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Ch 11. Ch. 11 Sec 1  1700s – France considered most advanced country of Europe ◦ Center of Enlightenment ◦ Large population and prosperous foreign.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 11. Ch. 11 Sec 1  1700s – France considered most advanced country of Europe ◦ Center of Enlightenment ◦ Large population and prosperous foreign."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 11

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3 Ch. 11 Sec 1

4  1700s – France considered most advanced country of Europe ◦ Center of Enlightenment ◦ Large population and prosperous foreign trade ◦ Culture admired by many

5  Appearances can be deceiving ◦ Great unrest in France  High prices  High taxes  Disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment

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7  Caste system remained from days of feudalism  Three social classes ◦ First Estate ◦ Second Estate ◦ Third Estate  Privileged Classes ◦ First and Second  Access to high government offices  Exemptions from paying taxes

8  Clergy of Roman Catholic Church ◦ 1% of population ◦ Owned 10% of land ◦ Provided education and relief services to the poor ◦ 2% of income went to the government (taxes) ◦ Scorned Enlightenment ideas

9  Rich nobles whose wealth consisted of land ◦ Own 20% of the land ◦ Make up 2% of the population ◦ Paid almost no taxes ◦ Scorned Enlightenment ideas  Radical ideas that threatened status and power

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11  97% of the population  Consisted of three groups ◦ Bourgeoisie  Merchants and artisans  Well-educated  Believed in Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality  Wealthy, but paid high taxes

12 ◦ Workers  Cooks, servants  Poorer than bourgeoisie  Low wages  Frequently out of work  Often went hungry

13  Peasants ◦ Largest group in Third Estate  80% of population – 21 million people ◦ Lost half of income to other estates  Dues to nobles  Tithes to the church  Taxes to the kings agents ◦ Resented clergy and nobles for privileges/special treatment

14  Enlightenment Ideas ◦ Views on gov’t spread among 3 rd Estate  Question structure of society  Equality, liberty, and democracy ◦ Inspired by American Revolution ◦ Discuss ideas of Rousseau and Voltaire

15  Economic Troubles ◦ Prosperous economy was failing  Population expanded  Taxes made it impossible to do business in France  Cost of living rose  Bad weather caused crop failures – prices of food doubled

16 ◦ Gov’t went into debt  Extravagant spending by king and queen  Louis XVI inherited debt  Borrowed to help Americans against British

17  A Weak Leader ◦ Louis XVI indecisive ◦ Paid little attention to details of governing ◦ Married Marie Antoinette – Austrian royalty ◦ Marie spent $ on frivolous items ◦ Louis didn’t deal with $ issues til France was bankrupt ◦ Estates General called when Louis calls for more taxes

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19  National Assembly ◦ 3 rd estate wanted Assembly to meet as one  Each person have one vote  Benefits 3 rd Estate ◦ King orders Estates General to follow old rules

20  Abbe Sieyes ◦ Clergy member sympathetic to 3 rd Estate ◦ Suggest 3 rd estate become National Assembly ◦ Pass laws and reforms in name of French people

21  Delegates agree ◦ End absolute monarchy ◦ Beginning of representative gov’t ◦ Tennis Court Oath – June 17, 1789  Would not leave court until constitution formed  Joined by sympathetic nobles and clergy ◦ Louis XVI responds  Stations mercenaries outside Versailles

22  Rumors ◦ People suggest Louis will dismiss Nat’l Assembly by force ◦ Others – foreign troops will massacre citizens

23  July 14, 1789 ◦ Mob storms the Bastille, a Paris prison  Search for gunpowder and weapons ◦ Overwhelm guards and seize control  Kill prison commander and guards  March down streets with heads on pikes  Symbolic act of revolution ◦ Similar to July 4 in USA

24  Rebellion spreads from Paris to countryside ◦ Rumors that nobles hired outlaws to terrorize peasants  Wave of panic sets in ◦ Great Fear  Peasants become armed outlaws  Break into homes of nobles

25  August 4, 1789 ◦ Late-night meeting of the National Assembly ◦ Do away with privileges of the 1 st and 2 nd Estates  Make commoners equal to nobles and clergy  Old Regime is dead

26  Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen ◦ Aug 26, 1789 ◦ All men are free and equal in rights  Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression ◦ Appointment to public office based on talent ◦ Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech and religion

27  Bread Riots ◦ Oct. 4, 1789 ◦ Women riot over price of bread ◦ March on Versailles ◦ Demand Nat’l Assembly be recognized by Louis XVI ◦ Demand king and queen return to Paris

28  National Assembly reforms the Church ◦ Took over Church lands  Sale of lands helped to pay off French debt ◦ Church officials and priests had to be elected  Paid as state officials  Offended Catholics in France ◦ Church loses power and $

