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Stress Management & Study Skills School of Psychology Rm. 061 Arts Millennium Building Extension NUI Galway Dr. Chris Dwyer.

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Presentation on theme: "Stress Management & Study Skills School of Psychology Rm. 061 Arts Millennium Building Extension NUI Galway Dr. Chris Dwyer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stress Management & Study Skills School of Psychology Rm. 061 Arts Millennium Building Extension NUI Galway Dr. Chris Dwyer

2 Stress as a Process According to psychological theory, stress is a subjective process According to psychological theory, stress is a subjective process An event is seen as stressful if it is appraised as such An event is seen as stressful if it is appraised as such Appraisal is the interpretation of situations, events and the person’s behaviour. Appraisal is the interpretation of situations, events and the person’s behaviour. What is stress???

3 Factors that Affect Appraisal A lot of work has been conducted to determine what factors affect appraisal of events as stressful A lot of work has been conducted to determine what factors affect appraisal of events as stressful Events that are likely to be appraised as stressful are those that are: Events that are likely to be appraised as stressful are those that are: imminent imminent unexpected unexpected unpredictable unpredictable ambiguous ambiguous undesirable undesirable perceived to be uncontrollable perceived to be uncontrollable likely to require lifestyle changes likely to require lifestyle changes

4 The Transactional Model of Stress Lazarus & Folkman (1984) Lazarus & Folkman (1984) Stress is the result of an interaction between an individual’s (1) characteristics and appraisals, (2) environment (stressors) and (3) the internal and external resources the individual has available to them Stress is the result of an interaction between an individual’s (1) characteristics and appraisals, (2) environment (stressors) and (3) the internal and external resources the individual has available to them When a person is confronted with a new or changing environment they engage in appraisal When a person is confronted with a new or changing environment they engage in appraisal

5 POTENTIAL STRESSOR PRIMARY APPRAISAL Harmless Harmful SECONDARY APPRAISAL NO STRESS Able to cope Unable to cope STRESS Lazarus & Folkman (1984) Two stage appraisal of stress

6 What is coping and how do we do it? Coping refers to the use of strategies to deal with problems (real or anticipated) and any possible negative emotions that may arise. Coping refers to the use of strategies to deal with problems (real or anticipated) and any possible negative emotions that may arise. This approach helps us to control our reactions to the demands placed upon us. We use actions, thoughts and feelings to cope. This approach helps us to control our reactions to the demands placed upon us. We use actions, thoughts and feelings to cope.

7 Problem-Focused Coping is aimed at changing a situation or its accompanying demands. Problem-Focused Coping is aimed at changing a situation or its accompanying demands. It is most appropriate when you have some control over a situation or when you can manage the problem in the environment. It uses specific activities to accomplish a task. It is most appropriate when you have some control over a situation or when you can manage the problem in the environment. It uses specific activities to accomplish a task. For example, maybe a student is having difficulties with a roommate who creates a lot of distractions; thus, preventing the student from studying. For example, maybe a student is having difficulties with a roommate who creates a lot of distractions; thus, preventing the student from studying. How would you solve this problem? How would you solve this problem?

8 Emotion-Focused Coping is aimed at dealing with the emotions caused by a situation and its demands. Emotion-Focused Coping is aimed at dealing with the emotions caused by a situation and its demands. It is more appropriate when you have little or no control over a situation. This type of coping involves reducing anxiety associated with the stressful situation without addressing the problem. It is more appropriate when you have little or no control over a situation. This type of coping involves reducing anxiety associated with the stressful situation without addressing the problem. For example, due to a scheduling conflict, your exam may be changed to a date much sooner than originally anticipated. For example, due to a scheduling conflict, your exam may be changed to a date much sooner than originally anticipated. How would you solve this problem? How would you solve this problem?

