Presentation on theme: "AERODROMES 101 Flight Instructor Seminars August 2007."— Presentation transcript:
AERODROMES 101 Flight Instructor Seminars August 2007
EVEN THE BEST PILOTS SOONER OR LATER HAVE TO COME BACK TO EARTH AND LAND THE AIRCRAFT!
SOME TIMES WELL!
SOME TIMES NOT WELL!
EVEN ON THE GROUND THERE ARE PROBLEMS!!
The Dark Art of Aerodromology
Use of aerodromes Rule Places a requirement on the pilot to ensure that the aerodrome is suitable for the purpose of take off and landing. Requirements are also in Part 121, 125 and 135 for air operations. Part 139 also has Use of Aerodrome requirements.
Certificated Aerodromes 25 Part 139 Certificated Aerodromes 7 designated International Aerodromes Certification requires an Exposition Audited on an annual basis 130 Non-Certificated Aerodromes Inspected on a three yearly basis Includes Heliports
CAA & Aerodromes Part 139 aerodrome certification Required when regular air transport operations of aeroplanes with more than 30 passenger seats. Part 139 Advisory Circulars Aerodrome standards for certificated aerodromes Guidance on design standards for non- certificated aerodromes
So how does a Pilot know the Aerodrome is suitable?
AIPNZ – Volume 4 Data Aeronautical Information Publication Volume 4 Replaced the Visual Flight Guide Includes Operational Data for: Certificated aerodromes (Inc Heliports) Non-certificated aerodromes available for use
What does this mean?
Declared Distances TORA – Take-off run available The length of the runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off. TODA – Take-off distance available The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if provided. ASDA – Accelerate stop distance available Length of the take-off run available plus stopway. LDA – Landing Distance Available The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.
Location of Threshold Landing Threshold. At the extremity of a runway if there are no obstacles. The approach surface is an inclined plane that rises upwards and outwards. Displaced Landing Threshold If an object is in the approach surface and the object cannot be removed, the landing threshold will need to be displaced.
Defined Areas Clearway – An area which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height. Stopway – Area on the ground in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off. A stopway must be included within the strip. Runway End Safety Area – An area intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or over-running the runway. Starter Extension – Area available for the initial ground roll of an aircraft which does not meet the mandatory runway or strip width.
Obstacle Clear Gradient Effective Operational Lengths Take-Off Distance Available (TODA) related to the obstacle free gradient. No obstacles located within the take-off climb surface then the EOL’s normally equal the TODA. Where an obstacle is located within the take-off climb surface, the EOL’s will be equal to the distance available from the start of the take-off roll that allows for the gradients to remain clear of that obstacle.
Take off distance gradients There are four types of take off distance data used: 1:20 (5%) – Day VFR Code 1 and 2 1:40 (2.5%) – Instrument runway or night operations by aircraft 5700 kg or less 1:50 – Precision Approach 1:62.5 (1.6%) – Multi Engine – One Engine Out
Effective Operational Lengths TODA related to obstacle clear gradient 1:201:401:501:
Aerodromes – Helpful Information Advisory Circular AC139-6 and AC139-7