29  June 1791 ◦ Tries to leave for Austrian Netherlands ◦ Recognized and brought back to Paris  Portrait on money

30  A Limited Monarchy ◦ New constitution - Sept 1791  Limited constitutional monarchy  Strips king of much of his authority ◦ Creates Legislative Assembly  Power to create laws  Approve or prevent war declared by the king

31  Legislative Assembly designed to be conservative ◦ Only “active” citizens could vote  Men over 25 that paid a certain amount in taxes  Only wealthy people would serve ◦ Local gov’t in charge of taxation

32  Food shortages and gov’t debt remain  Legislative Assembly splits into three groups ◦ Radicals ◦ Moderates ◦ Conservatives

33  Sat on the left of the hall  Opposed idea of a monarchy  Wanted a lot of changes to be made

34  Sat in the center  Wanted some changes ◦ Not as many as radicals

35  Sat on the right  Upheld idea of limited monarchy ◦ Wanted few changes

36  Spring 1792 - Radicals create commune ◦ City council run by popular vote ◦ Take king captive ◦ Force Legislative Assembly to suspend monarchy

37  Sans-culottes ◦ Wore long pants  Identified as ordinary patriots ◦ Wage-earners and shopkeepers ◦ Wanted greater changes in gov’t ◦ Lower food prices and end to food shortages

38  European leaders watch changes in France ◦ Fear revolts will break out in own countries ◦ Austria and Prussia take action  Urge French to restore absolute monarchy ◦ April 1792 – France declares war

39  Summer 1792 ◦ Enemy armies advanced on Paris  Prussian general threatens to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed  Aug 10 ◦ Parisians respond violently  20,000 men and women invade palace where royal family is staying  Massacre guards and imprison Louis, and Marie Antoinette

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41  French troops in Paris sent to help in field ◦ Rumors spread  Supporters of king in prison might break out and seize city ◦ Citizens raid prisons and massacre over 1,000  Royalists, nobles, and clergy

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43  National Convention – Sept 21, 1792 ◦ Ruling body of France  Chosen to draft new constitution  Lawyers, professionals, property owners  2/3 under age of 45 ◦ Abolished monarchy ◦ Declared France a republic ◦ Adult male citizens granted right to vote  No vote for women

44  Political Social Clubs form in Paris ◦ The Girondins  Represent areas outside Paris ◦ The Mountain  Represent radicals in Paris

45  Jacobins Take Control ◦ Radical political organization ◦ Wanted to execute king  Ensure he was not a rallying point for opponents of republic

46  Jacobins influence Nat’l Convention ◦ Try Louis for treason ◦ Sentenced to death  Jan. 21, 1793 – beheaded by guillotine  Thousands of French oppose Jacobins ◦ Horrified by beheadings of Louis XVI

47  Robespierre Assumes Control ◦ Maximilien Robespierre  Jacobin leader  “Republic of virtue”  Try to wipe out every trace of monarchy and nobility

48  Leader of Committee of Public Safety ◦ Decided who was enemy of the republic ◦ Protect France from enemies  Reign of Terror ◦ July 1793 – July 1794 – governs as dictator ◦ Executes Marie Antoinette ◦ 40,000 French executed  16,000 by guillotine  85% were from 3 rd Estate

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50  Democratic republic composed of good citizens  Formed by good education ◦ Primary education for all  Abolished slavery in French colonies  Tried to control prices of essential goods  De-Christianization

51  Active participants ◦ No official power  Observed sessions of Nat’l Convention ◦ Made demands  Society for Revolutionary Republican Women in Paris ◦ Asserted readiness to defend republic

52  France’s Citizen Army ◦ 1793 – GB, Holland and Spain join Austria and Prussia against French ◦ Feb. 1793 – National Convention starts draft  300,000 citizens ages 18 – 40  1794 – 800,000 soldiers, including women  Pushed back invading army ◦ Conquered Austrian Netherlands

53  Robespierre attacks other revolutionaries ◦ Less radical than Robespierre  July 1794 – National Convention turns against Robespierre ◦ Arrested and executed July 28 ◦ Public opinion shifts to the right

54  1795 – National Convention drafts new gov’t ◦ 3 rd since 1789  More conservative ◦ Restricted power of CoPS ◦ Churches reopened ◦ New constitution created

55  Two legislative houses ◦ Council of 500  Drafted laws ◦ Council of Elders  250 members  Accepted or rejected laws ◦ Members chosen by electors  Owned or rented property worth certain value  30,000 people

56  Committee of 5 leaders ◦ Council of Elders chose from list from Council of 500 ◦ Reactionary and corrupt ◦ Many political enemies ◦ Economic issues ◦ Relied heavily on support of military


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