Presentation on theme: "Adverbial Clauses Adverbial clauses of time Adverbial clauses of cause Adverbial clauses of purpose and result Adverbial clauses of condition Adverbial."— Presentation transcript:
Adverbial Clauses Adverbial clauses of time Adverbial clauses of cause Adverbial clauses of purpose and result Adverbial clauses of condition Adverbial clauses pf concession
Adverbial clauses of time Adverbial clauses of time introduced by when, while, as, before, after, and until can be described in terms of “same time’, “earlier time”, and “later time” Same time By “same time” here we mean the happening of two simultaneous events. If the two actions are reiterative or habitual, the temporal clause can be introduced by when-whenever and the verbs occur in the simple present or the simple past in both the adverbial and the main clause. The habitual use of a when-/whenever-clause is interchangeable with an if-clause used in the same sense. When he goes to town, he always visits his aunt. She always felt ill when she ate oyster.
When and while If the two actions are durative and last for an equal length if time, the temporal clause can be introduced by when or whenever and the verbs in both the adverbial and the main clause may occur in the simple past or the past progressive. It is also possible to use as long as to spotlight the exactly equal length of time.
When and while The wind blew hard when the rain poured down. While I read, she sang. I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano. He worked as long as we played. The children were happy as long as the game continued.
When, as soon as, just as, the instant, the moment, directly, immediately In a complex sentence denoting two simultaneous short actions, the temporal clause may be introduced by when, as soon as, just as, the instant, the moment, directly, immediately. It is also possible to use hardly/scarcely…when and no sooner…than The dog barked when it heard a noise. She informed her husband as soon as she arrived home. The instant I saw him, I knew he was my lost brother. I’ll tell you directly he comes. Tell me immediately you have any news.
Hardly/scarcely…when and no sooner…than I had hardly left when the quarrel started. The doctor had scarcely got into bed when he was called out again. We had no sooner sat down than we found it it was time to go. Hardly had I left when the quarrel started. Scarcely had the doctor got into bed when he was called out again. No sooner had we sat down we found it was time to go.
Unless and if… not An unless –clause can denote a real condition as well as an unreal condition. In a clause of real condition, unless can sometimes be replaced by if…not. However, this kind of replacement is impossible when an unless –clause is itself in the negative or denotes an unreal condition.
Unless you’ve got a doctor’s note to say you’ve passed the medical, they won’t allow you to go on the activity holiday. Unless they all retreat, the casualty count could be horrendous. I wouldn’t be willing to help you out again unless you paid me. Unless 不是总可以替代 if not, 尤其是 if 之后的否定条件与 已知事实相反时以及在大多数疑问句中， unless 不可以替 代 if not. You would be happier unless you had such high expectations.(×) You would be happier if you did not have such high expectations. What time shall we leave for the theater unless he turns up? (×) What time shall we leave for the theatre if he does not turns up?
Though and Although He did not light the fire though/although it was cold. He insisted on doing it although I warned him not to. I forgot my appointment even though my secretary reminded me. Even although (×) 当让步分句指一种臆想的情况时， 通常用 tough, 而不用 although 。 Though all the world were against me, I should still hold to my opinion. Though everybody desert you, I will not.
Though and Although In an inverted sentence ： Difficult though the task was, they managed to complete it in time. Clever though he was, he failed the exam. Though can act as a conjunct in informal English, but although can not. He will probably agree; you never know, though. He is a dangerous element; there is no reason, though, to shoot him. He said he would come; he did not, though. He did not tell me where he had been, but I knew it, though.
Adverbial clauses of cause Adverbial clauses of cause are generally introduced by because, for, since, as, now that, seeing that, etc. As has been mentioned before, the conjunction for sometimes behaves like a coordinator, but at other times it functions as a subordinator. In the present section we are going to compare the use of for as a subordinator with that of because.
For /because Both Because and for can denote “direct reason” and “indirect reason”.By “direct reason” is meant the reason given as a cause of, or an explanation for, a fact, and “indirect reason” refers to the reason given as an explanation for the speaker’s opinion about a fact. I hurried because/for it was getting dark. It must be very late, because/ for the streets are quite deserted.
Because /for In denoting cause or “direct reason”, because and for are different in use in the following ways: First, a because-clause is mobile; it may appear either before or after the main clause, whereas a for-clause can only follow rather than precede the main clause. Secondly, a because-clause can stand alone as a response to a why-question, while a for-clause cannot.
For/because Thirdly, because can be negated by not or to be modified by the adverb; it also admits of coordination by some correlatives such as “not because…but because”, while for cannot be used this way. The doctor looks tired and sleepy simply because he sat up all night with the patient. The doctor looks tired and sleepy not because he is not feeling well, but because he sat up all the night with the patient. Finally, a because-clause can function as the focal element of a cleft-sentence, whereas a for-clause cannot.
For /because The conjunction for, which is also a coordinator, can often be used to introduced an independent clause, whereas because, which is always a subordinator, can only introduce a dependent clause which cannot stand alone unless it is used to answer a why-question. When I saw her in the river, I was frightened. For at that point the currents were dangerous. He was glad to go, for the hostess had been especially good to him. Something fell in, for I heard a splash. 连词 for 具有并列连词的某些特征， 所以当连接两个分句时， 按照正式的书写规则通常要在 for- 分句之前用逗号隔开。
Since/as Since/ as –clause clause express a kind of information supposed to be already known to the listen and generally is put at the beginning at the sentence, which is different from for-clause. As Chile is a long, narrow country, the temperature varies considerably from north to south. Since he had a certain talent for composition, his English master encouraged him to write little pieces for the college magazine.
In that / now that /seeing that Seeing that means “in view of the fact that” Seeing that you live next door to Mr. Blake, you ought to be able to recognize her. Now that combines the meaning of cause with a temporal sense. Now that John is poor and unfortunate, his friends have left him in the lurch. As for the use of in that, it is restricted to formal writing only. I am in a slightly awkward position in that he is not arriving until the 10 th.
So that vs so…that While a so that –clause can denote purpose and result, a so… that –clause denotes result only. When there is a pause in speech or a comma in writing before a so that –clause, the clause mostly denotes result; otherwise, it expresses purpose. When there is a modal in a so that –clause, the clause mostly denotes purpose; if not, it expresses result. A so that –clause denoting purpose can take either the initial or the end position, whereas a so that-clause denoting result can only appear at the end of the sentence.
So that /so…that We all arrived at eight, so that the meeting began promptly. We’ll come at eight so that the meeting can begin early. I’am going to the lecture early so that I’ll get a good seat. I went to the lecture early, so that I got a good seat.
Exercise: error correction 1. For I have never met him, I can’t tell you what he looks like. 2. He didn’t attend the meeting, not for he thought it was unimportant, but for he had too much work to do. 3. I was writing a letter while the telephone rang. 4. Sneer unkindly although you may, John is very popular. 5.Now that he was ill, he was excused from the meeting.