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Psychiatric / Mental Health Nursing Theories of Sleep Disorders.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychiatric / Mental Health Nursing Theories of Sleep Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychiatric / Mental Health Nursing Theories of Sleep Disorders

2 Conflicting evidence that sleep is restorative Function of sleep poorly understood Beliefs important to mental health nursing


4 Theories of Sleep Disorders - continued  Insomnia likely due to combination of factors: –predisposing –precipitating –perpetuating

5 Theories of Sleep Disorders - continued  Studies show those with chronic insomnia have physiological differences.  Studies suggest that gene variations are involved in human circadian activity.  There is predisposition to sleep disorders based on genetic susceptibility and familial pattern.

6 Theories of Sleep Disorders - continued  Any emotional or cognitive arousal can precipitate or perpetuate insomnia.  Environmental conditions, including associating the sleeping room with lying awake, cause distress and are a powerful perpetuating factor to sleep problems.

7 Sleep Patterns in Major Depressive Disorder  Insomnia of maintenance or early wakening type most common  Insomnia is the most commonly reported residual symptom after remission  Sleep pattern disturbance may respond to antidepressant treatment sooner than other symptoms

8 Sleep Patterns in Manic Episodes of Bipolar Disorder  Sleep time significantly reduced  Clients don’t complain of insomnia and can go without sleep  Reduced slow-wave sleep  Reduced REM latency

9 Sleep Patterns in Schizophrenia  Exacerbation of illness causes significant sleep disruption  Extreme sleep difficulty can accompany severe anxiety  Heightened concern of delusions and hallucinations  Circadian cycle disrupted

10 Sleep Patterns in Schizophrenia - continued  Reduction in REM sleep  Do not experience REM rebound  Deficits in slow-wave sleep found in clients with acute and chronic schizophrenia

11 Sleep Patterns in Substance Abuse  Severe sleep disorder during intoxication or withdrawal periods  Persists even after prolonged abstinence of some substances

12 Sleep Patterns in Substance Abuse - continued  Substance-induced mood disorder characterized by sustained use of stimulants to stay awake or alcohol to induce sleep  Examples of substances

13 Key Assessments  “Good sleeper” can be identified three ways: - self-defined - behaviorally defined - sleep-study defined

14 Key Assessments - continued Self-defined - say they get enough sleep to feel refreshed, have energy, fall asleep quickly

15 Key Assessments - continued Behaviorally defined - observe alertness during sedentary, repetitive activity; note ability to fall asleep and final wakening at habitual rising time; utilize photographic serializing of movement during sleep

16 Key Assessments - continued  Comprehensive sleep studies are conducted in sleep labs: - polysomnogram - multiple sleep latency test

17 Guidelines for Good Sleep Hygiene  Maintain regular sleep–wake schedule  Rise at the same time each day  Go to bed when sleepy and relaxed  Maintain rituals in preparation for sleep  Control for temperature, lighting, noise  Avoid stimulants before bed  Focus on enjoying sleep that is achieved

18 Guidelines for Insomnia  Treatment for sleep disorders is complex  Follow guidelines for good sleep hygiene  Utilize good sleep hygiene before taking sedative hypnotic medications  Instill a sense of hope that insomnia will improve, client can manage it effectively

19 Guidelines for Insomnia - continued  Facilitate setting realistic goals.  Teach normal developmental changes in sleep patterns.  See treatment provider for continued insomnia.  Differentiate between myths and evidence-based practice.

20 Guidelines for Insomnia - continued  See physician for comprehensive PE to rule out physical factors.  Interview bed partner.  Determine if problem is positional or disappears under certain circumstances.  Treat underlying mental health issues.

21 Pharmacology

22 Sleep and Wakefulness Goal: Improve quantity and quality of sleep May prevent worsening of mood, anxiety and pain if sleep improves Many choices: evaluate lifestyle Do not underestimate the POWER of sleep

23 Sleep Agents: NT Nearly all hypnotics work on at least one of these neurotransmitters: ◦ GABA ◦ Histamine

24 Rx Sleep agents Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Non-benzos Melatonin Receptors Agonists

25 Sleep agents Barbituturates – first used in 1860s named after St Barbara Nembutal (pentobarbital) Seconal (secobarbital)

26 Sleep agents Benzodiazepines ◦ Short Acting  Halcion (triazolam) ◦ Intermediate  Restoril (temazepam)  Prosom (estazolam) ◦ Long Acting  Dalmane (flurazepam)

27 Sleep Agents Non-Benzos ◦ Ambien ◦ Ambien CR ◦ Sonata (zaleplon) ◦ Lunesta (eszopiclone)

28 Sleep Agents Melatonin Receptor Agonist ◦ Rozerem (remalteon) ◦ Valdoxan (agomelatine) also works on 5-HT2c so is antidepressant

29 Sleep Agents Over the Counter OTC ◦ Benadryl (diphenhydramine) ◦ Atarax/Vistaril (hydroxyzine Kava Caution: may cause liver toxicity Valerian

30 Side Effects Hangover Amnesia Headache

31 When Starting on Sleepers Sleep hygiene first – remember caffeine Cool, quiet, dark room without dogs and kids Don’t mix with Alcohol Go straight to bed and lay down

32 Wake Agents: NT Nearly all wake promoting agents work on at least one of these neurotransmitters: ◦ Norepinephrine ◦ Dopamine

33 Wake Agents Provigil = Nuvigil FDA Indication ◦ Excessive sleepiness due to narcolepsy ◦ Obstructive sleep apnea ◦ Shift work sleep disorder Treat fatigue and sleepiness due to other conditions – depression and MS

34 Wake Agents Stimulants Provigil (modafinil) Nuvigil (armodafinil)

35 When Starting on Wakers Sleep hygiene first – not a replacement for sleep

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