Presentation on theme: " Neither Britain nor France dominant in North America after King George’s war. No sooner had it ended then the two powers began building for another."— Presentation transcript:
Neither Britain nor France dominant in North America after King George’s war. No sooner had it ended then the two powers began building for another war. Ohio valley major contention point. Claimed by Virginia, Pennsylvania, France, the six nations of the Iroquois, and, of course, the natives who lived there. France built forts, Virginia sent a surveyor named Washington ( remember him? Yeah didn’t think so.) with a contingent of men, who were promptly driven from the area. Most Indians favored French. (French were less a threat to their lands)
Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany plan of union for “mutual protection” but it came to nothing since colonies refused to yield power of taxation. Warning sign maybe? British sent General Braddock with 1000 regulars. Map before the war.
Openly condescending to colonial troops as well. Braddock felt his regulars were superior to French and native soldiers. Openly condescending to colonial troops as well. Sent to take Fort Duquesne failed and forced to retreat after being ambushed by French and Indian troops losing 25% of his forces Continuing native attacks halted colonial help for 3 years from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia.
Pitt took over control of the military affairs in the British Cabinet. “I know that I can save this country and that no one else can.” He reinvigorated the British soldiers and became a popular hero to the colonists. Promised parliament would pay for the cost of fighting if colonists acquired the men Promised parliament would pay for the cost of fighting if colonists acquired the men troops organized in the colonies.
Quebec falls in 1759 with both Commanders, Generals Wolfe (British)and Montcalm (French) falling in the battle. Montreal surrenders in Officially ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, France ceded All territory east of the Mississippi to Britain, New Orleans to Spain and ceased to be a major power in North America. Spain ceded Florida to Britain for Cuba.
British officers regularly criticized colonial soldiers, also complained about colonists unwillingness to provide food and shelter. British debt doubled. Colonies prospered by breaking the Navigation acts. “Pontiac’s Rebellion” arose and was subdued 3 years later. (Indians resisting settlement west of the Appalachians, French had been thinly scattered, Americans came in droves) Proclamation of 1763 (No settlement west of Line drawn down Appalachians) and a man standing army was instituted as a result.
Writs of assistance Writs of assistance passed to stop trade with the French west Indies. Violated privacy of of a place of residence since most business was conducted at home. Boston merchants quickly challenged the constitutionality of the writs but were beaten by the Mass. Supreme court.
Sugar act made trade so difficult through legal papers that it was near impossible to not commit a technical violation. Removed the right to fair trial and sent smuggling cases to admiral courts where the judges were given part of the confiscated materials, a serious conflict of interests. Sugar act passed to raise revenues to offset military debts which Pitt promised not to do. Plus it made trade so difficult through legal papers that it was near impossible to not commit a technical violation. Removed the right to fair trial and sent smuggling cases to admiral courts where the judges were given part of the confiscated materials, a serious conflict of interests. Stamp act Colonists denied that they were virtually represented and said they were slightly self governed Colonies began boycotting all British goods and caused the colonists to achieve some self-sufficiency. Stamp act direct tax on the people and virtual representation was used as an excuse for no colonial representation. Colonists denied that they were virtually represented and said they were slightly self governed. A Boston mob stormed and destroyed the Boston stamp distributor's house as well as Justice Hutchinson’s for many of his court decisions. Colonies began boycotting all British goods and caused the colonists to achieve some self-sufficiency.
Parliament stating that they had full legislative power over any local legislatures in the colonies. The Declaratory act was passed (as the Stamp Act was repealed) in 1766 by Parliament stating that they had full legislative power over any local legislatures in the colonies. Quartering act 1766 to 1767 Quartering act 1766 to 1767 made colonists pay for supplies needed by British soldiers within their borders. Many saw it as continued tyranny and New York began to protest. Townshend duties Townshend duties set prices that did not conform to the market rates. Considered outside of the taxation power of the British on the colonists.
