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**Investment, the Capital Market, and the Wealth of Nations**

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**Capital and Investment**

Types of capital: physical capital human capital Investment: purchase or development of a capital resource Saving: income not spent on current consumption

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**The Circular Flow of Goods and Services**

Payments $$ Product/Goods and Services Markets 4 Participants Businesses Households Factor/Resource Markets Resources

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**Savings is income minus consumption.**

Investment is the use of unconsumed income to produce a capital resource.

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**Savings and Investment**

Savings is income minus consumption. Investment is the use of unconsumed income to produce a capital resource. Saving is required for investment – someone must save in order to free resources for investment.

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**Investment and Consumption**

More consumption goods in the future by: producing physical and human capital today, using capital to produce consumption goods However, positive rate of time preference – people prefer to consume goods and services sooner rather than later.

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Interest Rate The interest rate is the premium (cost) that borrowers must pay lenders for purchasing power now rather than later. These funds may be used for either consumption or investment.

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**Determination of Interest Rates**

Determined by the supply and demand for loanable funds. 1. The demand : a. productivity of capital resources -- investment demand b. positive rate of time preference -- consumers desire for earlier availability 2. The supply: Interest is a reward for not spending (supply loanable funds) so that others can. The market interest rate brings the quantity of funds demanded by borrowers into balance with the quantity supplied by lenders.

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**Determination of the Interest Rate**

The demand for loanable funds is the consumer’s desire. Interest rate S Higher interest rate rises slow demand for loanable funds. Goods become more expensive. D Higher interest rates stimulate supply of funds. The reward increases. i In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. The “price” is the interest rate i . Loanable funds Q

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**Real = Money (nominal) - Inflation**

Money Rate vs. Real Rate Real = Money (nominal) - Inflation During inflation, the nominal interest rate – or money interest rate – is a misleading indicator of the true cost of borrowing. The money interest rate will include an inflationary premium reflecting the expected rate of inflation. The real rate of interest is the money interest rate minus the inflationary premium. The real interest rate is a far better measure of the true cost of borrowing.

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**Interest Rates and Risk**

More than one interest rate exists in the loanable funds market. Examples: mortgage rate credit card rate short-term title loan rate Riskier loans will have higher money interest rates. Long-term loans are generally riskier.

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**Components of the Money**

Interest Rate Risk Premium: Risk Premium reflects probability of default. large when the probability of borrower default is substantial. Inflationary Premium Inflationary Premium: reflects expectations that loan will be paid back with dollars of less purchasing power. Pure Interest large when decision makers expect a high rate of inflation during the period in which the loan is outstanding. Pure rate of interest: price of earlier availability.

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**Interesting Questions**

How would the following changes influence the rate of interest in the United States? (a up, b down) a. An increase in the positive time preference of lenders. b. An increase in the positive time preference of borrowers. c. An increase in inflation. d. Increased uncertainty about nuclear war. e. Improved investment opportunities in Europe.

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2. For each of the following pairs of countries, decide which would tend to have the higher rate of interest. Country A has a higher rate of inflation than Country B. Citizens in country A have a higher positive rate of time preference than in Country B. Citizens in Country A tend to save a higher proportion of their income than citizens in Country B. In Country A, a much higher proportion of borrowers default on their loans than in Country B.

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**Questions for Thought:**

1. Why are investors willing to pay interest to acquire loanable funds? Why are lenders willing to loan these funds? 2. If the current interest rate is 8%, what is the present value of three $1,000 payments to be received at the end of each of the next 3 years? Would the present value increase or decrease if the interest rate were higher, say 10%? 3. A lender made the following statement to a borrower, "You are borrowing $1,000, which is to be repaid in 12 monthly installments of $100 each. Your total interest charge is $200, which means your interest rate is 20% percent." Is the effective interest rate on the loan really 20%?

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**Future Income and Costs**

Present Value of Future Income and Costs 1. Present Value in one year 2. Present Value in n years 3. Present Value of n annual payments

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Present Value The interest rate connects the value of dollars today with the value of dollars in the future. The present value (PV) of a single ($100) payment to be received one year from now is: PV = Receipts 1 year from now interest rate + 1 PV where i = 6 % = $ 100 = = $ 100 1.06 $ 94.34

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**Receipts n years from now**

Present Value n Years in the Future The present value (PV) of that single ($100) payment to be received n years from now is: PV = Receipts n years from now (interest rate + 1) n PV where i = 6 % and n = 3 = $ 100 ( )3 = = $ 100 (1.06)3 $ 83.96 The present value of the future payment is inversely related to: the interest rate, and, how far in the future the payment will be received.

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**Present Value n Years in the Future**

The present value (PV) of a stream of payments (each of nominal magnitude R) to be received each year for n years is: PV = R1 (1 + i) + R2 (1 + i)2 + R3 (1 + i)3 R n (1 + i) n + PV = where i = 6 % and n = 3 and R = $100 $100 (1.06) + (1.06)2 $100 + (1.06)3 $100 = $ PV = $94.34 + $89 + $83.96 = $

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Example Present value of $100 to be received n years in the future at interest rates r 2% 6% 12% 20% n 1 $ 98.04 $ 94.34 $ 89.29 $ 83.33 2 $ 96.12 $ 89.00 $ 79.72 $ 69.44 3 $ 94.23 $ 83.96 $ 71.18 $ 57.87 4 $ 92.39 $ 79.21 $ 63.55 $ 48.23 5 $ 90.57 $ 74.73 $ 56.74 $ 40.19 10 $ 82.03 $ 55.84 $ 32.20 $ 16.15 15 $ 74.30 $ 41.73 $ 18.27 $ 6.49 20 $ 67.30 $ 31.18 $ 10.37 $ 2.61 30 $ 55.21 $ 17.41 $ 3.34 $ 0.42 50 $ 37.15 $ 5.43 $ 0.35 $ 0.01 The columns indicate the present value of $100 to be received n years in the future at different interest rates r. Note that the present value of $100 declines as either the interest rate or the number of years in the future increases.

