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 This is a presentation of the IL PBIS Network. All rights reserved. Universal Screening for Behavior Jessica Swain-Bradway, IL PBIS Network With contributions.

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Presentation on theme: " This is a presentation of the IL PBIS Network. All rights reserved. Universal Screening for Behavior Jessica Swain-Bradway, IL PBIS Network With contributions."— Presentation transcript:

1  This is a presentation of the IL PBIS Network. All rights reserved. Universal Screening for Behavior Jessica Swain-Bradway, IL PBIS Network With contributions from : Jennifer Rose, Illinois PBIS Network Lynn Owens, Schaumburg CCSD 54

2 Agenda  What is Universal Screening?  Rationale for identifying children through universal screening for behavior  Readiness checklist  Illinois PBIS Network screening model  A review of several screeners  Exemplar discussion

3 Objectives  Briefly define Universal Screening to a co- worker  Be able to explain the rationale for including universal screening in your multi-tiered behavioral initiative:  Benefits  Concerns  Briefly describe a district example including outcomes  Identify a resource for more information on universal screening

4 Universal Screening Defined  “Universal screening is the systematic assessment of all children within a given class, grade, school building, or school district, on academic and/or social- emotional indicators that the school personnel and community have agreed are important.” Source: Ikeda, Neessen, & Witt, 2009

5 Purpose of Universal Screening for Behavior  Integral to the Response to Intervention (RtI) model  Set the stage for prevention  Emphasis on prevention versus intervention  Use an evidence-based instrument to identify:  Risk factors for emotional/behavioral difficulties  Social-emotional strengths and needs

6 Where are we? 2014!  We assert that MTSS is preventative  A model of “reaction”:  Kids have problems, we react.  This is SLOW.  This means= kids fail / have problems / hate school / disengage parents / teachers are stressed / etc.  The louder the problem, the more quickly we react.  The ISSUE: all problems aren’t “loud”, if we can “hear” it, it is already gaining momentum!

7 Rationale: Prevalence Rates How prevalent are emotional disorders among school-age children and youth? StudyCitation % of sample with any impairment % of sample with serious impairment Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) Shaffer et al., 1996 (1,285 children ages 9-17) 21%5% Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth Burns et al., 1995 ( 1,015 children ages 9, 11 and 13 ) 20%11% National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Merikangas et al., 2010 ( 3,042 children ages ) 13%11%

8 Rationale: Student Benefits  A ‘window of opportunity’ ranging between 2-4 years when prevention is critical (Costello, et al, 1996)  U.S. Department of Education: “…compelling research sponsored by OSEP on emotional and behavioral difficulties indicating that children at risk for these difficulties could also be identified through universal screening and more significant disabilities prevented through classroom-based approaches involving positive discipline and classroom management.”

9 Rationale: Student Benefits  Universal screening for behavior is more effective than reliance on office discipline referrals (ODRs) for identifying students with risk factors for internalizing (e.g., depression, overly shy, withdrawn, anxiety) behaviors  ODRs are typically measures of non-compliant, acting-out behaviors  Teachers tend to under-refer internalizers Sources: Walker, Cheney, Stage, & Blum, 2005; Walker et al., 2010

10 Rationale: Student Benefits  Flexibility of the brain:  Use positive learning experiences to: Reshape neurological pathways Build positive, adaptive behaviors (versus maladaptive) (Weinberger, et al., 2005) The sooner we see behaviors predictive of increased risk, the sooner we can prevent problem behaviors.

11 “Untreated emotional problems have the potential to create barriers to learning that interfere with the mission of schools to educate all children.” (Adelman & Taylor, 2002) Youth who are the victims of bullying and who lack adequate peer supports are vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders (Deater-Deckard, 2001; Hawker & Boulton, 2000) “Depressive disorders are consistently the most prevalent disorders among adolescent suicide victims (Gould, Greenberg, Velting, & Shaffer, 2003). “Without early intervention, children who routinely engage in aggressive, coercive actions, are likely to develop more serious anti-social patterns of behaviors that are resistant to intervention.” (Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004) Rationale: Risks of Delaying ID The longer children go without intervention, the more negative their behaviors can be for themselves and others.

12 Process Time  What are the risks of delaying identification and intervention?  What are the benefits to speeding up identification and intervention?