Many of the intellectual colonists were influenced by Enlightenment literature such as Locke. John (“Mad”)Wilkes John (“Mad”)Wilkes after being elected is refused his seat in Parliament after being critical of King George and his policies. Women began a nonconsumption campaign against tea. American Board of Customs Commission, deeply hated by many and seen as enabling “legalized piracy” targeted John Hancock. Townshend also passed American Board of Customs Commission, deeply hated by many and seen as enabling “legalized piracy” targeted John Hancock.
The Boston Massacre 1770 Defended by John Adams The Boston Massacre 1770 considered the first deaths of the revolutionary war. 5 people were killed including Attucks. Defended by John Adams and all but 2 of the soldiers were acquitted. North repealed most of the Townshend duties. Committees of correspondence created in 1772 Committees of correspondence created in 1772 with urging from Samuel Adams. Lord Dunmore's war began in 1774 and was fought with Indians over land in the Ohio area.
Tea act passed in 1773 Tea act passed in 1773 threatened to corrupt Americans into accepting Parliamentary power to tax the colonies. 45 tons of tea ended up in Boston harbor on December 16 th. (Boston Tea Party)
Coercive acts were passed 1774 to force the colonies to pay for the tea dumped into Boston Harbor. Closed Boston Port, shut down Mass. legislature Quebec Act With the Quebec Act, giving religious freedom to Catholics in Canada and gave them land down to the Ohio and west to the Mississippi, were named the Intolerable acts. The “Murder” act allowed any person charged with murder in asserting royal authority to be tried else where. Quartering act allowed the requisition of empty private buildings for housing troops.
First Continental Congress assembled in September 1774 First Continental Congress assembled in September 1774 and voted to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting to Britain. Sent a message to the King imploring him to end the crises. “Lexington & Concord” Governor Gage sent British troops to Concord to collect rumored munitions, was hit on their way back by Yankee forces which began a hit and run guerilla battle back to Boston. “Lexington & Concord” first fire fight of revolution, (Paul Revere rides) Bunker Hill Bunker Hill – Brits drive Continentals from Breed’s Hill, suffer huge losses doing so
Olive Branch petition Olive Branch petition sent to King George III. Paine published Common Sense Paine published Common Sense pamphlet in Jefferson masterminded the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson masterminded the Declaration of Independence, the revolution had begun.
Loyalists felt that independence was not the only option. Britain- had the most professional army and largest navy as well as a larger population./ Not on home soil and far from England. Colonies- Home soil determined mostly self-reliant from years of boycotts. Skilled in guerilla warfare./ Forced to fight standard European style which they could not win. Ill-experienced officers, until Washington
Enter one George Washington. Purported himself with dignity and respected the soldiers. Knew the American soldiers needed to be respected. Learned from his earlier military defeats in the Ohio valley.
Knox Knox heaved the cannons from Fort Ticonderoga to the hill overlooking Boston forcing the British to retreat. Trenton and Princeton Victories at Trenton and Princeton boosted morale, 44 continental casualties with 1300 British troops and Mercenaries removed from combat. Saratoga was the turning point that convinced France to help the colonists. (second Paine pamphlet – “the Crisis” Von Stueben was a Godsend for the colonial army and the training won them the battle of Monmouth.After horrible winter at Valley Forge – (second Paine pamphlet – “the Crisis”
Natives such as the Cherokees began attacking South Carolina and North Carolina. Whites retaliated and forced them to ceded their land to the whites. Brant led pro-British Iroquois against Penn. And New York devastating the border area. Sullivan retaliated and defeated them in 1779
Gates, after running from Cornwallis after just one volley, is replaced by Greene. Greene stretched Cornwallis’ supply lines until they snapped and dogged Cornwallis until he retreats to Yorktown.
surrendered to the colonials in October Cornwallis trapped at Yorktown surrendered to the colonials in October The treaty Peace of Paris sowed the seeds for later disputes between Britain and America. Evolution of egalitarianism Articles of Confederation 1781 outlined America’s new government. Decentralized power.