9 Cognitive Coping Strategies Reframing – focus on the good not the bad; think in terms of wants instead of shoulds. It’s best if our thinking is related to our goals. For example, “I want to read and understand this chapter in Biology so I do well in my lab practical” instead of “I have to read this difficult chapter in Biology”. Reframing – focus on the good not the bad; think in terms of wants instead of shoulds. It’s best if our thinking is related to our goals. For example, “I want to read and understand this chapter in Biology so I do well in my lab practical” instead of “I have to read this difficult chapter in Biology”. Challenging negative thinking – stopping the negative thoughts we may have about a situation or ourselves. Examples of negative thoughts include expecting failure, putting yourself down, feelings of inadequacy - a thought such as “Everyone else seems to understand this except me.” Challenging negative thinking – stopping the negative thoughts we may have about a situation or ourselves. Examples of negative thoughts include expecting failure, putting yourself down, feelings of inadequacy - a thought such as “Everyone else seems to understand this except me.” Positive self-talk – using positive language and statements to ourselves. These are sometimes referred to as positive affirmations; they are useful for building confidence and challenging negative thoughts. For example, “I can do this or understand this” or “I’ll try my best”. These work best when they are realistic and tailored to your needs and goals. Positive self-talk – using positive language and statements to ourselves. These are sometimes referred to as positive affirmations; they are useful for building confidence and challenging negative thoughts. For example, “I can do this or understand this” or “I’ll try my best”. These work best when they are realistic and tailored to your needs and goals. Count to ten (or better yet, 1,000) – this allows you time to gain control and perhaps rethink the situation or come up with a better coping strategy. Count to ten (or better yet, 1,000) – this allows you time to gain control and perhaps rethink the situation or come up with a better coping strategy. Cost-benefit analysis – asking yourself questions about the worth of thinking, feeling or acting a particular way. “Is it helping me to get things done when I think this way?” “Is it worth getting upset over?” “Am I making the best use of my time?” Cost-benefit analysis – asking yourself questions about the worth of thinking, feeling or acting a particular way. “Is it helping me to get things done when I think this way?” “Is it worth getting upset over?” “Am I making the best use of my time?”

10 Cognitive Coping Strategies Smell the roses – Experiencing life as fully as possible requires conscious effort, since we become habituated to things which are repeated. Varying our experiences (such as taking different routes to school or work) can help in this process. Smell the roses – Experiencing life as fully as possible requires conscious effort, since we become habituated to things which are repeated. Varying our experiences (such as taking different routes to school or work) can help in this process. Keeping perspective – when under stress it is easy to lose perspective; things can seem insurmountable. Some questions to ask yourself: Is this really a problem? Is this a problem anyone else has had? Can I prioritise the problems? Does it really matter? Keeping perspective – when under stress it is easy to lose perspective; things can seem insurmountable. Some questions to ask yourself: Is this really a problem? Is this a problem anyone else has had? Can I prioritise the problems? Does it really matter? Reducing uncertainty – seek any information or clarification you may require to reduce the uncertainty. It helps to ask in a positive way. Situations that are difficult to classify, are obscure or have multiple meanings can create stress. Reducing uncertainty – seek any information or clarification you may require to reduce the uncertainty. It helps to ask in a positive way. Situations that are difficult to classify, are obscure or have multiple meanings can create stress. Using imagery/visualisation –imagining yourself in a pleasant or a successful situation to help reduce stress. One way to use imagery is as a relaxation tool; try to remember the pleasure of an experience you’ve had or a place you’ve been. The more senses you involve in the image the more realistic, therefore the more powerful. This strategy is often combined with deep breathing or relaxation exercises. Using imagery/visualisation –imagining yourself in a pleasant or a successful situation to help reduce stress. One way to use imagery is as a relaxation tool; try to remember the pleasure of an experience you’ve had or a place you’ve been. The more senses you involve in the image the more realistic, therefore the more powerful. This strategy is often combined with deep breathing or relaxation exercises. Visualisation can also be used as a rehearsal strategy for an anticipated stressful event. For example, if you have a presentation to give, practice it in the mind a few times, picturing the audience’s reaction and even visualising yourself overcoming any potential pitfalls. Visualisation can also be used as a rehearsal strategy for an anticipated stressful event. For example, if you have a presentation to give, practice it in the mind a few times, picturing the audience’s reaction and even visualising yourself overcoming any potential pitfalls.