13 Tier 1/Universal School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems SIMEO Tools: HSC-T, SD-T, EI-T Check-in Check-out (CICO) Individualized Check-in Check-out (CICO), Groups, & Mentoring Brief Functional Behavior Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Plan (FBA/BIP) Complex or Multiple-domain FBA/BIP Wraparound/RENEW ODRs, Attendance, Tardies, Grades, DIBELS, etc. Daily Progress Report (DPR) (Behavior and Academic Goals) Competing Behavior Pathway, Functional Assessment Interview, Scatter Plots, etc. Social/Academic Instructional Groups (SAIG) Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Illinois PBIS Network, Revised April 2012 Adapted from T. Scott, 2004 Tier 2/ Secondary Tier 3/ Tertiary Intervention Assessment We want to identify BEFORE big issues interfere with school: Externalizers, Internalizers

14 Examples of Externalizing Behaviors: Physical aggression Verbal aggression (Arguing, threats, name calling, etc.) Being out of seat Not complying with teacher instructions or directives Source: Walker and Severson, 1992

15 Examples of Internalizing Behaviors: Withdrawn:  Not talking with other children  Has very few, or no friends Extreme shyness Timid and/or unassertive Avoiding or withdrawing from social situations Not standing up for one’s self Source: Walker and Severson, 1992

16 Illinois Universal Screening Model Teachers Rank Order then Select Top 3 Students on Each Dimension (Externalizing & Internalizing) Teachers Rate Top 3 Students in Each Dimension (Externalizing & Internalizing) using either SSBD, BASC-2/BESS, or other evidence-based instrument Gate 1 Gate 2 Pass Gate 1 Pass Gate 2 Tier 2 Intervention. (Multiple Gating Procedure Adapted from Walker & Severson, 1992)

17 Illinois Universal Screening Model  ‘Multi-gate’ process for implementing universal screening for behavior  Efficient: Takes approximately one hour, maximum, per classroom to complete process Less expensive and more timely than special education referral process  Fair: All students receive consideration for additional supports (gate one) Reduces bias by using evidence-based instrument containing consistent, criteria to identify students (gate two)

18 Gate1: Teacher ranking form

19

20 Gate 2: Examples of Screening Measures ScreenerProsCons Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1990) rning.com Well-validated (Endorsed in 1990 by the Program Effectiveness Panel of the U.S. Department of Education) Efficient (Screening process can be completed within 45 minutes to 1 hour) Most effective instrument for identifying internalizers (Lane et al., 2009) Meets AERA/APA instrument selection criteria Inexpensive (Manual= $ ; includes reproducible screening forms) Normed for grades 1-6 Dated norms (normed in 1990) Normative sample skewed to western U.S. region BASC-2/BESS (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) essments.com Measures behaviors associated with internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and academic competence Meets AERA/APA instrument selection criteria Incorporates three validity measures to rule out response bias Utilizes large (N= 12,350 children & youth), nationally-representative sample Web-based screening capacity available via AIMSewb Can be expensive for districts/schools that don’t have access to a scantron machine $26.25 for 25 hand-scored protocols Online access via AIMSweb: Additional $1.00 per student for subscribers and $4.00 per student for non-subscribers) Hand-scoring is time-consuming and reduces access to validity measures Computer software is expensive ($620)

21 Illinois Universal Screening Model  Other relevant student information for students being screened:  Student IDs  Birthdate  Race/ethnicity  Special education/Section 504 status  Grade level

22 Illinois Universal Screening Model  Parents of nominated students, who meet the screening criteria, are contacted in writing to request permission for their child’s participation in a simple, secondary intervention (e.g., check-in/check-out)  Coordinator inform teachers of students who are participating in interventions  Teachers receive progress monitoring data

23 Illinois Universal Screening Model: Outcomes  Key outcomes from four years of implementation in Illinois schools:  On average within PBIS schools less than 10% of students, enrolled in grades screened, met criteria for needing additional supports  Over time, fewer students were identified via universal screening process *Enrollment based on ISBE 2010 Fall Housing Report for grades screened

24 Illinois Universal Screening Model: Outcomes

25 Universal Screening Resources:  Illinois PBIS Network:  Search for “Universal Screening”  ening/presentations ening/presentations  Florida PBIS:  National PBIS Technical Assistance Center: National PBIS Technical Assistance Center:  RTI Action Network:  al-screening-within-a-rti-model al-screening-within-a-rti-model

