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MLAB 1415: Hematology Keri Brophy-Martinez

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1 MLAB 1415: Hematology Keri Brophy-Martinez
Hemolytic Anemia: Membrane Defects Part One

2 Introduction Defects due to abnormalities in membrane proteins or lipids Defects alter membrane’s stability, shape, deformability and permeability Hemolysis occurs extravascularly

3 Overview: Membrane Defects
Skeletal protein abnormalities Vertical Separating of lipid bilayer from skeletal lattice Result in decrease in surface area-to-volume ratio..spherocyte Horizontal Disruption of skeletal lattice Membrane destabilizes Cell fragmentation..poik Lipid composition abnormalities Excess cholesterol accumulates in the outer bilayer of the RBC Acanthocyte

4 Conditions Associated with Membrane Defects
Hereditary spherocytosis Hereditary elliptocytocytosis Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis Overhydrated and dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis Membrane lipid disorders Paroxysymal noctural hemoglobinuria

5 Disorders Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) Defect in ankyrin & spectrin
Results in the formation of fragile spherocytic red cells. Spherocyte becomes less flexible and more permeable to Na+ Tends to affect Northern Europeans Inherited

6 Hereditary Spherocytosis Clinical Findings
Varies in severity Compensated hemolytic disease Anemia- varies with severity Intermittent jaundice Splenomegaly Cholelithiasis: pigment bile stones from increased bilirubin breakdown

7 Hereditary Spherocytosis Lab Features
CBC Mild anemia MCV is usually normal (77-87fL) MCH normal MCHC is >36% (This is the only condition in which an MCHC can be truly increased.) RDW Increased RBC morphology Spherocyte Varying degrees of polychromasia, anisocytosis and poikilocytosis

8 Hereditary Spherocytosis Lab Features
Bone Marrow Normoblastic erythroid hyperplasia Increased iron storage Chemistry Increased Bilirubin Fecal urobilinogen LD/LDH Decreased Haptoglobin Immunohematology DAT negative

9 Diagnostic tests for HS
Osmotic fragility - ↑ Cells are incubated in decreasing concentrations of NaCl. Spherocytes lyse sooner than normal red cells. Autohemolysis test Red cells are incubated at 37̊ C for 48 hours. Degree of hemolysis is increased when spherocytes are present. Red cell membrane studies Membrane proteins are analyzed using gel electrophoresis.

10 Treatment of HS Splenectomy
Corrects for the anemia, but the membrane defect remains

11 Disorders Hereditary elliptocytosis
A defect of one of the skeletal proteins Results in the formation of fragile elliptocytic red cells that are sensitive to mechanical stress. More permeable to Na+ Increased sensitivity to heat Found commonly in Africa and the Mediterranean

12 Hereditary elliptocytosis Clinical findings
Hemolysis not evident Anemia not characteristic

13 Hereditary elliptocytosis Lab Features
CBC Mild anemia Hgb level increased RBC morphology Elliptocytes or ovalocytes

14 Treatment of HE Treatment is usually not necessary, but if patients have hemolysis, splenectomy is beneficial. Condition is not fatal

15 Disorders Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) Severe subtype of HE
Deficiency of α-spectrin and a mutant spectrin leads to disruption of skeletal lattice and cell destabilization Cells fragment when heated Tends to affect blacks Presents in infancy or early childhood

16 Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis Clinical Findings

17 Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis Lab Features
CBC MCV decreased (25-55 fL) RBC morphology Extreme erythrocyte morphologies Fragments, elliptocytes, triangulocytes etc

18 Treatment of HPP Splenectomy

19 Disorders Hereditary Stomatocytosis Syndromes No treatment required
Overhydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis (OHS) Permeable to Na+ and K+, cell takes on water Cells resemble stomatocytes Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis (DHS) Water content decreased causing cell dehydration so cells look like targets No treatment required

20 Lab Features Anemia is mild to moderate Increased bilirubin
MCV increased Stomatocytes: OHS Target cells: DHS

21 Referenes Harmening, D. M. (2009). Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of hemostasis (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company. /elliptocytes McKenzie, S. B. (2010). Clinical Laboratory Hematology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

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