11 Behavioural Coping Strategies Physical exercise – aerobic exercise is the most beneficial strategy for reducing stress. It releases neurochemicals in the brain that aid concentration. For some people, even a short walk is sufficient to relieve stress. Physical exercise – aerobic exercise is the most beneficial strategy for reducing stress. It releases neurochemicals in the brain that aid concentration. For some people, even a short walk is sufficient to relieve stress. Relaxation – from simple relaxation such as dropping the head forward and rolling it gently from side to side or simply stretching, to more complex progressive relaxation exercises. Relaxation – from simple relaxation such as dropping the head forward and rolling it gently from side to side or simply stretching, to more complex progressive relaxation exercises. Breathing – from simple deep breaths to more complex breathing exercises related to relaxation and meditation. Breathing – from simple deep breaths to more complex breathing exercises related to relaxation and meditation.

12 Behavioural Coping Strategies Smile and Laugh - gives us energy and helps to lighten the load; relaxes muscles in the face. Smile and Laugh - gives us energy and helps to lighten the load; relaxes muscles in the face. Social Support/Friends – encourage the development and nurturing of relationships. There is an association between good social support and a reduced risk of drop out (Tinto, 1998). Social Support/Friends – encourage the development and nurturing of relationships. There is an association between good social support and a reduced risk of drop out (Tinto, 1998). Seek Help – to help us cope with unmanageable stress. This is a sign of taking control, not of weakness. There are many supports available in College for students including Student Health Service, Student Counselling Service, College Tutors and the Chaplaincy. Seek Help – to help us cope with unmanageable stress. This is a sign of taking control, not of weakness. There are many supports available in College for students including Student Health Service, Student Counselling Service, College Tutors and the Chaplaincy. Chill Out and Go for a Pint! – Sometimes, you just need to escape studying; otherwise, you will burnout. Go to the cinema, bowling, pitch-and-putt or simply socialise with friends. Chill Out and Go for a Pint! – Sometimes, you just need to escape studying; otherwise, you will burnout. Go to the cinema, bowling, pitch-and-putt or simply socialise with friends. Time management – specific strategies such as clarifying priorities, setting goals, evaluating how time is spent, developing an action plan, overcoming procrastination and organising time. These help us to cope with the numerous demands placed upon us, often a source of stress. Time management – specific strategies such as clarifying priorities, setting goals, evaluating how time is spent, developing an action plan, overcoming procrastination and organising time. These help us to cope with the numerous demands placed upon us, often a source of stress.

13 Student Stress Amount of Work Amount of Work The time in which to do the work The time in which to do the work

14 Optimising your Study-Time Only a small percentage of learning happens in the classroom. Only a small percentage of learning happens in the classroom. Lectures serve as an introduction to a subject: Lectures serve as an introduction to a subject: It’s up to you to put the flesh on the bones through further It’s up to you to put the flesh on the bones through further reading, assignments, note-making and revision. reading, assignments, note-making and revision. It is crucial to set aside enough time for study to consolidate and deepen your learning. It is crucial to set aside enough time for study to consolidate and deepen your learning. You might want to treat university pretty much as a 9-5 job…with some weekend work too! You might want to treat university pretty much as a 9-5 job…with some weekend work too! One hour of lectures = One hour of study time! One hour of lectures = One hour of study time!

15 Exam Preparation You should be studying throughout the semester! You should be studying throughout the semester! A couple of weeks prior to your exam, collate your: A couple of weeks prior to your exam, collate your: Lecture Notes Lecture Notes Lecture Slides Lecture Slides Notes taken from your Notes taken from your reading of the text-book reading of the text-book Notes taken from the Notes taken from the additional reading additional reading

16 What’s on the Exam? Look at past Exams Look at past Exams Is this the first time your lecturer has provided this module? Is this the first time your lecturer has provided this module? What’s the format of the exam? What’s the format of the exam? Multiple-Choice Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Fill-in-the-blanks Fill-in-the-blanks Essay Essay Be sure to go to your (review) lectures for hints! Be sure to go to your (review) lectures for hints! If you don’t get hints, consider what questions YOU would set if you had taught the course. If you don’t get hints, consider what questions YOU would set if you had taught the course.