26 Sample of SSBD Critical Events Form

27 Sample of SSBD CFI Form

28 Sample of BASC-2/BESS Form

29 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

30 SDQ scales and corresponding items Emotional Symptoms Scale Conduct Problems Scale Hyperactivity Scale Peer Problems Scale Prosocial Scale Often complains of headaches, stomach-aches… Often has temper tantrums or hot tempers Restless, overactive, cannot stay still for long Rather solitary, tends to play alone Considerate of other people’s feelings Many worries, often seems worried Generally obedient, usually does what… Constantly fidgeting or squirming Has at least one good friend Shares readily with other children Often unhappy, downhearted or tearful Often fights with other children or bullies them Easily distracted, concentration wanders Generally liked by other children Helpful if someone is hurt, upset or feeling ill Nervous or clingy in new situations Often lies or cheats Thinks things out before acting Picked on or bullied by other children Kind to younger children Many fears, easily scared Steals from home, school or elsewhere Sees tasks through to the end, good attention span Gets on better with adults than with other children Often volunteers to help others

31 Sample SSIS Social Skills form

32 Sample SSIS Problem Behaviors form

33 Sample SSIS Academic Competence form

34 Systems Readiness for Screening

35 Universal screening readiness  Build a foundation  Secure district and building-level administrative support for universal screening  Establish universal screening committee consisting of district and building-level administrators, student support personnel, teachers, family and community representatives and assign roles  Clarify goals  Identify purpose of universal screening (e.g., mental health, social skills assessment)  Determine desired outcomes

36 Universal screening readiness  Identify resources and logistics  Identify resources for supporting students identified via screening (in-school and community-based)  Create a timeline for executing screening process including frequency of screening (e.g., once, or multiple times per year?)  Develop budget for materials, staff, etc.  Create administration materials (e.g., power point to share process with staff, parents and community members, consent forms, teacher checklists)  Schedule dates for screening(s) and meetings to share school-wide results

37 Universal screening readiness  Create a quick and easy for teachers, AND,  Select an evidence-based screening instrument for advanced screening (gate 2)  Use The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, or resources from other professional organization resources (e.g., National Association for School Psychologists; NASP ), as guidelines for selecting an appropriate screener

38 Universal screening readiness  Data  Develop data collection and progress monitoring system  Determine systematic process for using results to inform interventions  Plan for sharing screening and progress monitoring results with staff and families

39 Illinois Example: Universal Screening at the Elementary and Jr. High Created by: Lynn Owens, MSW, MEd Schaumburg CCSD 54 District External Coach

40 District 54 Demographics  21 Elementary Buildings (K-6)  5 Jr. High Buildings (7-8)  1 Elementary & Jr. High Building (K-8)  District Enrollment: 14, 318  Low Income: 18%  IEP: 11.3%  Bi-Lingual: 17.5%  Ethnicity: White: 46.3% African American: 6.5% Hispanic: 22.5% Asian: 20.0% American Indian: 0.3% Multi-Racial: 3.3%

41 District 54 PBIS Implementation  26 Elementary and Jr. High Buildings Implementing all 3 Tiers of PBIS  Cohort model:  Pull in cohorts of schools implementing / training Tiers Specific components (universal screening, restorative justice, for example)

42 Universal Screening:   4 Buildings from Cohort 1 participated 2 Elementary (Kindergarten-Sixth Grade) 2 Jr. High (Seventh-Eighth Grade)   8 Buildings from Cohort 1 and 2 participated 4 Elementary (Kindergarten-Sixth Grade) 4 Jr. High (Seventh-Eighth Grade)   16 Buildings from Cohort 1-4 participated 11 Elementary 5 Jr. High Buildings

43 Preparing for Screening: Year 1-Pilot  Screening Window: October – November 2010  District Admin and External Coach Responsibilities (Sept-Oct)  External Coaches attended Universal Screening Facilitator training by Jen Rose, IL PBIS Network  Tier 2 Coaches identified as Screening Facilitators  Presented Universal Screening to Superintendent, Board Cabinet, District Leadership Team, and Building Administrators  Developed Parent Information/Consent Letter  Prepared protocols for Facilitators  Identify and Train Screening Facilitators (Oct)  Cohort 1 buildings for Pilot Implementing PBIS at least 2 years CICO implemented with fidelity for 1 full year  Elementary Facilitator Training: Time Lines for the year SSBD Facilitator Training  Jr. High Facilitator Training: Time Lines for the year BASC-2/BESS Facilitator Training