free to 11 slave states in House of Reps. MO came in as a slave state it would upset balance Maine came in as a free state to keep balance 36 ° 30 ´ line of separation for slave vs. free states MO wanted to prohibit blacks from entering the state Clashed with Constitution’s provision that citizens have = rights in all states Clay got agreement that MO cant discriminate
Euro can’t colonize America anymore It would be considered an “unfriendly act” America would abstain from any European wars unless American interests were at heart Served as bold words for nationalistic purpose Impact Euro scoffed at its empty statement Holy Alliance was afraid of Britain and not the US It was a claim by the US for supremacy
Free blacks in North Bottom of scale Segregated, discriminated against Middling Class Professionals small merchants landowning farmers
Improved transportation Brief canal boom Steamboat Commercial farming Industrial innovation Lowell Mills in Mass. Still agricultural Most populous section of the country
King Cotton “Peculiar Institution” Increased by cotton boom Varied lives for slaves at different plantations
Move from the hands of rich Southern planters into the hands of Northern merchants Universal male suffrage in some states Party nominating conventions held Popular elections for President 2 Party System arises Rise of third parties as well “Spoils system”
Calhoun and South Carolina say that Tariff of Abominations was unconstitutional Really worried that a North dominated Congress may some day try to outlaw slavery, good time to “test” Nullification by saying: “Each state has right to decide whether or not to obey federal law or declare it null and void” Calhoun holds convention Jackson gets Congress to pass Force Bill so military can be used Proclamation to the People of South Carolina: nullification and disunion are treason
What You Need to Know About the Mexican War Whig party strongly disagreed with going to war Whig party strongly disagreed with going to war resulted in Mexico selling of California and New Mexicoresulted in Mexico selling of California and New Mexico - This caused problems because in some of those states slavery was already being practiced and technically now as new states they weren't supposed to The winning of the war had a patriotic result in the U.S but it quickly faded awayThe winning of the war had a patriotic result in the U.S but it quickly faded away Thoreau went to prison for not paying his taxes because he did not support the war and wrote Civil Disobedience Thoreau went to prison for not paying his taxes because he did not support the war and wrote Civil Disobedience
Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot (D – PA) proposed it and said that none of the territory acquired in the Mexican war should be slave territoryDavid Wilmot (D – PA) proposed it and said that none of the territory acquired in the Mexican war should be slave territory The Congress adjourned without discussing it then came back and proposed it be $3 million but said nothing about anti-slavery which was really Wilmot´s purpose in the first place The Congress adjourned without discussing it then came back and proposed it be $3 million but said nothing about anti-slavery which was really Wilmot´s purpose in the first place Caused bitterness between the North and the South because it helped to solidify their opposing views on slaveryCaused bitterness between the North and the South because it helped to solidify their opposing views on slavery
Planned to arm slaves with guns/pikes and start insurrections all in the south Seized Harpers Ferry, but whites came instead of slaves and they were over taken Lawyers tried to claim that he was insane, but he knew very well what he was doing and a link was made with him and Northern abolitionist The South was not at all pleased, and felt betrayed from the North once again.
1) The admission of CA as a free state 2) Mexican cession into two territories, New Mexico and Utah without federal restrictions on slavery (popular sovereignty) 3) New Mexico gained the larger piece of the cookie between the border dispute with Texas 4) Government would assume the public debt of Texas (throwing bones out to please the dogs) 5) Slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia, but slavery still allowed 6) Lastly, a more effective Fugitive Slave Law (Angered North, pleased Southerners)
“Seventh of March” speech Chided the North for trying to “reenact the will of God” by excluding slavery in the Mexican cession He proved to be a proponent for the compromise Ruined his reputation in Mass, his home state Dashed any Presidential prospects
Extreme advocates of southern rights meeting Suspicious and important because it could be seen as a meeting to secede from the Union Most rabid attendees were the “fire-eaters”
President Zach Taylor died from eating and drinking to much (would that be the best way to go?) VP Fillmore appointed Daniel Webster to secretary of state Stephen Douglas
Stephen Douglas chopped and diced Clay’s omnibus bill, which was losing favor in Congress and placed popular sovereignty in the Utah and New Mexico bill. It composed of Statehood for CA Territorial status for Utah and New Mexico Resolution btw the Texas and New Mexico boundary Federal assumption of Texas debt Abolition of slave trade in the D.C. New FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW Both the South and North benefited, but the issue of slavery did not go away as did secession. Buried the Wilmot Proviso
Fugitives had no right to a fail trial, jury, and were not allowed to testify in their own behalf Claimant just had to point and say he was a run away (imagine if our laws today were like that…) North HATED it and realized slavery was not a sectional issue but a national problem, passed the “personal liberty laws”. Fugitives could not be jailed in state jails, trying to foil the South and exclude the use of law enforcement.