17 Revision Develop a clear overview of what needs to be covered in each subject. Develop a clear overview of what needs to be covered in each subject. Draw up a revision plan. You might need to allocate more time to some subjects. Draw up a revision plan. You might need to allocate more time to some subjects. Revise actively Revise actively Just reading through your notes is not enough. Test yourself by working through problems, summarising key points, memorising and trying to replicate exam conditions.

18 Exam Stress While some people breeze through exams without too much trouble, many others experience a great deal of anxiety and stress around exam time. While some people breeze through exams without too much trouble, many others experience a great deal of anxiety and stress around exam time. Take a break! Take a break! The best way to reduce exam anxiety is to be confident that you have done as much as you reasonably could to prepare for the exam. The best way to reduce exam anxiety is to be confident that you have done as much as you reasonably could to prepare for the exam. Remember that exams are not about ‘catching you out’ – your lecturers want you to do well! Remember that exams are not about ‘catching you out’ – your lecturers want you to do well!

19 Your Disposition is Important Too! Try to stay positive. Try to stay positive. Acknowledge the work that you have done and tell yourself that the exam is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of an area of study. Acknowledge the work that you have done and tell yourself that the exam is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of an area of study. It’s also a chance for you to show how you can ‘think on your feet’ and cope under pressure – valuable skills for life. It’s also a chance for you to show how you can ‘think on your feet’ and cope under pressure – valuable skills for life.

20 Time Management You will know in advance: You will know in advance: How much time you have How much time you have (e.g. 2 or 3 hours). (e.g. 2 or 3 hours). The format of the exam The format of the exam (e.g. MCQs and Essays). (e.g. MCQs and Essays). Based on this knowledge, decide how to allocate your time in the exam hall and stick rigidly to your time- management plan. Based on this knowledge, decide how to allocate your time in the exam hall and stick rigidly to your time- management plan.

21 Reading the Directions When the exam starts, write everything you fear you might forget onto the question sheet! When the exam starts, write everything you fear you might forget onto the question sheet! Read the directions carefully: Read the directions carefully: what to answer, what to answer, where to answer, where to answer, marking schemes, etc. marking schemes, etc. Allocate a few minutes to scan the entire exam and select your preferred questions. Allocate a few minutes to scan the entire exam and select your preferred questions.

22 Answer Strategies: MCQS MCQs are used to motivate students to cover the entire content of a course of study. MCQs are used to motivate students to cover the entire content of a course of study. MCQs usually consist of question or a phrase followed normally by four or five answer options. MCQs usually consist of question or a phrase followed normally by four or five answer options. If your exam will contain MCQs, it’s well worth getting plenty of practice in beforehand – use past papers or practice questions and again, READ THE TEXT-BOOK! If your exam will contain MCQs, it’s well worth getting plenty of practice in beforehand – use past papers or practice questions and again, READ THE TEXT-BOOK!

23 Answer Strategies: MCQS It’s a good idea to try to figure out the correct answer before looking at the answer options. It’s a good idea to try to figure out the correct answer before looking at the answer options. If you can’t do this, eliminate clearly incorrect options; thinking in terms of ‘true or false’ can help here. If you can’t do this, eliminate clearly incorrect options; thinking in terms of ‘true or false’ can help here. You can generally eliminate 50-60% right away. You can generally eliminate 50-60% right away.

24 Answer Strategies: MCQS Don’t select an option too soon. Be aware that there can be more than one correct option, but only one correct answer. If two options are correct, the correct answer might be ‘answers (b) and (c) above’, but be aware that it could also be ‘all of the above’. Don’t select an option too soon. Be aware that there can be more than one correct option, but only one correct answer. If two options are correct, the correct answer might be ‘answers (b) and (c) above’, but be aware that it could also be ‘all of the above’. Be careful not to misread the question. Some people find negative or double negative questions confusing – it may help to rephrase when this is the case. Be careful not to misread the question. Some people find negative or double negative questions confusing – it may help to rephrase when this is the case.

