Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Lecture 19 Infinitive (I). Teaching Contents 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Lecture 19 Infinitive (I). Teaching Contents 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 19 Infinitive (I)

2 Teaching Contents 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive sign 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive sign

3 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.1 Forms of the infinitive There are two types of infinitive: to-infinitive and bare infinitive. The bare infinitive is just the infinitive without to, which is identical in form with the base of the verb. There are two types of infinitive: to-infinitive and bare infinitive. The bare infinitive is just the infinitive without to, which is identical in form with the base of the verb. 1) Grammatical forms 1) Grammatical forms The infinitive has neither tense distinction, nor person or number contrasts. But they can be passive and take the simple, progressive, perfective and perfective progressive forms. The infinitive has neither tense distinction, nor person or number contrasts. But they can be passive and take the simple, progressive, perfective and perfective progressive forms. e.g. I have a lot of work to do. e.g. I have a lot of work to do.

4 She had no need to be worrying. She had no need to be worrying. A negative infinitive is formed by adding not or never immediately before the infinitive sign to. A negative infinitive is formed by adding not or never immediately before the infinitive sign to. e.g. We decided not to buy that house. e.g. We decided not to buy that house. 2) To-infinitive and bare infinitive 2) To-infinitive and bare infinitive Infinitives commonly occur with to, but in some contexts it is necessary to use the bare infinitive, and in some other cases the infinitive sign is optional. Following is a summing up of the situations in which the bare infinitive is used: Infinitives commonly occur with to, but in some contexts it is necessary to use the bare infinitive, and in some other cases the infinitive sign is optional. Following is a summing up of the situations in which the bare infinitive is used:

5 a) The bare infinitive is generally used to follow the modals including need and dare. ---You must do as you are told. ---You must do as you are told. *In the case of need, it should be followed by a to- infinitive when it is used as a main verb. *In the case of need, it should be followed by a to- infinitive when it is used as a main verb. ---We needn't stay here this evening. (modal) ---We needn't stay here this evening. (modal) ---Do we need to stay here?(main verb) ---Do we need to stay here?(main verb) *In the case of dare, the infinitive sign is optional when dare functions as a main verb. *In the case of dare, the infinitive sign is optional when dare functions as a main verb. ---She daren't go there alone. (modal) ---She daren't go there alone. (modal) ---Does she dare (to) go there alone? (main verb) ---Does she dare (to) go there alone? (main verb)

6 b) The bare infinitive is used to follow semi-auxiliaries. ---I happened to be out when he called. ---I happened to be out when he called. c) The bare infinitive is used to combine with such modal idioms as would rather, would sooner, would (just) as soon, may/ might (just) as well, cannot but, cannot help but, etc. ---Since it's a fine day, we might as well walk. ---Since it's a fine day, we might as well walk. *Likewise the bare infinitive is also used to follow "would rather... than ” and “ would as soon... as". *Likewise the bare infinitive is also used to follow "would rather... than ” and “ would as soon... as". ---I ’ d just as soon go by train as drive. ---I ’ d just as soon go by train as drive. ---He would rather listen to others than talk himself. ---He would rather listen to others than talk himself.

7 d) The bare infinitive is commonly used to follow rather than and sooner than, especially when taking the initial position. ---Rather than cause trouble, he left. ---Rather than cause trouble, he left. ---Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. ---Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. *But when taking other positions, the following infinitive may be with or without to. *But when taking other positions, the following infinitive may be with or without to. ---He decided to go fishing rather than stay in the dormitory. ---He decided to go fishing rather than stay in the dormitory. ---The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. ---The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages.

8 e) The bare infinitive is often combined with a main verb to form some fixed combinations such as: make believe, let slip, let go (of), leave go (of), ect. make believe, let slip, let go (of), leave go (of), ect. --- He did all that just to make believe. --- He did all that just to make believe. f) The bare infinitive usually appears after “ causative verb + object ”.(let, make, have) ---He won't have us criticize his work. ---He won't have us criticize his work. *But when occurring in the passive, the bare infinitive should be turned into a to-infinitive. *But when occurring in the passive, the bare infinitive should be turned into a to-infinitive. ---Jim made her tell him everything. ---Jim made her tell him everything.  She was made to tell him everything.  She was made to tell him everything.

9 g)The bare infinitive usually occurs after "sense verb + object". The sense verbs include see, hear, observe, notice, feel, watch, look at and listen to. notice, feel, watch, look at and listen to. ---I didn't hear you say that. ---I didn't hear you say that. *But when occurring in the passive, it should be followed by a to-infinitive. *But when occurring in the passive, it should be followed by a to-infinitive. ---They saw him enter the building. ---They saw him enter the building.  He was seen to enter the building.  He was seen to enter the building. h) The bare infinitive is used after “ have known+object ” (看过,听过) ---I have never known that man smile. ---I have never known that man smile.

