Presentation on theme: "Unit 8: Part A Unwritten Rules 21st Century College English: Book 2."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 8: Part A Unwritten Rules 21st Century College English: Book 2
Unit 8: Part A Pre-Reading Activities Pre-Reading ActivitiesPre-Reading ActivitiesPre-Reading Activities Intensive Study Intensive StudyIntensive StudyIntensive Study Exercises ExercisesExercises Assignment AssignmentAssignment
A s you listen to the tape, mark each word or phrase J or T, to indicate whether Jill (the woman) or Tim (the man) says them. (Some words might be spoken by both of people!) Pre-reading Activities: Listening Script animal anywhereasleepcar colddecentignorelaw lightno onepolicesafety sleepysocial contractwho knows TJJJ JTTJ,T J,TJ,TJT JTT
Pre-reading Activities: Listening Jill:Honey, what are you stopping for? Tim:I’m stopping because the light is red. Don’t you see it? Jill:I see it, but … Tim, there’s no one around, there isn’t another car in sight, and I’m sleepy, and it’s cold! I want to get home. Tim:A red light is a red light. It isn’t just a question of safety, don’t you know that? Jill:Of course I know it’s against the law to run a red light, but there are no police anywhere near here! They’re all home asleep — and I’d like to be too. Tim:It isn’t just a question of the law either. It’s a question of … the social contrast. It’s a question of decent, civilized behavior. If we start running red lights just because it’s safe and there’s no one around to see us, who knows where it will end. Jill:Tim … Tim:First you quietly ignore a red light — the next thing you know, you’re acting like an animal! Jill:Tim! The light’s turned green now. Will you drive, please?
Pre-reading Activities: Warm-up Questions Whose point of view is closer to your own? Are there situations when it’s okay to break the rules? Are there rules it’s never okay to break, even when you’re alone?
Intensive Study Intensive StudyIntensive StudyIntensive Study Difficult sentences Difficult sentences Key words, phrases & usages Key words, phrases & usages Comprehension exercises Comprehension exercises Intensive Study
Unwritten Rules Bob Greene 1 The restaurant was almost full. A steady hum of conversation hung over the room; people spoke with each other and worked on their meals. hung over hung over 2 Suddenly, from a table near the center of the room, came a screaming voice: “Damn it, Sylvia....” Intensive Study
3 The man was shouting at the top of his voice. His face was red, and he yelled at the woman sitting opposite him for about fifteen seconds. In the crowded restaurant, it seemed like an hour. All other conversations in the room stopped, and everyone looked at the man. He must have realized this, because just as suddenly as he had started, he lowered his voice and finished whatever it was he had to say in a tone the rest of us could not hear. He must have realized this, because just as suddenly as he had started, he lowered his voice and finished whatever it was he had to say in a tone the rest of us could not hear He must have realized this, because just as suddenly as he had started, he lowered his voice and finished whatever it was he had to say in a tone the rest of us could not hear Intensive Study
4 It was startling precisely because it almost never happens; there are no laws against such explosions, and with the pressures of our modern world you would almost expect to run into such things on a regular basis. But you don't; as a matter of fact, when I thought it over I realized that it was the first time in my life I had witnessed such a demonstration. During all the meals I've had in restaurants, I had never seen a person start screaming at the top of his lungs. preciselyon a regular basiswitnesseddemonstrationat the top of his lungspreciselyon a regular basiswitnesseddemonstrationat the top of his lungs Intensive Study
5 When you're eating among other people, you don't raise your voice; it's just one example of the unwritten rules we live by. When you consider it, you recognize that those rules probably govern our lives on a more absolute basis than the ones you could find if you looked in the law books. The customs that govern us are what make a civilization. There would be chaos without them, and yet it's not at all clear why — even in our disintegrating society — we obey them. live bydisintegratinglive bydisintegrating Intensive Study
6 How many times have you stopped at a red light late at night? You can see in all directions; there's no one else around — no headlights, no police cruiser idling behind you. You're tired and in a hurry. But you wait for the light to change. Is it for safety's sake? No; you can see that there would be no accident if you drove on. Is it to avoid getting arrested? No; you are alone; there's no one to catch you. Still, you sit and wait. Intensive Study
7 At major athletic events, it is not uncommon to find 90,000 or 100,000 people sitting in the stands. On the playing field are two dozen athletes — maybe fewer. There aren't enough security guards on hand to keep all the spectators from getting out of their seats and walking onto the field. But it never happens. Regardless of the emotion of the contest, the spectators stay in their places, and the athletes are safe in their part of the arena. The invisible barrier always holds. athletic on handathletic on hand Intensive Study
