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Southern Regional Education Board Bridgeport Conference Center Bridgeport, West Virginia October 26-28, 2011 Debbie Hall SREB/HSTW/MMGW/TCTW School Improvement.

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Presentation on theme: "Southern Regional Education Board Bridgeport Conference Center Bridgeport, West Virginia October 26-28, 2011 Debbie Hall SREB/HSTW/MMGW/TCTW School Improvement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Southern Regional Education Board Bridgeport Conference Center Bridgeport, West Virginia October 26-28, 2011 Debbie Hall SREB/HSTW/MMGW/TCTW School Improvement Specialist Technical Writing in West Virginia

2 Southern Regional Education Board Debbie Hall

3 Southern Regional Education Board

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5 Essential Questions What is literacy? What is technical literacy? What does industry say about technical writing? How does technical writing compare to other writing genres? How does the writing process affect technical writing? How does technical writing relate to West Virginia Writes?

6 Southern Regional Education Board What is literacy? Literacy encompasses reading, writing, listening, speaking and observing—the tools of language. Learning is language based, and all teachers have a responsibility to help students learn. Students need literacy-rich experiences across the curriculum that enhance their learning and thinking. Creating Literacy-Rich Schools for Adolescents, Ivey & Fisher Reading Writing Speaking Listening Observing

7 Southern Regional Education Board Technical Literacy is being able to 1.Read, analyze, interpret, communicate, and use writing in a CT field, 2.Use mathematics to solve problems in the field, 3.Apply the processes and skills of science, including methods of inquiry, logic, and accuracy, and a knowledge of models, systems, and patterns of change, and 4.Understand and apply the content and use the terms, concepts, and procedures of the field to find solutions to problems and to perform necessary tasks. Rhodes, 2003

8 Southern Regional Education Board How important is reading? Reading is the single most important social factor in American today. The more you read, the more you know. The more you know, the smarter you grow. The smarter you are, the longer you stay in school. The longer you stay in school, the more diplomas you earn and the longer you are employed—thus the more money you earn in a lifetime. The more diplomas you earn, the higher your children’s grades will be in school. The more diplomas you earn, the longer you live.

9 Southern Regional Education Board The opposite is also true. The less you read, the less you know. The less you know, the sooner you drop out of school. The sooner you drop out, the sooner and longer you are poor. The sooner you drop out, the greater your chances of going to jail.

10 Southern Regional Education Board Low Reading Scores = Jail? “Based on this year’s fourth-grade reading scores, California is already planning the number of new prison cells it will need In the next century.” Paul Schwartz, a Coalition principal in residence at the U. S. Department of Education

11 Southern Regional Education Board What do the experts say? American fifteen-year-olds rank fourteenth among developed nations in reading, lagging behind such countries as Poland, Estonia, and Iceland. Alliance for Excellent Education, Policy Brief, April 2011.

12 Southern Regional Education Board Reading Comprehension Pop Quiz There I was, on a hard aid lead, and the RURP crack disappeared. I saw a micro- seam, but even a Birdbeak was too large. What did I use? I put in a BURP, which is a RURP cut down with a hacksaw to make a mini-Birdbeak.

13 Southern Regional Education Board Reading Comprehension Pop Quiz There I was, on a hard aid lead, and the RURP crack disappeared. I saw a micro-seam, but even a Birdbeak was too large. What did I use? I put in a BURP, which is a RURP cut down with a hacksaw to make a mini-Birdbeak. 1.Where was the writer? 2.What disappeared? 3.What did he see? 4.What was too large? 5.What is a BURP?

14 Southern Regional Education Board It is possible to make a perfect score on a quiz and score a perfect zero in comprehension. Debbie Hall

15 Southern Regional Education Board What does industry say? Being able to read complex text independently, fluently and proficiently is essential for high achievement in college and in the workplace and important in numerous life tasks. Alliance for Excellent Education, Policy Brief, April Comprehension of reading material and the ability to use that material to create new thoughts and ideas is the major key to a person’s success in the global job market. Procedural Literacy: Building Blocks of Comprehension. Columbia-Montour Area Vocational-Technical School, 2007

16 Southern Regional Education Board HSTW Assessment 2010 Students reported that they read an assigned book and demonstrated understanding of he significance of the main ideas at least monthly. 56% Students reported that they read and interpreted scientific or technical books and manuals at least monthly. 38% Students reported that they read eight or more books this year in English class. 10%

17 Southern Regional Education Board HSTW Assessment 2010 Students reported that they read an assigned article or book (other than a textbook) dealing with science at least monthly. 45% Students reported that they read and interpreted technical books and manuals to complete assignments in their career/technical classes at least weekly. 36% Students reported that they read a career- related article and demonstrated understanding of the content in their career/technical classes at least monthly. 58%

18 Southern Regional Education Board Occupational Reading Data Weekly Percentages Mikulecky, National Adult Literacy Survey (2001) JobMemosReportsManualsInstructionsDiagrams Mgt. 93% 83% 71% 31% 30% Prof Tech Sales Clerical Service Farming Crafts MachOp TransOp Laborer

19 Southern Regional Education Board Dr. Grover (Russ) Whitehurst Assistant Secretary of Education U.S. Department of Education( ). “Even in trades that have traditionally been manual trades or trades that are craft trades, the requirements of literacy, both numeric literacy and reading literacy, have increased to a level where the inability to perform or the ability to perform depends on literacy levels that weren’t previously required and places new demands on our education system.”