10 i) The bare infinitive often appears after help or "help + object", but to-infinitive is also possible. ---Can I help (to) lift that box? ---Can I help (to) lift that box? Usually when the bare infinitive is used, it indicates that the helper (subject) participate directly in the action. When the to-infinitive is used, it indicates that the subject does not participate directly in the action. Usually when the bare infinitive is used, it indicates that the helper (subject) participate directly in the action. When the to-infinitive is used, it indicates that the subject does not participate directly in the action. ---They helped me carry the box. ---They helped me carry the box. --- These tablets will help you to sleep. --- These tablets will help you to sleep.

11 In American English or in informal English, we often use the bare infinitive after help. In American English or in informal English, we often use the bare infinitive after help. Or a long noun phrase used as object after help. Or a long noun phrase used as object after help. --- Help the little boy at the back of the hall to carry the box --- Help the little boy at the back of the hall to carry the box help somebody do something vs. help somebody to do something help somebody do something vs. help somebody to do something 有的语法书认为动词 help 的人称主语同它的人称 宾语一起操作的,那两个不定式动词前可以省略 to ,若不是,就保留 to 。 有的语法书认为动词 help 的人称主语同它的人称 宾语一起操作的,那两个不定式动词前可以省略 to ,若不是,就保留 to 。 Please help me find a seat. 一起去找。 Please help me find a seat. 一起去找。 Please help me to find a seat. 不是一起找。 Please help me to find a seat. 不是一起找。

12 这种方法不符合英语的实际情况。在英语里不存 在如此区别。 这种方法不符合英语的实际情况。在英语里不存 在如此区别。 The term technology refers to the discoveries and inventions that help people improve their way of life. 不是 inventions 和 people 一起去改善生活方式。 The term technology refers to the discoveries and inventions that help people improve their way of life. 不是 inventions 和 people 一起去改善生活方式。 在这两个结构中,带 to 结构常见于英国英语中, 而不带 to 结构常见于美国英语中。对于学英语的 外国学生来说,在拿不准是否用 to 时,用 to 总不 会错。 在这两个结构中,带 to 结构常见于英国英语中, 而不带 to 结构常见于美国英语中。对于学英语的 外国学生来说,在拿不准是否用 to 时,用 to 总不 会错。 e.g. I ’ ll help you solve it. e.g. I ’ ll help you solve it.

13 j) The bare infinitive usually appears after the preposition except / but when there is a form of the main verb do before the preposition, which is otherwise followed by a to-infinitive. ---They did nothing but wait. ---They did nothing but wait. ---There's no choice but to wait. ---There's no choice but to wait. 几个介词后可以跟动词不定式 besides, except, but, save 几个介词后可以跟动词不定式 besides, except, but, save He does everything in the house except/but put/putting the children to bed. He does everything in the house except/but put/putting the children to bed. He can do everything except cook. He can do everything except cook.

14 Likewise, in some SVC constructions, if the subject contains a form of the main verb do, the infinitive in the complement may be with or without to. Likewise, in some SVC constructions, if the subject contains a form of the main verb do, the infinitive in the complement may be with or without to. ---The only thing I can do now is (to) go on by myself. 充当表语的动词不定式省略不定式符号 to 是有条 件的:在主语部分中必须含有动词 do 。 ---The only thing I can do now is (to) go on by myself. 充当表语的动词不定式省略不定式符号 to 是有条 件的:在主语部分中必须含有动词 do 。 e.g. What I did was learn the language. 所做过的事 … e.g. What I did was learn the language. 所做过的事 … 当 all 做主语时,如果定语从句含有 say 充当表语的 动词不定式,有时也可省略动词不定式符号 to 。 当 all 做主语时,如果定语从句含有 say 充当表语的 动词不定式,有时也可省略动词不定式符号 to 。 e.g. All they said is hurry up. e.g. All they said is hurry up. 下列句子不能省略: 下列句子不能省略: All I wanted was to help you. All I wanted was to help you.

15 k) The bare infinitive also appears after "why / why not? ”. ---Why argue with him? ---Why argue with him? ---Why not give Mary some flowers? ---Why not give Mary some flowers? l) The bare infinitive can also be used in the following idiomatic expressions: ---Go post a letter for me. ---Go post a letter for me. ---Come have a chat with me. ---Come have a chat with me.

16 L GSWE(pp. 738) 对语料统计后说 : try to do 结构是 常见的、无标志 (unmarked) 的选择,try and do 结构 是一种口语的形式, 在正式的书面语中通常不出 现, 即使在口语中,try to do 的结构也更常见; try and do 更常见于英式英语。 L GSWE(pp. 738) 对语料统计后说 : try to do 结构是 常见的、无标志 (unmarked) 的选择,try and do 结构 是一种口语的形式, 在正式的书面语中通常不出 现, 即使在口语中,try to do 的结构也更常见; try and do 更常见于英式英语。 The discouse choice is not available when the verb “ try ” occurs with inflections such as “– ing ” or “– ed ”. The discouse choice is not available when the verb “ try ” occurs with inflections such as “– ing ” or “– ed ”. She was trying to prove a point. She was trying to prove a point. *She was trying and proving a point. *She was trying and proving a point. Do you remember when we tried to make fluffy dogs? Do you remember when we tried to make fluffy dogs? * Do you remember when we tried and made fluffy dogs? * Do you remember when we tried and made fluffy dogs?