8 In restaurants and coffee shops, people pay their bills. It's a simple enough concept. Yet it would be remarkably easy to wander away from a meal without paying at the end. Especially in these difficult economic times, wouldn't you expect this to become a common form of cheating? Why doesn't it happen more often? It's just another unwritten rule of human conduct that people automatically make good on their debts. They would no sooner walk out on a bill than start screaming. make goodno sooner walk out on a bill thanmake goodno sooner walk out on a bill than Intensive Study
9 I know a man who, when he parks his car at a parking meter, always puts change in the meter even if there's time left on it. He regards it as the right thing to do. He says he isn't doing it just to extend the time remaining — even if there's sufficient time on the meter to cover whatever task he has to perform at the location, he pays his own way. He believes that you're supposed to purchase your own time; the fellow before you purchased only his. parking metercover pays his own wayparking metercover pays his own way Intensive Study
10 There are so many rules like these — rules that we all obey — that we think about them only when that rare person violates them. In the restaurant, after the man had yelled “Damn it, Sylvia” there was a tentative atmosphere among the other diners for half an hour after it happened. They weren’t sure what disturbed them about what they had witnessed; they knew, though, that it had violated something very basic about the way we're supposed to behave. And it bothered them — which in itself is a hopeful sign that, more often than not, all is well. violatestentativemore often than notviolatestentativemore often than not (750 words) Intensive Study
hang over — 1)remain in the air; be placed above or on top of (sth. or sb.) 2)be likely to happen soon; surround (sth.) as with fear, doubt, etc. e.g. Smog used to hang over the city.Smog used to hang over the city. They felt some kind of disaster was hanging over their vacation.They felt some kind of disaster was hanging over their vacation. Translate An economic crisis is hanging over the country. Key经济危机笼罩着这个国家。
Translate into Chinese: He must have realized this, because just as suddenly as he had started, he lowered his voice and finished whatever it was he had to say in a tone the rest of us could not hear. 他一定意识到了这一点，因为就像他突然开始尖叫一样，他 突然又压低了嗓门，用旁人听不到的声音结束了他想说的话。 就像他突然开始尖叫一样，他突然又压低了嗓门 用旁人听不到的声音 More to learn More to learn 他一定意识到了这一点,
He must have realized this, … The must be pattern is used to give a guess or draw a logical conclusion concerning a present event, while the must have done pattern is used to give a guess or draw a logical conclusion concerning a past event. e.g. Judging from his looks, he must be over 50 now.Judging from his looks, he must be over 50 now. Judging from his walking, he must have been a soldier before.Judging from his walking, he must have been a soldier before. More to do More to do
precisely ad. —1)exactly; just 2)in an exact manner; carefully e.g. This is precisely why I want to see you.This is precisely why I want to see you. The train leaves at 10 o'clock precisely.The train leaves at 10 o'clock precisely. Drill Make a sentence with precisely. Precisely is used to emphasize that a particular thing is completely true or correct.
on a … basis —(be done) in a … way; using a … method e.g. The results of the experiment are checked on a daily basis.The results of the experiment are checked on a daily basis. Paraphrase These people donate their blood on a voluntary basis. These people donate their blood on a voluntary basis. Key These people give their blood out without asking for payment.
witness n. —a person who sees an event take place and is therefore able to describe it to others e.g. Other witnesses were called, and gave similar evidence.Other witnesses were called, and gave similar evidence. Translate一个证人声称曾见过那把枪。 Key One witness claimed to have seen the gun. More to learn More to learn
witness v. — see sth. happen e.g. He arrived home just in time to witness his brother being taken away by the police.He arrived home just in time to witness his brother being taken away by the police. Translate The police are trying to find people who witnessed the car accident. Key警方正试图找到目睹车祸的人。
demonstration n. — 1)the expression of a feeling 2)a public show of strong feeling or opinion, often with marching, big signs e.g. This love letter is a demonstration of her love to Charlie. This love letter is a demonstration of her love to Charlie. The new tax proposal sparked a huge demonstration in the city's main square.The new tax proposal sparked a huge demonstration in the city's main square. Translate There was series of demonstrations against the Prime Minister's visit to the country. Key 一连串的游行示威抗议首相对这个国家的访问.
at the top of (one’s) lungs —as loud as possible e.g. The baby cried at the top of (his) lungs when he found his mother had gone.The baby cried at the top of (his) lungs when he found his mother had gone. See also (Line 1, Para 3): The man was shouting at the top of his voice.