25 Answer Strategies: MCQS Sometimes, having done the easiest questions first, you can revisit other questions, having picked up hints from those you have already answered. Sometimes, having done the easiest questions first, you can revisit other questions, having picked up hints from those you have already answered. Tick off the questions you have answered with confidence. Tick off the questions you have answered with confidence. To guess or not to guess? To guess or not to guess? Guessing with negative marking? Guessing with negative marking?

26 Review your work! If you have time at the end of any exam, resist the urge to leave the exam hall. Use the time to review what you have done thoroughly. If you have time at the end of any exam, resist the urge to leave the exam hall. Use the time to review what you have done thoroughly. Check for errors, make sure that you have answered all questions, and add any missing information. Check for errors, make sure that you have answered all questions, and add any missing information. If you run out of time, jot down the key points that you would have made and the key terms that are relevant to the topic – much like our outline from earlier. If you run out of time, jot down the key points that you would have made and the key terms that are relevant to the topic – much like our outline from earlier.

27 During the exam… If you experience severe anxiety during an exam, try some or all of the following: If you experience severe anxiety during an exam, try some or all of the following: Deep, slow breaths. Deep, slow breaths. Try not to focus on the anxiety, instead focus on the task at hand. Try not to focus on the anxiety, instead focus on the task at hand. Tell yourself that you have done, and are doing, your best. Tell yourself that you have done, and are doing, your best. Take a short break to clear your mind. Drink some water. Take a short break to clear your mind. Drink some water. If you go ‘blank’, don’t panic – it happens all the time. Take a few moments, or move on to a different question. Be confident that what you need to recall will come back to you. If you go ‘blank’, don’t panic – it happens all the time. Take a few moments, or move on to a different question. Be confident that what you need to recall will come back to you.

28 After the exam… Consider what worked best and resolve to use those techniques again. Consider what worked best and resolve to use those techniques again. Avoid post-mortems – you have another exam to prepare for! Avoid post-mortems – you have another exam to prepare for! Seek feedback if you’re disappointed with an exam result: learning where you went wrong before is the best way to ensure it doesn’t happen again. Seek feedback if you’re disappointed with an exam result: learning where you went wrong before is the best way to ensure it doesn’t happen again.

29 In Summary, Organize Yourself and Plan Ahead! Control Your Environment by controlling who and what is surrounding you. In this way, you can either get rid of stress or get support for yourself. Love Yourself by giving yourself positive feedback. Remember, you are a unique individual who is doing the best you can. Reward Yourself by planning leisure activities into your life. Exercise & Eat Healthy Relax Yourself by taking your mind off your stress and concentrating on breathing and positive thoughts. Rest Yourself Be Aware of Yourself

30 More Tips! Get up fifteen minutes earlier in the morning. The inevitable morning mishaps will be less stressful. Get up fifteen minutes earlier in the morning. The inevitable morning mishaps will be less stressful. Prepare for the morning the evening before. Prepare for the morning the evening before. Don't rely on your memory. Write down appointment times, due dates, etc. Don't rely on your memory. Write down appointment times, due dates, etc. Be prepared to wait. A paperback can make a wait in a queue almost pleasant. Be prepared to wait. A paperback can make a wait in a queue almost pleasant. Procrastination is stressful. Whatever you want to do tomorrow, do today; whatever you want to do today, do it now. Procrastination is stressful. Whatever you want to do tomorrow, do today; whatever you want to do today, do it now. Forget Murphy’s Law! Think: Pollyanna-Power! Forget Murphy’s Law! Think: Pollyanna-Power! For every one thing that goes wrong, there are probably 10 or 50 or 100 blessings. Count 'em! Ask questions Ask questions Make friends with non-worriers Make friends with non-worriers

31 Finally,

32 Finally,


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