44 Preparing for Screening Year 1-Pilot (con’t)  Facilitator Responsibilities (Oct-December)  Review and follow timeline Facilitator timeline Teacher timeline  CICO was up and running since mid-September Increase in students participating as result of screener Changes to support internalizing students identified via screener – CICO Parent letter  Scheduled screening dates with administrator min. overview 1.5 hr. administration Wednesday Staff Development (Elementary & Jr. High) Grade Level Meeting (Jr. High)  Presented screening overview and administration with External Coach 1 building presented without External Coach  Prepared screening protocols for scoring SSBD: Facilitators scored using excel spread sheet BASC-2: IL PBIS personnel scored  Reviewed results with administrator and staff

45 Screening: Year 2  Screening Window: October – November 2011  District Admin and External Coach Responsibilities (Aug-Sept)  Notified Tier 2 Coaches about Screening Facilitator training  Provided Facilitator training with IL PBIS Network  Building Administrators informed of screening window  Modified Parent Information/Consent Letter Informed consent Screener part of support students receive at Tier 2  Identify and Train Screening Facilitators (Sept)  Cohort 1 and 2 buildings conduct screening Implementing PBIS at least 2 years CICO implemented with fidelity for 1 full year  Elementary Facilitator Training: Time Lines SSBD Facilitator Training  Jr. High Facilitator Training: Time Lines BASC-2/BESS Facilitator Training

46 Screening: Year 2 (con’t)  Facilitator Responsibilities (Sept-December)  Review and follow timeline Facilitator and Teacher timeline “Jump-start” Time Line  CICO up and running since mid-September Increase in students participating as result of screener Changes to support internalizing students identified via screener – CICO Parent letter – DPR cards  Scheduled screening dates with administrator min. overview hr. administration  Presented overview and screening administration with External Coach to staff 5 buildings presented without assistance from External Coach  Prepared screening protocols for use for staff and scoring SSBD: Facilitators copied/labeled protocols and scored on-site BASC-2: Facilitators labeled protocols and PBIS scored off-site  Reviewed results with administrator and staff

47 Universal Screening: Parent Letter October 2011 Dear Parent/Guardian, As you know, ___________ school has been implementing Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) which is a proactive approach to establishing the behavioral supports and social culture needed for all students in a school to achieve social, emotional, and academic success. Our school was selected to be a replication site by the Illinois PBIS organization, which provides us with training and support as we work to continually improve ways to support our children and families. As part of being a replication site this year, we will be utilizing an assessment tool for teachers that will help identify students who may be having minor challenges in school, such as following rules and expectations, or making friends. Our goal in using this teacher assessment tool is to identify which children may need some assistance before minor challenges become big problems. Over the next few weeks, your child’s classroom teacher will review the class roster and identify students who currently may be having problems or difficulties in school. We will contact the parents of children who have been selected by their classroom teacher to participate in a simple intervention focused on supporting the child in a proactive and positive manner. Please feel free to contact me at ________ if you have any questions. Sincerely, Principal

48 Universal Screening Elementary Facilitator “JumpStart” List Universal Screener To Do Checklist (ELEMENTARY ) Schedule Date with Administrator, External Coach, & PBIS TAC __Staff Overview (following coordinator meeting with External Coach & PBIS TAC- 20 to 30 min during STAFF DEVELOPMENT __Screening Administration (Schedule no sooner than 2 weeks after Overview- 1 to 1.5 hours during STAFF DEVELOPMENT __Review and Mail Parent Letter (at least 2 weeks prior to screening date) Prep for Overview ___Copy Teacher timeline to be given at/during overview (1 per teacher) ___Reserve meeting place with projector to view power point ___Review power point Prep for Screening Administration ___Reserve meeting place with projector and place for teachers to complete protocol ___Find place to keep protocols locked-up until input into excel spread sheet (keep protocols locked up until end of school year then shred) ___Extra Pens or Pencils (just in-case some teachers forget) ___Prep protocols (Identifying information Label is attached to white copy to be sent by External Coach week of October 11) __Copy 3 of each per teacher (Green for Internalizers and Blue for Externalizers). ___Review power point **CONTACT EXTERNAL COACH WITH ANY QUESTIONS! EXTERNAL COACH AND/OR PBIS TAC NEED TO BE PRESENT DURING ADMINISTRATION!!***

