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PRACTICE CLASS #3 (#4) 2012-03-13. MORE CLEARLY LAST HIGH IN A SILLY WAY / MANNER EARLY LATE IN A MOTHERLY WAY FIRST.

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Presentation on theme: "PRACTICE CLASS #3 (#4) 2012-03-13. MORE CLEARLY LAST HIGH IN A SILLY WAY / MANNER EARLY LATE IN A MOTHERLY WAY FIRST."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRACTICE CLASS #3 (#4)

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6 MORE CLEARLY LAST HIGH IN A SILLY WAY / MANNER EARLY LATE IN A MOTHERLY WAY FIRST

7 The Stock Exchange reacted quite calmly. These almonds taste bitter. She smiled bitterly. To a European, Chinese sounds strange.

8 The sports committee meets monthly / once a month / on a monthly basis. Her mother had slapped her hard. She walks in an ugly way/manner. You acted in a cowardly way/manner.

9 Bob works much harder than Tom. The play impressed me considerably. He approaches the subject less scientifically. She glanced at me slyly.

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13 The lecturer spoke too fast for me to (be able to) take notes. The subject is too difficult for us to go into (it) now. Better: It is too difficult a subjet for us to go into now. Helen is too outspoken for most people to like her.

14 He was old enough to be her father. She was honest enough not to try to deny all responsibility for the accident. Would you be kind enough to book a room for me?

15 THEORY AND PRACTICE

16  LOCATIVE INVERSION is mainly limited to: ◦ Adverbials of place ◦ Verbs such as BE, COME, GO, SIT, LIE, STAND  LOCATIVE INVERSION is used to put FOCUS on the subject, which is the most important part of the sentence. ADVERBIAL+VERB+SUBJECT Herecomesthe taxi In the town squarestandsthe market hall Upwent the prices

17  To EMPHASIZE A NEGATIVE, we can place it AT THE FRONT OF THE CLAUSE. However, this triggers an obligatory change of word order, i.e. inversion: She at no time mentioned her earlier marriage. → At no time did she mention her earlier marriage. He hasn’t once offered to help. → Not once has he offered to help.

18  SCARCELY & HARDLY vs. NO SOONER Scarcely / hardly + PAST PERFECT, WHEN + SIMPLE PAST Scarcely had I arrived at the station when the train came in. Scarcely had I passed from them, when I found her whom my soul loveth. No sooner + PAST PERFECT, THAN + SIMPLE PAST No sooner had I put the phone down than it rang again. No sooner had I left the house than it started raining.

19 Never have I met such a man. On no account should you sign the document. Only later did I realize what happened. Seldom does she invite us to her place.

20 So terrified was I that I tried to hide under my umbrella. Bang went the starter’s gun and off went the runners at a good pace. No other person would I give this to. Well do I remember Plunger’s look when Ken passed him ten…

21 So old was the document that we didn’t dare to touch it. Only in the country can one get really fresh vegetables. Along the road came Jim. On a hill outside the town stands the castle.

22 do I come home in the evening, than I switch on the TV. did Jane give him the use of her flat, but she lent him… did we know what she was planning at that time. had I paid for the gadget, when I regretted spending so…

23 had they made the announcement, than prices began to rise. had all my money disappeared, but my clothes had gone as well. did she say. in a thousand years would I go there.

24 had they made the announcement, than prices began to rise. had all my money disappeared, but my clothes had gone as well. did she say. in a thousand years would I go there.

25 until he apologizes will I go. hangs a plastic chandelier. had he lain down, than he heard a strange noise. had I gone to bed, when the phone started ringing.

26 he reached the front door, did he discover that he had lost… would I doubt his integrity.

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28 TYPES OF COMPARISON Comparison of equivalence Comparison of non-equivalence to a higher degree to a lower degree comparison of sufficiency comparison of excess To the same degree: as/so…as John is as old as his girlfriend. Bill doesn’t study as hard as Jane. Comparative – for comparison between 2 persons, items etc. Superlative – for comparison between more than 2 persons, items, etc. Basis of comparison – either overt or implied Ana is cleverer/more clever than Jane (is). John is the politest of the students. To a lower degree: less & least The problem is less difficult than the previous one. Comparison of sufficiency: enough, so/such…that She was tall enough to play basketball. Comparison of excess: too, so/such…that She was too tall to play table tennis.

29  Adjective Phrase with complementation: ◦ AP=A+PPJohn is as tall as Peter. ◦ AP=A+clauseJohn is as tall as Peter is.  Adverb Phrase with complementation: ◦ AdvP=AdvP+PP I can play tennis much better than Joe. ◦ AdvP=AdvP+cl I play tennis much better than he ever will.  Noun Phrases with complementation: ◦ NP=Q+N+PPI have more friends than Bill. ◦ NP=Q+N+clI have more friends than Bill does.  Comparative clauses are complement clauses of ADJs, ADVs and Ns used for expressing comparison: I love you AdvP [more than you think]. He is not AP [as clever as she is]. She has NP [more friends than you can imagine].

30 AP Comparison of equivalence – to the same extent Structure: AP = A + Clause AdvP Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree Structure: AdvP = Adv + PP NP Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree Structure: NP=Q+N+PP

31 AdvP Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree Structure: AdvP = Adv + Clause AP Comparison of non-equivalence – comparison of sufficiency Structure: AP = A + Adv + Clause NP Comparison of non-equivalence – comparison of excess Structure: NP = discontinuous AP + Det + N dicontinuous AP = Adv + A + Clause

32 AdvP Comparison of non-equivalence – comparison of excess Structure: AdvP = Adv + Adv + Clause AdvP Comparison of equivalence NOTE: negated comparison of equiv. Structure: AdvP = Adv + PP NP Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree Structure: Q + N + Clause

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36 SYNTACTIC FUNCTION OF ADVERBS INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT (PART OF OTHER PHRASES) ADVERBIAL: He speaks slowly. MODIFIER: extremely slow very slowly rather a mess straight through the wall over ten victims COMPLEMENT OF PREPOSITION: over here till then from inside

37 ADVERBIALS INTEGRATED into the CLAUSE STRUCTURE Primarily NON-LINKING: Provide speaker’s comment PERIPHERAL in the CLAUSE STRUCTURE Primarily LINKING: connect sentences DISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS ADJUNCTS Naturally, Ross is behaving. I sent Ross a personal invitation. He will therefore be there tomorrow. Ross is behaving naturally.

38 DISJUNCT Modifier of AdvP/ADJUNCT CONJUNCT Modifier of NP Modifier of PP Modifier of AP ADJUNCT Modifier of AP Modifier of NP

39 Modifier of PP DISJUNCTModifier of AP Modifier of NP (such [lovely weather]) OR Modifier of AP ([such lovely] weather) ADJUNCT / Modifier of NP Modifier of AP

40 Actually, to be continued…


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