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If the current interest rate is 8%, what is the present value of three $1,000 payments to be received at the end of each of the next 3 years? Would the present value increase or decrease if the interest rate were higher, say 10%? 1000/1.08 = = 1000 * .926 /(1.08)2 = = 1000 * .857 /(1.08)3 = = 1000 * .794 =

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Present Value, Profitability, and Investment

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**Discounted Present Value**

Discounted PV of $12,000 Truck Rental for 4 Years (interest Rate = 8 Percent) Expected future income (received at years-end) Discounted value (8% rate) Present value of income stream Year 1 $ 12,000 0.926 $ 11,112 2 $ 12,000 0.857 $ 10,284 3 $ 12,000 0.794 $ 9,528 4 $ 12,000 0.735 $ 8,820 $ 39,744 A truck rental firm is considering the purchase of a $40,000 truck. The firm can rent the truck for net revenues of $12,000 per year. The truck has an expected life of 4 years (it then has $0 value). As the firm can borrow and lend the funds at an interest rate of 8 %, we discount the future expected income at 8%. How much is this 4 year stream of income worth today? The present value of the future income stream is less than the cost of the endeavor ($39,744 < $40,000), thus the project should not be undertaken.

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**Expected Future Earnings and Asset Value**

The current value of an asset is determined by the present value of its expected future net earnings. An increase (decline) in the expected future earnings derived from an asset will increase (reduce) the market value of that asset.

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**Questions for Thought:**

The owner of a lottery ticket paying $3 million over 20 years is offering to sell the ticket for $1.2 million cash right now. “Who knows?” the ticket owner explained. “We might not be here in 20 years, and I do not want to leave it to the dinosaurs.” a. If the ticket pays $150,000 per year at the end of each year for the next 20 years, what is the present value of the ticket when the appropriate rate for discounting the future income is thought to be 10 percent? b. If the discount rate is in the 10 percent range, is the sale price of $1.2 million reasonable?

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150000 1 136364 2 123967 3 112697 4 102452 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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**Investing in Human Capital**

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**Investing in Human Capital**

Earnings w/ college Annual earnings or costs Earnings w/o college Co $ 0 Cd Age 18 22 65 Consider a somewhat simplified example of a human- capital investment decision confronting Juanita, an 18-year old who just finished high-school. We have graphed Juanita’s expected earnings both with … and without college. Should Juanita attend college or not? If Juanita chooses to attend college, she will incur both the direct cost of a college education (tuition, books, etc) Cd … and the opportunity cost of earnings forgone while in college Co .

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**Investing in Human Capital**

Earnings w/ college Annual earnings or costs B Earnings w/o college Co $ 0 Cd Age 18 22 65 With a college education, though, Juanita can expect higher future earnings (B) during her career (even though they may begin lower, they end higher). If the discounted present value of the additional future earnings exceeds the discounted value of the direct and indirect costs of a college education, then the college degree will be a profitable investment for Juanita.

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**Economic Profit Creative Destruction**

Economic profit plays a central role in the allocation of capital and the determination of which investment projects will be undertaken. In a competitive environment, profit reflects: uncertainty, and, entrepreneurship – the ability to recognize and undertake profitable projects that have gone unnoticed by others. Creative Destruction

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**Income from physical capital (interest, rents, & corp. profit)**

Returns to Physical and Human Capital Share (%) of national income Self-employment income 100 Employee compensation and self-employment income primarily represent returns to human capital. These two components have comprised approximately 80% of total national income in the U.S. for several decades. Income from physical capital (interest, rents, & corp. profit) 80 Employee compensation 60 40 20 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

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**and the Wealth of Nations**

Capital Market and the Wealth of Nations Investment in both physical and human capital is an important source of growth in productivity (and income). Economies that invest more and channel their investment funds into more productive projects generally grow more rapidly.

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**1. Which of the following is true of saving and investment?**

There is no relationship between saving and investment. Saving and investment can never be undertaken together by the same person. Saving and investment must always be undertaken by the same person. If investment is going to be undertaken, someone must save 2. The net present value of $1,000 received in the future would a. decline if the $1,000 were received sooner. b. increase if the delivery date for the $1,000 were set farther into the future. c. decrease if the interest rate fell. d. decrease if the interest rate rose

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**3. Investment in capital goods only makes sense when**

a. the capital goods can be used to increase the future output of consumption goods b. the savings rate of a country is low. c. the interest rate is high and people have a positive rate of time preference. d. economies are organized along capitalist lines. 4. The money rate of interest is the a. real rate of interest minus the inflationary premium. b. real rate of interest plus the inflationary premium c. real rate of interest divided by the inflationary premium. d. inflationary premium minus the real interest rate. 5. The pure interest yield a. reflects the expectation that the loan will be repaid with $$ of less purchasing power. b. is the real price one must pay for earlier availability c. reflects the probability of default. d. is the real rate of return one could expect if the funds were invested in the commodities market.

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**reduce the value of the resources employed.**

6 A competitive capital market is important to society because it directs resources toward projects that a. can be completed quickly. b. create wealth c. have an outcome that is known with certainty. reduce the value of the resources employed. 7. Compared to investing in physical capital, human capital investments are more likely to be influenced by a. nonmonetary considerations b. depreciation rates. c. the rate of return. d. opportunity costs.

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