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Higher Coordination with Less Control – A Result of Information Maximization in the Sensorimotor Loop Keyan Zahedi, Nihat Ay, Ralf Der (Published on: May.

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Presentation on theme: "Higher Coordination with Less Control – A Result of Information Maximization in the Sensorimotor Loop Keyan Zahedi, Nihat Ay, Ralf Der (Published on: May."— Presentation transcript:

1 Higher Coordination with Less Control – A Result of Information Maximization in the Sensorimotor Loop Keyan Zahedi, Nihat Ay, Ralf Der (Published on: May 19, 2012) Artificial Neural Network Biointelligence Lab School of Computer Science and Engineering Seoul National University Presenter: Sangam Uprety Student ID: 2012-82153 October 09, 2012

2 Contents 1.Abstract 2.Introduction 3.Learning Rule 4.Experiment 5.Results 6.Questions 7.Discussion and Conclusion

3 1. Abstract A novel learning method in the context of embodied artificial intelligence and self-organization Less assumptions and restrictions within the world and the underlying model Uses the principle of maximizing the predictive information in the sensorimotor loop Evaluated on robot chains of varying length with individually controlled, non-communicating segments Maximizing the predictive information per wheel leads to a higher coordinated behavior Longer chains with less capable controllers outperform those of shorter length and more complex controllers

4 2. Introduction Embodied artificial intelligence or cognitive systems use learning and adaption rules Most are based on an underlying model – so they are limited to the model They use intrinsically generated reinforcement signals [prediction errors] as an input to a learning algorithm Need of a learning rule independent of model structure, requires less assumptions about the environment Self-organized learning

5 Our way out: Directly calculate the gradient of the policy as a result of the current locally available approximation of the predictive information A learning rules based on Shannon’s information theory A neural network in which earlier layers maximize the information passed to the next layer

6 3. Learning Rule 3.1 Basic Sensori-motor loop W0,1,…,t  world state S0,1,…,t  sensor state M0,1,…t  memory state A0,1,…,t  Actions

7 3. Learning Rule (Contd.) The sensor state St depends only on the current world state Wt. The memory state Mt+1 depends on the last memory state Mt, the previous action At, and the current sensor state St+1. The world state Wt+1 depends on the previous state Wt and on the action At. No connection between the action At and the memory state Mt+1, because we clearly distinguish between inputs and outputs of the memory Mt (which is equivalent to the controller). Any input is given by a sensor state St, and any output is given in form of the action state At. The system may not monitor its outputs At directly, but through a sensor, hence the sensor state St+1.

8 3.2 Reduced sensori-motor loop Progression from step t to t+1 A, W, S  present states given by distribution µ α(a|s) defines the policy β(w’|w,a)  evolution of world given present world w and action a ϒ(s’|w’)  effect of the world on the sensor state

9 3.3 Derivation of Learning Rule The Entropy H(X) of a random variable X, measuring the uncertainty, is: The mutual information of two random variables X and Y is: This gives how much knowledge of Y reduces the uncertainly of X. The maximal entropy is the entropy of a uniform distribution: H(X) <= log2|X|.

10 β(w’|w,a), ϒ(s’|w’)  δ(s’|a,s)

11 p(s), α(a|s) and δ(s’|a,s) are represented as matrices Update Rule for sensor distribution p(s)

12 Update Rule for world model δ(s’|a,s)

13 Update rule for policy α(a|s)

14 4. Experiment 4.1 Simulators YARS (Zahedi et al, 2008) has been used for the simulator 4.2 Robots Two wheeled differential drive robots with circular body – the Khepera I robot (Mondada et al., 1993)

15 Input-output  desired wheel velocity (A t ) and current actual velocity (S t ) A t and S t mapped linearly to the interval [-1,1] -1  maximum negative speed (backwards motion) +1  maximal positive speed (forward motion) Robots are connected by a limited hinge joint with a maximal deviation of ±0.9 rad (approx. 100 degree) avoiding intersection of neighboring robots Experiments with single robot, three-, and five-segment chaings

16 4.3 Controller Each robot controlled locally Two control paradigms: combined and split No communication between controllers Interaction occurs through world state W t through sensor S t  current actual wheel velocity r-c notation r  {1,3,5} c  {r,2r}


18 4.4 Environment 8x8 meters, bounded, featureless environment Large enough for the chains to learn a coordinated behavior

19 5. Results If pi increased over time for all six configurations? If the maximization of the pi leads to qualitative changes on the behavior? Videos

20 5.1 Maximizing the predictive information Fig. Average-PI plots for each of the six experiments: 1-1, 3-3, 5- 5, 1-2, 3-6, 5-10

21 Comparison of intrinsically calculated PI (left) and PI calculated on recorded data per robot

22 5.2 Comparing Behaviors Fig. Trajectories of the six systems for the first 10 minutes (gray) and the last 100 minutes (black)

23 1.All configurations explore the entire area 2.Longer consecutive trails relate to higher average sliding window coverage entropy 3.The configurations which show longer consecutive trails are those, which reach higher coverage entropy sooner  Movements only occur for chains with length larger than one if the majority of the segments moves in one direction  Cooperation of the segments  Higher cooperation among the segments of the split configuration  Higher pi relates to higher coverage entropy and higher sliding window coverage entropy, for the split controller paradigm


25 4.3 Behavior Analysis Chosen bins: -3/4, -1/2, 1/2, 3/4 With Configuration 1-2

26 Transient plot  wheel velocities oscillates between -1/2 and - 3/4 S=-1/2  A  {-1/2, 1/2, 3/4}  S=-1/2 A=-3/4 chosen with probability 0.95 With probability 0.05, change of direction of velocity occurs, leading to either rotation of the system, or inversion of the translational behavior  Sensor entropy H(S) is high, conditional entropy H(S’|S) is low, hence high PI

27 With configuration 3-6

28 Wheel velocity of one wheel is no longer only influenced by its controller, but also by the actions of the other controllers Current direction of the wheel rotation is maintained with the probability 0.6 For the entire system to progress, at least two robots [i.e four related controllers] must move in the same direction  probability 0.4 4

29 4.4 Incremental Optimization The derived learning rule is able to maximize the predictive information for systems in the sensorimotor loop Increase of the PI relate to changes in the behavior and here to a higher coverage entropy – and indirect measure for coordination among the coupled robots

30 6. Questions Q.1 Explain the concept of the perception-action-cycle in fig. 1. What are the essential characteristics of this concept? How is this concept distinguished from traditional symboloc AI approach? Q.2 Explain the simplified version of the perception-action-cycle in fig. 2. What are their differences from the full version of figg. 1? How reasonable is this simplification? When it will work and when it does not? Q.3 Define mutual information. Define the predictive information. Give a learning rule that maximizes the predictive information. Derive the learning rules. Q.4 Explain the experimental tasks that are designed by the authors to evaluate the learning rule for predictive information maximization. What’s the setup? What is the task? What has been measured in simulation experiments? Summarize the results. What’s the conclusion of the experiments?

31 7. Discussion & Conclusion A novel approach to self-organized learning in the sensorimotor loop, which is free of assumptions on the world and restrictions on the model Learning algorithm derived from the principle of maximizing the predictive information The average approximated predictive information increased over time in each of the settings in the experiment [Goal #1 achieved] There is a higher coverage entropy, a measure for coordinated behavior, for chain configurations with more robots (and well with split controllers) [counterintutive!]

32 Thank you!

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