live by — live according to; behave according to a particular set of rules or ideas e.g. He lives by a strict moral code.He lives by a strict moral code. Honest labor is the principle we live by.Honest labor is the principle we live by. Translate我总是努力按照我所信仰的去生活。 Key I always try to live by what I believe in.
disintegrate v. —1)fall apart 2)(cause to) break into small parts or pieces e.g. He watched his parents' marriage disintegrate.He watched his parents' marriage disintegrate. The spacecraft disintegrated as it entered the Earth's atmosphere.The spacecraft disintegrated as it entered the Earth's atmosphere. Something such as a society or a relationship disintegrates when it becomes less and less stable and collapses. Translate这个盒子太旧了，我一把它捡起来就碎了。 Key The box was so old that it disintegrated when I picked it up.
athletic a. — 1)of or like an athlete 2)having to do with outdoor sports e.g. He was admired for his athletic body.He was admired for his athletic body. This college has a long tradition of athletic excellence.This college has a long tradition of athletic excellence.
on hand — within reach; available; ready e.g. John was embarrassed at the restaurant yesterday for he had no money on hand to pay the bill.John was embarrassed at the restaurant yesterday for he had no money on hand to pay the bill. Drill Make a sentence with on hand.
make good —pay what one owes; make up for e.g. The policeman told the boy's parents that the boy must make good the money he had stolen or go to jail.The policeman told the boy's parents that the boy must make good the money he had stolen or go to jail. She promised that she would make good the loss.She promised that she would make good the loss. Translate The damage to your furniture will be made good by our company. Key对于你的家具的损坏将由我们公司赔偿。
no sooner … than … —1) neither … nor 2) immediately after e.g. They would no sooner send their senile mother to the home for the aged than let her stay at home alone.They would no sooner send their senile mother to the home for the aged than let her stay at home alone. No sooner had he closed his eyes than he fell asleep.No sooner had he closed his eyes than he fell asleep. Cf. no sooner said than done — sth. will be immediately done after it is suggested e.g. Can you fix the phone?Can you fix the phone? Don’t worry — no sooner said than done. Cf. sooner or later — eventually; in the end e.g. You’ll be sorry for your decision sooner or later.You’ll be sorry for your decision sooner or later. More to learn More to learn
walk out on —1)stop doing sth. one has agreed to do or that one is responsible for 2)leave suddenly, esp. in a time of trouble; desert e.g. His wife walked out on him, and was later seen with another man.His wife walked out on him, and was later seen with another man. Translate 你不能不实施合同, 否则就上法庭。 Key You can’t walk out on the contract, or you could be taken to court.
Text-related information Parking Meter A parking meter is a coin-operated device along the street curbs which registers the purchase of parking time for a motor vehicle parked next to it. If the time on the meter is expired, a Notice of Parking Violation (ticket) will be issued by traffic officers who check the meters from time to time along the street.
cover v. —(of money) be enough for e.g. A hundred yuan used to cover the monthly expenses of a university student.A hundred yuan used to cover the monthly expenses of a university student. The selling price barely covered the cost of the raw materials.The selling price barely covered the cost of the raw materials. Translate The fee for the flight ticket covers the lunch and drink aboard. Key机票（款）包含了机上的午餐和饮料。
pay one’s way — pay for what one wants without having to depend on anyone else e.g. He paid his way by acting as a programmer for a big computer company during the summer vacation.He paid his way by acting as a programmer for a big computer company during the summer vacation. During the recession, he managed to pay his way by doing odd jobsDuring the recession, he managed to pay his way by doing odd jobs
violate v. —break or be contrary to (a rule, principle, treaty, etc.) e.g. You've violated the terms of your contract.You've violated the terms of your contract. The arrest and detention of the protestors violated their civil liberties.The arrest and detention of the protestors violated their civil liberties. Translate所有对自然规律的违背都将以毁灭而告终。 Key All the violation to the Natural Laws will result in destroying.
tentativea. — hesitant; unsure e.g. He gave a tentative smile.He gave a tentative smile. Our plans are still tentative.Our plans are still tentative. A suggestion or action that is tentative is something said or done in a careful but uncertain way because one is not sure if he is right or not.
more often than not — quite frequently Translate into Chinese: And it bothered them — which in itself is a hopeful sign that, more often than not, all is well. 是这些东西困扰着他们 — 其实这本身是个好兆头，它常常表 明情况还不坏。