic level of a food chain. Note that the complexities of the interactions in a food web are not shown in a pyramid; but, pyramids are often useful conceptual devices--they give one a sense of the overall form of the trophic structure of an ecosystem. producers herbivores carnivores Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

53 PIRAMIDA ENERGI 1.A pyramid of energy depicts the energy flow, or productivity, of each trophic level. 2.Due to the Laws of Thermodynamics, each higher level must be smaller than lower levels, due to loss of some energy as heat (via respiration) within each level. producers herbivores carnivores Energy flow in : Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

54 Piramida jumlah individu A pyramid of numbers indicates the number of individuals in each trophic level. Since the size of individuals may vary widely and may not indicate the productivity of that individual, pyramids of numbers say little or nothing about the amount of energy moving through the ecosystem. # of producers # of herbivores # of carnivores Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

55 Piramida Standing crop A pyramid of standing crop indicates how much biomass is present in each trophic level at any one time. As for pyramids of numbers, a pyramid of standing crop may not well reflect the flow of energy through the system, due to different sizes and growth rates of organisms. biomass of producers biomass of herbivores biomass of carnivores (at one point in time) Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

56 Piramida Terbalik A pyramid of standing crop (or of numbers) may be inverted, i.e., a higher trophic level may have a larger standing crop than a lower trophic level. This can occur if the lower trophic level has a high rate of turnover of small individuals (and high rate of productivity), such that the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics are not violated. biomass of producers biomass of herbivores biomass of carnivores (at one point in time) Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

57 Piramida Produksi Biomasa Tahunan If the biomass produced by a trophic level is summed over a year (or the appropriate complete cycle period), then the pyramid of total biomass produced must resemble the pyramid of energy flow, since biomass can be equated to energy. producers herbivores carnivores Yearly biomass production (or energy flow) of: Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

58 Note that pyramids of energy and yearly biomass production can never be inverted, since this would violate the laws of thermodynamics. Pyramids of standing crop and numbers can be inverted, since the amount of organisms at any one time does not indicate the amount of energy flowing through the system. E.g., consider the amount of food you eat in a year compared to the amount on hand in your pantry. Diunduh dari: 19/12/2012

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