Neoclassical Growth Models: the Solow Growth Model
Implications of the Neoclassical Growth Model for Developing Countries The Model predicts CONVERGENCE: Developing economies will sooner or later catch up with developed economies. This result follows directly from the assumption of diminishing returns to capital. Convergence is based on two strong assumptions: 1. All countries have access to the same technology 2. All countries share similar savings (and investment) rates
from the Neoclassical Growth Model to Developmentalist Theories of Development Solow’s theoretical structure lent credence to Developmentalist Theories → Growth depends on expansion of industrial capital stock; and the rate of savings. “the big push”; “balanced vs. unbalanced growth”, etc. Both optimistic in development potential and eventual convergence (decreasing income gap)
The Income Convergence Controversy (Table 8.1)
The Income Convergence Controversy (Table 8.2)
The Income Convergence Controversy: An Institutionalist Economic Perspective Path Dependence Vicious circles Virtuous circles However, Path Dependence is not ultimately binding
Endogenous Growth Models as an Answer to the Income Convergence Controversy Empirical research found that over 50% of the growth rate of a country can not be accounted for by changes in the use of capital and labor, leaving the unexplained Solow residual as the major determinant of growth rates. ENDOGENOUS GROWTH Models emerge in the 1980s as an effort to account for the unexplained residual through a host of other factors such as education, R&D, technology and so on.
Endogenous Growth Models Y = F(R,K,H) Y= total output; R= research & development; K= physical K; H= human K Let K t = combined stock of human, physical and research capital; Assuming constant returns to scale as well as constant marginal returns to K stock, the EG Models suggest the so-called AK production function Y = aK t To capture the endogeneity of the growth process, the aggregate production function can be rewritten as Y = A(K t )K t A(K t ) = induced/endogenous tech. Change imparted to the economy by the stock of physical, human and research K particular to that country
Endogenous Growth Models Endogenous Growth Models are different from the Neoclassical Growth Models in that No assumption of physical K to be the dominant determining factor in spurring economic growth, other factors such as human K is integrated; drop the assumption of diminishing returns to reproducible factors of production; Technology is not assumed to be exogenous but rather endogenous. As such in EG Models sustained growth is possible even without a change in the savings rate or an exogenous boost to technology Therefore EG Models are able to explain the sustained or even increasing income gap between developed and developing economies.
An Endogenous Growth Production Function Figure 8.1