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Depicted a slave Eliza running away to freedom Tom gets whipped to death Preyed on people’s emotions and the cruelty of such a peculiar institution. Runaway best seller (in the North and overseas) put a “Face” on slavery
Hinton R. Helper wrote against slavery, calling it a curse upon whites
Whigs were separated from the Fugitive Slave Law (their last run as a party!) Nominated Winfield Scott, bad decision due to Scott’s support of the Compromise Democrats were not separated and supported the Compromise fully Franklin Pierce won being a “dark horse”
Stephen Douglas wrote it in hope of fulfilling the Manifest Destiny and increasing the importance of the Midwest by the Pacific railroad (which was planned) Conflict: 1) Some southerners wanted the Pacific railroad to start from either New Orleans or Memphis 2) It voided the Missouri Compromise line of 36*30’ by allowing slavery all the way to Canada if voters in the new territories so desired (which, Douglas felt, they wouldn’t, but even the possibility caused a huge Northern backlash against Douglas)
Free Soilers- abolitionists whose argument was slavery impeded white’s progress and is a disgrace to labor. Whig’s die from separation, losing the election of 1852, and the Kansas Nebraska Act. Know-nothings came and went Republican party emerges
Ostend Manifesto Recommendation from three US ambassadors (Br, Fr, Sp) that Pierce urge seizure of Cuba by “any means possible” Becomes public, plan abandoned Kansas Crisis (Bleeding Kansas) Senator David R. Atchinson crossed with a ton of proslavery followers and voted for slavery illegally, Lecompton, and the Lecompton Constitution; Buchanan’s blunder… Antislavery in Topeka, John Brown and the “Pottawatomie massacre ” Popular sovereignty failed Sumner’s head runs into Preston Brook’s cane a few times
Lincoln-Republican “House divided” speech (slavery cant exist in one half and in the other exist) Did not want to bring equality between blacks and whites Douglas-Democratic Believed in the expansion of white settlements through popular sovereignty Got into a predicament with his “Freeport Doctrine” during the Dred Scott debate.