49 Screening Tools Selected

50 Elementary: Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD)  Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker and Severson, 1992)  Used in Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6) Universal screening (similar to annual vision/hearing screenings) Identifies behaviors that may impede academic and social functioning  Cost Effective Used in multiple grades and buildings Copying and labeling protocols on-site  Score protocols on-site Scored using excel spreadsheet No special skills required Student information remains locked in building Students receive support with-in 2 weeks of administration

51 SSBD: Background Information  The SSBD is NOT recommended as a diagnostic tool for eligibility for special education services  The SSBD screening WILL NOT replace the current procedures for special education evaluation or any other identification for support process IL-PBIS Network, Sept 2010

52 SSBD: Staff Overview  Overview  1 st -6 th Staff attend a 20min presentation that includes rationale for screening District Support Parent Letter  Review externalizing and internalizing behaviors  Teacher timeline and ranking form Teachers given timeline for preparation and completion of screener Teachers provided ranking forms for Internalizers and Externalizers with descriptors Given 2 weeks to identify Top 10 Internalizers and Top 10 Externalizers from class roster  Review Administration Supplies – Pen/Pencil – Student roster with identifying information (DOB, Race/Ethnicity, ID, etc.) – Ranking forms with Top 3 Internalizers and Externalizers identified Expectations – Limit talking during administration to protect student information – Complete all forms (incomplete forms returned) – Come prepared – Ask questions prior to ensure the students who need support get it

53 SSBD: Administration  Administration  Two weeks prior(following overview) Parent Letter mailed home Staff attend overview Facilitators prepare protocols  One week prior Staff sent reminder (no less than 2 days prior) Facilitators and External Coaches make final arrangements  Day of Administration Present brief overview of process Review externalizing and internalizing behaviors Review expectations Facilitators collect and check forms for accuracy and completion Facilitators lock completed forms in designated area until scoring date

54 SSBD Screening Results-Elementary  Year 1 (2 Schools)  Total Number of Students screened: 986  Total Number of Students identified: 89 Total Number of Externalizers: 41 Total Number of Internalizers: 48  Year 2 (4 Schools)  Total Number of Students screened: 1,475  Total Number of Students identified: 115 Total Number of Externalizers: 40 Total Number of Internalizers: 75

55 SSBD Screening Results-Elementary

56 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS): Jr. High School  Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) (also called BASC-2)  Used in Elementary and Jr. High Schools (Grades Pre K-8) Universal screening (similar to annual vision/hearing screenings) Identifies eternalizing and internalizing behavioral strengths and weaknesses  Cost Effective Used in multiple grades and buildings Only used for Jr. High buildings Protocols provided by IL-PBIS Network years 1 and 2  Protocols Scored off-site Scantron machine scores protocols Student information remains locked in building until hand delivered to TAC or PBIS office Students receive support with-in 2-4 weeks of administration

57 BASC-2/BESS The BASC-2/BESS is NOT recommended as a diagnostic tool for eligibility for special education services The BASC-2/BESS screening WILL NOT replace the current procedures for special education evaluation or any other identification for support process IL-PBIS Network, Sept 2010

58 BASC-2/BESS  The BASC-2/BESS uses T-scores to communicate results relative to the average (mean=50)  Identifiers and percentile ranks are provided for ease of interpretation  Normal risk level: T-score range  Elevated risk level: T-score range  Extremely Elevated risk level: T-score range ≥ 71 IL-PBIS Network, Sept 2010

59 BASC-2/BESS: Staff Overview  Overview  Jr. High Teaching Staff attend a 20min presentation that includes rationale for screening District Support Parent Letter  Review externalizing and internalizing behaviors  Teacher timeline and ranking form Teachers given timeline for preparation and completion of screener Teachers provided ranking forms for Internalizers and Externalizers with descriptors Given 2 weeks to identify Top 10 Internalizers and Top 10 Externalizers from class roster  Review Administration Supplies – #2 Pencil(s) – Student roster with identifying information (DOB, Race/Ethnicity, ID, etc.) – Ranking forms with Top 3 Internalizers and Externalizers identified Expectations – Limit talking during administration to protect student information – Complete all forms (incomplete forms returned) – Come prepared – Ask questions prior to ensure the students who need support get it