17 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive sign 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive sign 1) Infinitive sign used alone 1) Infinitive sign used alone a) To avoid repetition, the infinitive sign can sometimes be used alone, that is, the base in the to- infinitive can be omitted, sometimes together with its complementation. This kind of omission is quite common in informal style. a) To avoid repetition, the infinitive sign can sometimes be used alone, that is, the base in the to- infinitive can be omitted, sometimes together with its complementation. This kind of omission is quite common in informal style. ---You may go if you wish to. ---You may go if you wish to. b) If the base of the infinitive is the verb be or have, it should be retained, even though its complementation is omitted. b) If the base of the infinitive is the verb be or have, it should be retained, even though its complementation is omitted. --- Aren't you the manager? No, I don't want to be. --- Aren't you the manager? No, I don't want to be.

18 . 在 like, love, try, want, hope, hate, wish 等动词后 必须有 to , to 代表整个动词不定式短语。. 在 like, love, try, want, hope, hate, wish 等动词后 必须有 to , to 代表整个动词不定式短语。 -- Would you like to come to a party? -- Would you like to come to a party? -- I ’ d love to. -- I ’ d love to. --Did you get a ticket? --Did you get a ticket? – No, I tried to, but there wasn ’ t any left. – No, I tried to, but there wasn ’ t any left. Want, like 用在 what, if, when, as 引导的从句中时, to 则常常省去。 Want, like 用在 what, if, when, as 引导的从句中时, to 则常常省去。 e.g. Come when you want. e.g. Come when you want.

19 c) In some contexts, both the to-infinitive and its complementation can be omitted so that no trace remains of the infinitive. c) In some contexts, both the to-infinitive and its complementation can be omitted so that no trace remains of the infinitive. ---You will make it if you try (to). ---You will make it if you try (to). 2) Ellipsis of the infinitive sign 2) Ellipsis of the infinitive sign a. When two to-infinitives are coordinated by and or or, the second to is usually omitted. a. When two to-infinitives are coordinated by and or or, the second to is usually omitted. ---I intend to call on him and discuss this question again. ---I intend to call on him and discuss this question again. b. When there is a contrastive meaning, the second to must be retained. b. When there is a contrastive meaning, the second to must be retained. ---To be or not to be, that is the question. ---To be or not to be, that is the question.

20 c. The infinitive sign cannot be omitted if there is no coordinator between the coordinate infinitives. c. The infinitive sign cannot be omitted if there is no coordinator between the coordinate infinitives. ---Please go to the seaside to swim, to get suntanned. ---Please go to the seaside to swim, to get suntanned. d. Nor can any infinitive sign be omitted if a sequence of infinitives occur in a parallel construction. d. Nor can any infinitive sign be omitted if a sequence of infinitives occur in a parallel construction. ---The student must learn to read extensively, to analyze what he reads and to summarize the main points presented. ---The student must learn to read extensively, to analyze what he reads and to summarize the main points presented. 3) Infinitive to or preposition to If it is possible to put after to a noun or a noun equivalent, it proves to be a preposition; otherwise, it is an infinitive sign. Following is a summary of the collocations in which the item to is a preposition, not an infinitive sign: If it is possible to put after to a noun or a noun equivalent, it proves to be a preposition; otherwise, it is an infinitive sign. Following is a summary of the collocations in which the item to is a preposition, not an infinitive sign:

21 a) verb + preposition to, e.g. add to, attest to, contribute to, agree to a) verb + preposition to, e.g. add to, attest to, contribute to, agree to b) verb + noun / pronoun + preposition to: ascribe … to, devote ….to b) verb + noun / pronoun + preposition to: ascribe … to, devote ….to c) verb + -ed participle + preposition to: be accustomed to, be reconciled to, be reduced to c) verb + -ed participle + preposition to: be accustomed to, be reconciled to, be reduced to d) verb + adverb particle + preposition to (also called phrasal prepositional verb):get round to, look forward to d) verb + adverb particle + preposition to (also called phrasal prepositional verb):get round to, look forward to

22 e) adjective + preposition to: adjacent to, preferable to, similar to, sensitive to e) adjective + preposition to: adjacent to, preferable to, similar to, sensitive to f) noun + preposition to: key to, answer to f) noun + preposition to: key to, answer to g) complex preposition ending in to: in addition to, with a view to, with an eye to g) complex preposition ending in to: in addition to, with a view to, with an eye to


Download ppt "Lecture 19 Infinitive (I). Teaching Contents 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.1 Forms of the infinitive 19.2 Some few notes on the use of the infinitive."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google