Scott had sued for his freedom because he was now residing in a free state USSC under Taney said Scott could not sue because he was property and not a citizen of the U.S., also that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional so he was never free. Slavery issue was coming to a boiling point
Buchanan is no longer president and Lincoln is elected. Lincoln was very unpopular in the South and it was the South used him as their excuse to secede South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, they formed the Confederate States of America
The Last chance for the South to come back into the Union Created by John Crittenden Proposed compensation for run away slaves Repeal of northern personal-liberty laws Two amendments First, that the government could not interfere with the Southern states’ slavery Second, the restoration of the Missouri Compromise line to protect slavery
Is bombarded by the Confederates and is taken over before relief ships could supply it Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee all side with the Confederates
Both sections begin mobilization for war Recruitment and Conscription laws begin South gains a total of 9 million armed soldiers North gathers around 22 million soldiers
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction “Plan of Minority Voters” or “10% Plan” Means for Southern states to rejoin the Union 10% of voters must take an Oath of Allegiance, and must accept emancipation to the state’s law Former confederate congress officials, army and naval officers and resigned union military or congress officials (people who had essentially switched sides) were excluded from taking the oath and had to apply for Presidential Pardon Blacks were also excluded if they had not voted in 1860 Proposed by Lincoln during the war, obviously never implemented due to his death, but it did draw a response from the Radical Republican dominated Congress, who viewed it as too lenient towards the South
Countered the 10% Plan (“too weak”) Provisions Each former confederate state ruled by a Military Governor ½ of Voters ½ of Voters required to take an Oath of Allegiance After the Oath, delegates could be elected by those who had taken the oath from those who took the oath to a convention to repeal secession and abolish slavery Did not provide for Black Suffrage Pocket-Vetoed by Lincoln Fear that readmission would be delayed indefinitely
Only Senator to remain in Congress when his state seceeded Strong anti-Confederate, “treason is a crime” Supported emancipation as a part of the Union policy, did not adopt abolitionist ideas, nor counter racist sentiments Johnson’s Plan Plan to readmit the 7 states still without reconstruction provisions to the Union Any Southerner to take an Oath of Allegiance would receive a pardon and amnesty, and all property (except slaves) would be restored to them Southerners with more than $20,000 worth of property had to ask Johnson for a pardon individually (which he gave freely once they “begged”) These southerners could elect delegates to state conventions where secession would be declared illegal and the 13 th amendment would be ratified.
13 th Amendment: Prohibited slavery in the United States; ratified December 1865 14 th Amendment: Defined citizenship (“Born or naturalized” in the US), provided for loss of congressional representation as repercussion for denying suffrage to ANY male citizen, repudiated Confederate debt, disqualified former officeholders who supported the confederacy from holding state or national office; ratified July 1868 as a condition of readmission 15 th Amendment: Prohibited denying suffrage on the basis of race, color or previous condition of servitude; ratified March 1870, required of VA, MS, TX, and GA for readmission
Loopholes in the 15 th Amendment women’s suffrage at all) Didn’t provide full black suffrage without restrictions, ( didn’t provide for women’s suffrage at all) Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Adding insult to injury after the inclusion of “male” in the 14 th amendment, with the absence of “sex” from the 15 th Minor v. Happersett USSC rules that being a citizen doesn’t mean a state can’t deny women the vote
Freedmen serve as the Backbone of Southern Republicanism 60% SC legislature Black 6% of the House of Representatives were black, half of which were from SC Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce serve in the US Senate, both from Mississippi Black officials on the state level formed a political elite, better education, influenced by the north, from big cities or large towns
“horror of negro domination” Ku Klux Klan Widespread terrorist movement, violent Southern Democrats Intimidation and violence against black voters Aimed to suppress black voting, reestablish white supremacy, and topple reconstruction gov’ts Knights of the White Camelia Spontaneous vigilante groups Suspected to be responsible for rapes, shootings, murders, arson, beatings, and roasting of blacks and their supporters
Targets Freedman’s Bureau Officials Black Schools in Mississippi White Republicans Black militia units Economically Successful Blacks Black Voters Republican officeholders Ku Klux Klan Act Enforcement Acts and the Ku Klux Klan Act Outlaw vigilantism and protect black voters from terrorist groups Empowered the President to use Federal troops against vigilantes who aim to stop the electoral process
Confronting Freedom Freedmen migration Liberty to move toward higher wages, better housing and “havens of independence” Legal Marriages and Reuniting families Some successful and some failing ends Desire for secured privileges of family Black Institutions African Methodist Church Black Schools established by the Freedmen’s Bureau Civil Rights Cases Supreme court invalidates the Civil Rights Act of 1875, an Act passed in honor of Sumner’s (yep that Sumner) proposals
