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BSc Audiology Giving and receiving feedback Jane Burgneay April 2013.

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1 BSc Audiology Giving and receiving feedback Jane Burgneay April 2013

2 BSc Audiology Feedback Information about performance or behaviour that leads to action to affirm or develop that performance or behaviour

3 BSc Audiology Feedback A two-way process Gives us evidence of our performance and effectiveness in communication Enables us to build up a picture of how others see us and how we affect others Vital ingredient in evaluation process Constructive not destructive

4 BSc Audiology Purpose of Feedback Enables the receiver to recognise what they do well so they can continue doing it Enables the receiver to understand where he/she needs to develop and change

5 BSc Audiology Does feedback work? Black and William 1998 – meta analysis of >250 studies of formative assessment with feedback since 1988 from all educational sectors Feedback resulted in positive benefits on learning and achievement across all areas, knowledge and skill types and levels of education

6 BSc Audiology Conditions for successful feedback For receivers to benefit from feedback, the receiver must  possess a concept of the goal/standard or reference level being aimed for  compare the actual (or current) level of performance with that goal or standard  engage in appropriate action which leads to some closure of the gap Often point 2 is the focus of feedback and falls short on point 3 Sadler 1989

7 BSc Audiology Before giving feedback Always ask yourself:  What is my intention behind giving this person feedback?  How am I feeling about giving it?  How is the other person feeling; if they have had a stressful day, might be best left for another occasion. It is important they are in the right frame of mind to accept it BOTH PEOPLE SHOULD FEEL CALM

8 BSc Audiology Giving feedback Better when invited rather than imposed Be descriptive not evaluative  Describing what you actually see or hear reduces the need of the receiver to act defensively Reveal your own position or feelings  “I got a bit confused trying to follow that statement” Be specific rather than general Be selective  Concentrate on one or two areas for improvement

9 BSc Audiology Giving feedback Be balanced – the good and the bad Direct feedback towards behaviour that can be changed or controlled Timing is critical  Sooner rather than later  Unless situation inappropriate  When receiver can listen and concentrate – time to reflect

10 BSc Audiology Giving feedback Ensure receiver understands the feedback In group situations check and ensure accuracy of statements with other members Take into account the receiver’s needs as well as your own

11 BSc Audiology Receiving feedback Listen carefully to person  treat as genuine, helpful and with respect what they are describing and suggesting Be receptive and accept feedback as a gift Ask for clarification and seek examples Give the feedback serious consideration  Weigh up consequences of no change  Express thoughts on alternatives

12 BSc Audiology Receiving feedback Communicate your decisions to the giver  This is a two way process and the giver also needs feedback Tell them what they could do which might help you to change  Teaching, practice, tiny prompts etc. Thank the giver for their concern and help  Feedback may not have been easy to give Be genuine, do not reject feedback and definitely not sarcastic or rude

13 BSc Audiology Receiving feedback It is up to the receiver what they do with feedback Keep notes Give it time to sink in and get into perspective and reflect Address areas for improvement Try not tofeel devastated by small criticisms and try not to be defensive and make excuses

14 BSc Audiology Impact of feedback The person receiving the feedback can react with: anger – ‘I’ve had enough of this’ denial – this reaction often accompanies the initial shock of feedback ‘I can’t see any problem with that’ blame – ‘It’s not my fault. What can you expect when the patient won’t listen? rationalisation – finding excuses to try and justify their behaviour ‘I’ve had a particularly bad week’ ‘Doesn’t everyone do this?’ acceptance renewed action

15 BSc Audiology Transactional Analysis Interaction between people Berne (1968) – “The games people play” The three selves  Parent  Adult  Child Ego states which exist in all of us Each affects tone of communication and verbal feedback

16 BSc Audiology The Parent Acts according to how we perceived our parental figure Prescribes limits of behaviour Protecting, nurturing, fostering, teaching etc. Parental tones of voice and expressions Teaching is often considered a parental type approach

17 BSc Audiology Adult Gathering and processing information Rational action in the real world Ruled by reason rather than emotion Not necessarily synonymous with “mature” Taking data - rationalising it, processing it, choosing alternatives and then decision making

18 BSc Audiology Child Residue of emotional responses from childhood Internal reactions to external events May be related to trigger events Frustration, anger, fear, rebelliousness – in response to parental imposition Curiosity, creative delight, desire to explore, spontaneity and also trust Competitiveness and dependency – have some founding in childhood – sibling rivalry and bonding

19 BSc Audiology Transactions P, A C type transactions C to P  “The library is rubbish I cannot find anything” P to C  “If you take time to read the map and attend the library course you would find it easier” A to C  “What are you looking for I may have a copy you can borrow” C to C  “That’s not my fault or my problem – grow-up”

20 BSc Audiology Johari Window

21 BSc Audiology Johari Window Some will be known to ourselves and to other people. This is shared knowledge and is the basis for all of our mutual dealings with one another. Usually called the “Arena”, effective communication is enhanced when we work at maximising the size of this pane.

22 BSc Audiology Johari Window Some will be known to us but not to the people we deal with. Called the “Mask” or the “Facade”, this is the pane which encourages us to engage in games-playing, trickery, and the like. The larger this pane, the less chance we have of developing truly meaningful and open relationships with others because such relationships are usually based heavily on trust.

23 BSc Audiology Johari Window Some will be known to others but not to ourselves, This is the “Blind- spot” or the “Bull in the China Shop”. This is potentially very dangerous to us because we risk exposing ourselves to weaknesses which we don’t know about and which can be exploited by others.

24 BSc Audiology Johari Window Some will be unknown to anyone – ourselves and other people. This is the great “Unknown” (it might even be labelled, as were the maps of old, “Here There Be Dragons”!). This is a potential source of personal creativity and other resources which we may never have even suspected.

25 BSc Audiology Johari Window The way to increase the size of the Arena, while decreasing the size of the other panes is first through self-disclosure (sharing information about the real you with others and thus increasing their knowledge about you) and secondly through obtaining Feedback (getting open and honest information about yourself from those who witness you and your performance at work and elsewhere).


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