20 Southern Regional Education Board Dr. Grover (Russ) Whitehurst Assistant Secretary of Education U.S. Department of Education( ). “I had a conversation with an individual within the last year who runs a business, a large chain of garages, and who now, in recruiting mechanics, checks their reading scores and their math scores before employing an entry level mechanic.”

21 Southern Regional Education Board Bye, Bye Birdie Reasons to Avoid Round Robin Reading It encourages negative attitudes about reading. Proficient readers read ahead. Poor readers are forced to advertise their deficiencies. Fisher, Lapp & Flood called it “educational malpractice.” (2005) It’s boring for all. Children pay attention only to the passage they have to read aloud. It does not build fluency or accuracy. Children need to read entire passages instead of pieces. It does not require engagement with the text.

22 Southern Regional Education Board How important is writing? “About one student in five produces completely unsatisfactory prose, about 50 percent meet ‘basic’ requirements, and only one in five can be called ‘proficient’.” National Commission on Writing (NCW), 2009

23 Southern Regional Education Board The nation’s private companies now spend an estimated $3.1 billion per year—and state governments spend an additional $200 million--teaching their employees to write. National Commission on Writing (2004, 2005) National Governors Association

24 Southern Regional Education Board What do the experts say? The idea is not that content area teachers should become reading and writing teachers, but rather that they should emphasize the reading and writing practices that are specific to their subjects, so students are encouraged to read and write like historians, scientists, mathematicians, and other subject area experts. Gina Biancarosa, Carnegie Foundation

25 Southern Regional Education Board “…college-ready skills emphasize reading multiple and complex tests and writing that calls on students to present and defend arguments.” Phillips, Vicki and Carina Wong. “Tying Together the Common Core of Standards, Instruction, and Assessments,”Kappan, February Workplace Reading and Writing

26 Southern Regional Education Board Priorities Have Shifted “The pedagogy of the old vocational education was based on the assumption that “how to do” was the content of courses....The new direction calls for a new form of Career and Technical Education that...also prepares students for a constant process of skill development to maintain and extend marketable skills, so that students are able to advance in their chosen careers and adapt to rapidly changing economic conditions.” Doug Rhodes, 2003

27 Southern Regional Education Board The old way of doing business Teacher delivers information→Students absorb it The new pedagogy Procedure→Engagement→Comprehension

28 Southern Regional Education Board Framework for Instruction Prepare the reader beforehand Guide the reader through the learning Provide after-reading opportunities such as comprehension checks Judy Richardson and Ray Morgan. Reading to Learn in the Content Areas

29 Southern Regional Education Board Direct & Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction Select carefully the text used to teach a strategy. Show students how to use the strategy with different texts. Make sure text is the appropriate reading level for students. Provide appropriate guided practice. Talk about comprehension strategies while teaching them. Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices, U.S. Department of Education, 2004

30 Southern Regional Education Board Write weekly in all classes Three Kinds of Writing Writing Writing Authentic to learn to demonstrate writing learning

31 Southern Regional Education Board Writing to learn Journals Learning Logs Exit/Admit Slips Inquiry Logs Mathematics Logs Note taking

32 Southern Regional Education Board Writing to Demonstrate Learning Paragraphs Summaries Open-response Questions Brief Constructed Response Extended Constructed Response Lab Reports Essays Research Assignments

33 Southern Regional Education Board Authentic/Technical Writing Memos Reports Letters Proposals Forms Requests Speeches PowerPoints s Process Papers Directions

34 Southern Regional Education Board Occupational Writing Data Weekly Percentages Mikulecky, National Adult Literacy Survey (2001) JobMemosReportsForms Managerial 75% 87% 73% Professional Technical Sales Clerical Service Farming Crafts Machine Op Trans. Op Laborer282628

35 Examples of Technical Writing: Action Plans Advertisement Agenda Audit Report Book Review Brochure Budget Business Letter Business Plan Catalog Contract Critique Data Book or Display Description Diagram, Chart, or Graph Editorial Feasibility Report Field Test Report Incident Report Informational Form Informational Poster Informative Summary Instructions Interview Questions Itinerary

36 Examples of Technical Writing: Job Application Job Description Lesson Plan Letter of Inquiry Letter of Recommendation Magazine/Newspaper Article Marketing Plan Memo Meeting Minutes Newsletter Observation Report Performance Evaluations Persuasive Proposal Position Paper Product Comparison Proposal Questionnaire Research Report Résumé/Portfolio Scientific Paper/Report Survey Test Transcription Training Manual Travel Guide Web Page Work Order

37 Southern Regional Education Board Common Core Curriculum Common Core Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects K-12 Common Core Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K-12

38 Southern Regional Education Board Common Core Curriculum Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. Write informative/explanatory texts including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

39 Southern Regional Education Board Common Core Curriculum Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing... Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts... paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects...

40 Southern Regional Education Board How does the writing process affect technical writing? Prewriting Drafting Revising and Editing Publishing and Presenting

41 Southern Regional Education Board How does technical writing relate to West Virginia Writes? Professional development in the areas of process writing, writing assessment, content- area writing, on-demand writing, and technology writing in the 21st century Passages and prompts for narrative, descriptive, informative, and persuasive writing Formative writing assessment West Virginia Department of Education


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