Toward a Crop Lien Economy Secured loans through Liens (Claims) on Crops, absence of property for collateral New Concerns in the North, Grantism Grant, a strong military man, was not a savvy politician His authority was abused as he appointed anyone who wanted an appointment; (Spoils System, a la Jackson) “The Gilded Age” and Boss Tweed The Liberal’s Revolt Horace Greely and “the best man” The Panic of 1873 monetary dispute: greenbacks and yellowbacks Caused a 5-year depression
Republicans in Retreat Sick of: carpet bag government, the “southern question” and the “negro question” Reconstruction Abandoned, Redeeming the South Ex-Confederates retake office Democrats sweep to take advantage of Republican’s weak grip on southern electorate, blacks almost immediately disenfranchised (KLAN, other intimidation) The Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes - the election scandal – Hayes (Rep) vs Tilden ( Dem) Honest men, crooked election, votes in question FL, SC, LA Commission gives all to Hayes, Dems object Deal made – Hayes gets White House, promises to end Military reconstruction, appoint Dem cabinet member, see that federal money gets spent on southern improvements (The compromise of 1877)
Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, and the Radical Republicans “clamored for the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy.”; they felt Lincoln’s plan was too weak and too forgiving of the south Freedmen's Bureau Established to support former slaves; established schools, churches, and other places for the survival of black’s well being. Lincoln's 10 percent plan versus Wade-Davis bill Lincoln required that only ten percent of the voting population take an oath of allegiance to the USA while the Wade-Davis (congressional) plan required that half of voters take the oath, the Wade-Davis plan could have delayed readmission of the states almost indefinetely Thirteenth Amendment Outlaws slavery and was required by the Wade-Davis Bill and the plans of Lincoln and Johnson to be ratified for readmission in reconstruction proceedings of the established electorate
black codes The black codes regulated the rights of “free” blacks, locking them into a traditional sense of slavery in freedom, blacks were not truly liberated without the amendments that would soon protect their rights Civil Rights Act of 1866 The first law passed over presidential veto, the bill made black citizens legally equal to white citizens Fourteenth Amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States were declared citizens, of those citizens males were allowed to vote without regard to race and/or ethnicity. Under the realization that the south would not accept blacks unless forced to do so, the amendment declared that any state withholding the rights of blacks to vote would lose the percentage of legislators equivalent to the percentage of blacks in the state population.
Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided south into 5 parts, each controlled by a military governor required each state to elect new delegates and form a new constitution required states to allow ALL MALES to vote temporarily barred former confederates from voting required states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens required all states to ratify the 14th amendment Tenure of Office Act Passed over veto, denying the president the right to remove from office any appointed or approved (by congress) official without the approval of congress of the dismissal Fifteenth Amendment Congress granted all male citizens the right to vote, and declared the right of congress to enforce the amendment with repercussions on any state choosing to disobey it
carpetbaggers and scalawags carpetbaggers were northerners who went south during reconstruction to make money, scalawags were southerners who supported federal reconstruction, both were derogatory terms Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Advocates of women’s suffrage and universal suffrage, competed with the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments as they further included blacks and excluded women from the voting population. sharecropping and crop-liens sharecropping was the division of farms into smaller areas which were farmed by—often black—farmers, crop liens guaranteed the production of these lands, by holding for collateral the next productive crop if one was to fail. Ku Klux Klan White supremacist organization responsible for many of the hate crimes committed against blacks, violent opposition to black participation and influence in society. The Klan often targeted black officials, black schoolhouses and even black homes, they didn’t just attack things, they also attacked people. Enforcement Acts (Ku Klux Klan Act) These acts declared the punishments for those who attacked or attempted to deny the rights of blacks or any other minority
Civil Rights Act of 1875 Declared the rights of all citizens equal, noting that the south would not treat blacks fairly if they weren’t forced to. Crédit Mobilier a fraudulent construction company used to skim off the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad William M. “Boss” Tweed Leader of Tammany Hall and the “embodiment of corruption” “Seward's Ice Box" William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia for the cost of 7.2 million dollars Liberal Republicans and Horace Greeley “Anything to Beat Grant”, Greeley had inconsistently supported a reconstruction plan, and managed to earn the support of half of the republicans and the democrats greenbacks and the Greenback party defenders of the civil war monetary system of non-specie-backed greenback paper money, arose from the period in which the government was trying to decrease inflation by pulling greenbacks from circulation.