60 BASC-2/BESS: Administration  Administration  Two weeks prior(following overview) Parent Letter mailed home Staff attend overview Facilitators label protocols Facilitators attend grade level team meetings to provide support  One week prior Staff sent reminder (no less than 2 days prior) Facilitators and External Coaches make final arrangements  Day of Administration Present brief overview of process Review externalizing and internalizing behaviors Review expectations Facilitators collect and check forms for accuracy and completion Facilitators lock completed forms in designated area until picked up for scoring External coaches make arrangements to deliver protocols to PBIS TAC

61 BASC-2/BESS Screening Data-Jr. High  Year 1 (2 Schools)  Total Number of Students screened: 1,256  Total Number of Students identified: 106 Total Number of Externalizers: 69 Total Number of Internalizers: 37  Year 2 (4 Schools)  Total Number of Students screened: 2, 441  Total Number of Students identified: 228 Total Number of Externalizers: 167 Total Number of Internalizers: 61

62 BASC-2/BESS Screening Data-Jr. High

63 SD54 Tier 2 Interventions  CICO DPR card same for all students Check-In and Out with same staff member Parents notified of participation through calls and/or letter  Social Academic Instructional Groups Pro Social Problem Solving Academic  Check & Connect Used when student may need more than generic check-in Used when student needs change of check-in station or change of staff  FBA/BIP Problem solving team identifies need for more support Utilize SAIG groups to teach skills to support replacement behavior

64 Universal Screener Roadblocks (Year 1)  Scheduling screening window after start of school year  Assessment schedule overlapping with other measures (fidelity for MTSS, reading assessments, etc.)  Staff Development schedule difficult to change  Created scheduling conflicts for External Coaches  Delay in students receiving support once identified  Building unprepared for increase in students participating in CICO  Not enough staff to open new CICO stations  More externalizers identified than internalizers  Delay in scoring and identifying students (Jr. High)  Staff refusing to “bubble-in” identifying information on scantron  Scoring done off-site  Staff support limited due to lack of knowledge about internalizers  “I don’t have any students to screen”  “Why are we calling out these students when they already have low self- esteem”

65 Universal Screener Successes (Year 2)  Scheduling screening window earlier allowed for flexibility with External Coaches to support teams  Facilitators who participated Year 1 had the option conduct Screening Overview and Administration without outside support  Increased staff support due to knowledge and experience from Year1

66 Universal Screener Successes (Year 2)  In Year 2: Number of Students who were identified as internalizing / at risk for internalizing  increased 25%: Elementary buildings  Increased by 50%: Jr. High buildings  Year 2: Increased number of students receiving Tier 2 support  Did NOT have to wait until they failed or had more extreme behavioral problems!  Truly PREVENTATIVE!

67 Review: District Readiness

68 Think Back: Objectives  Be able to explain an overview of Universal Screening to a co-worker  Be able to explain the rationale for including universal screening in your multi-tiered behavioral initiative:  Benefits  Concerns  Briefly describe a district example including outcomes  Identify a resource for more information on universal screening

69 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

70 Universal Screening Resources:  Illinois PBIS Network:  Search for “Universal Screening”  ening/presentations ening/presentations  Florida PBIS:  National PBIS Technical Assistance Center: National PBIS Technical Assistance Center:  RTI Action Network:  al-screening-within-a-rti-model al-screening-within-a-rti-model 

71 Additional Evidence-Based Screening Instruments ScreenerProsCons Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 2001) Measures internalizing/externalizing behaviors Free Option of completing pencil and paper, or online version Can be scored online Technically sound: Large, representative normative group Perceived length of administration time Items skewed toward externalizing behaviors Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1993) Measures internalizing/externalizing behaviors Free Quick to administer (less than 5 minutes per student; 15 minutes for entire class, depending upon number of students) Easy to understand and interpret score results Technically-adequate Not as accurate as the SSBD regarding identification of internalizers Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008) ments.com/pai/ca/cahome.htm Measures problem behaviors, social and academic competence Computer and web-based (AIMSweb) administration and scoring available Expensive: Technical manual=$105.60; Rating forms= $43.75 for package of 25 hand- scored forms; scoring software= $270.00; Scanning software= $640


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