Slaughterhouse cases [and their implication regarding the 14th Amendment!] The slaughterhouse cases concerned business monopolies on butchering, which allowed for the loose interpretation of the 14th amendment where they denied blacks claims of discrimination citing slaughterhouses as a national right, not a state right, to which the 14th amendment did not apply. Mississippi Plan and redemption Local democrats dispersed into republican societies and observed, marching through black areas, patrolling voter registrations and keeping the republicans shaking in their boots for fear of one slip-up. “Exodus" movement Black expansion into homesteads in Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, and Louisiana Hayes, Tilden, the Election of 1877 & the Compromise of 1877 Major scandal much like the election of 2000, where one single electorate vote was needed for Tilden to win, and all the remaining votes were necessary for Hayes to win, but alas Hayes won
high pensions and fraud being paid w/ budget surplus raised by high tariffs democrats defend immigrant voters; solid south—repubs. have NE, rural areas, and MidW; support from GAR (war vets, bloody shirt) money supply becomes issue, gold or silver only trustworthy currency; Greenback party doesn’t think so; to debtors and farmers, tight money policy = bad Sherman silver purchase act 1890 req. US to buy and mint silver—loop hole is they don’t have to distribute it spoils system begins to be criticized; half-breeds and stalwarts; half-breeds give positions to capable ppl, stalwarts = shift in party is time to reappoint to victors, regardless of ability or character Garfield killed by insane office seeker – Congress creates professional civil service; Pendleton Civil Service Act,(1884) requires qualification,tests, ability
Lobby w/ Weaver as candidate for Populist P arty (1892) : gov. action on behalf of farm/work, low tariff, higher income tax, RR regulation, direct election of Senators, secret ballot Jim Crowism bad as ever, lynchings, black disenfranchisement through poll tax, lit. test, grandfather clause (less terrorism than b4); Booker T. Washington comes up from poverty in Horatio Alger style; stresses importance of achieving financial independence over equality Plessy v. Ferguson legalizes racial segregation
Cleveland faces panic of 1893 when gold standard dropping b/c of redeemers and failure of major RR creating panic/depression ; 600 state banks fail Jacob Coxey has good idea of gov. funded civil service for 25% unemployed; plus reinstating legal tender (Coxey’s Army heads to Washington, arrested before arrival) JP Morgan and August Belmont have to bail gov. out w/ 62 mil $. Gold strike in AK calms things down,
The Grange(rs) farm coop in great plains, cash only, community support; attacked RR for fed reg. max freight prices Granger laws in many states; States can regulate RR rates in their states Wabash v. Illinois, USSC changes mind and says that fed cant reg. interstate commerce Congress counters w/ ICC and Interstate Comm. act Grange lose at state lvl alliance movement rises out of it; colored, NW mw; sense of community among farmers; realize polit. potential
gold people know that paper money alone could cause uncontrolled inflation, and silver ppl know that tight money policy devastates farmers/debtors/workers democrats run William Jennings Bryan: “ cross of gold speech” war chest of Republicans is bigger, take election McKinley enacts Dingley tariff (all time high) and officially commits US to gold standard though populism died, progressivism began to emerge;
Mahan and Influence of sea power upon history; idea of imperialism and overseas adventures as test of manhood (plus naval power) becomes jingoism US expands and annexes Hawaii after discontent from locals about sugar prices and us stealing their kingdom and putting up hotels Pulitzer's World and Hearst's Journal use new printed photographs and sensationalism to appeal to the masses and cutthroat fight for readership; inspires more expansionism
fight w/ Spain to free Cuba, Teddy Roosevelt gets first taste of action; rough riders black troops, despite segregation within their own ranks, served w/ distinction victory in freeing Philippines, Aguinaldo = freedom fighter, but after he writes up his version of a democratic institution, islands go to US by pop. Vote anyway Anti-imperialsts believe that annexation and war to do so is unconstitutional