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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution and Napoleon"— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution and Napoleon


3 The French Revolution Begins
Ch. 11 Sec 1

4 Setting the Stage 1700s – France considered most advanced country of Europe Center of Enlightenment Large population and prosperous foreign trade Culture admired by many

5 Appearances can be deceiving
Great unrest in France High prices High taxes Disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment


7 The Old Regime Caste system remained from days of feudalism
Three social classes First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Privileged Classes First and Second Access to high government offices Exemptions from paying taxes

8 First Estate Clergy of Roman Catholic Church 1% of population
Owned 10% of land Provided education and relief services to the poor 2% of income went to the government (taxes) Scorned Enlightenment ideas

9 Second Estate Rich nobles whose wealth consisted of land
Own 20% of the land Make up 2% of the population Paid almost no taxes Scorned Enlightenment ideas Radical ideas that threatened status and power


11 The Third Estate 97% of the population Consisted of three groups
Bourgeoisie Merchants and artisans Well-educated Believed in Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality Wealthy, but paid high taxes

12 Workers Cooks, servants Poorer than bourgeoisie Low wages Frequently out of work Often went hungry

13 Peasants Largest group in Third Estate
80% of population – 21 million people Lost half of income to other estates Dues to nobles Tithes to the church Taxes to the kings agents Resented clergy and nobles for privileges/special treatment

14 Enlightenment Ideas The Forces of Change
Views on gov’t spread among 3rd Estate Question structure of society Equality, liberty, and democracy Inspired by American Revolution Discuss ideas of Rousseau and Voltaire

15 Economic Troubles Prosperous economy was failing Population expanded
Taxes made it impossible to do business in France Cost of living rose Bad weather caused crop failures – prices of food doubled

16 Gov’t went into debt Extravagant spending by king and queen Louis XVI inherited debt Borrowed to help Americans against British

17 A Weak Leader Louis XVI indecisive Paid little attention to details of governing Married Marie Antoinette – Austrian royalty Marie spent $ on frivolous items Louis didn’t deal with $ issues til France was bankrupt Estates General called when Louis calls for more taxes


19 National Assembly Revolution Dawns
3rd estate wanted Assembly to meet as one Each person have one vote Benefits 3rd Estate King orders Estates General to follow old rules

20 Abbe Sieyes Clergy member sympathetic to 3rd Estate
Suggest 3rd estate become National Assembly Pass laws and reforms in name of French people

21 Delegates agree End absolute monarchy
Beginning of representative gov’t Tennis Court Oath – June 17, 1789 Would not leave court until constitution formed Joined by sympathetic nobles and clergy Louis XVI responds Stations mercenaries outside Versailles

22 Storming the Bastille Rumors
People suggest Louis will dismiss Nat’l Assembly by force Others – foreign troops will massacre citizens

23 Symbolic act of revolution
July 14, 1789 Mob storms the Bastille, a Paris prison Search for gunpowder and weapons Overwhelm guards and seize control Kill prison commander and guards March down streets with heads on pikes Symbolic act of revolution Similar to July 4 in USA

24 A Great Fear Sweeps France
Rebellion spreads from Paris to countryside Rumors that nobles hired outlaws to terrorize peasants Wave of panic sets in Great Fear Peasants become armed outlaws Break into homes of nobles

25 End of the Old Regime August 4, 1789
Late-night meeting of the National Assembly Do away with privileges of the 1st and 2nd Estates Make commoners equal to nobles and clergy Old Regime is dead

26 Rights of Man Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Aug 26, 1789 All men are free and equal in rights Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression Appointment to public office based on talent Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech and religion

27 Bread Riots Oct. 4, 1789 Women riot over price of bread
March on Versailles Demand Nat’l Assembly be recognized by Louis XVI Demand king and queen return to Paris

28 A State Controlled Church
National Assembly reforms the Church Took over Church lands Sale of lands helped to pay off French debt Church officials and priests had to be elected Paid as state officials Offended Catholics in France Church loses power and $

29 Louis Tries to Escape June 1791
Tries to leave for Austrian Netherlands Recognized and brought back to Paris Portrait on money

30 Conflicting Goals Cause Divisions
A Limited Monarchy New constitution - Sept 1791 Limited constitutional monarchy Strips king of much of his authority Creates Legislative Assembly Power to create laws Approve or prevent war declared by the king

31 Legislative Assembly designed to be conservative
Only “active” citizens could vote Men over 25 that paid a certain amount in taxes Only wealthy people would serve Local gov’t in charge of taxation

32 Factions Split France Food shortages and gov’t debt remain
Legislative Assembly splits into three groups Radicals Moderates Conservatives

33 Radicals Sat on the left of the hall Opposed idea of a monarchy
Wanted a lot of changes to be made

34 Moderates Sat in the center Wanted some changes
Not as many as radicals

35 Conservatives Sat on the right Upheld idea of limited monarchy
Wanted few changes

36 Rise of the Paris Commune
Spring Radicals create commune City council run by popular vote Take king captive Force Legislative Assembly to suspend monarchy

37 Sans-culottes Wore long pants Wage-earners and shopkeepers
Identified as ordinary patriots Wage-earners and shopkeepers Wanted greater changes in gov’t Lower food prices and end to food shortages

38 France at War European leaders watch changes in France
Fear revolts will break out in own countries Austria and Prussia take action Urge French to restore absolute monarchy April 1792 – France declares war

39 France at War Summer 1792 Enemy armies advanced on Paris Aug 10
Prussian general threatens to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed Aug 10 Parisians respond violently 20,000 men and women invade palace where royal family is staying Massacre guards and imprison Louis, and Marie Antoinette

40 Radical Revolution and Reaction
Ch. 11 Sec 2

41 September Massacres French troops in Paris sent to help in field
Rumors spread Supporters of king in prison might break out and seize city Citizens raid prisons and massacre over 1,000 Royalists, nobles, and clergy


43 The First Republic National Convention – Sept 21, 1792
Ruling body of France Chosen to draft new constitution Lawyers, professionals, property owners 2/3 under age of 45 Abolished monarchy Declared France a republic Adult male citizens granted right to vote No vote for women

44 The Fate of the King Political Social Clubs form in Paris
The Girondins Represent areas outside Paris The Mountain Represent radicals in Paris

45 Jacobins Take Control Radical political organization
Wanted to execute king Ensure he was not a rallying point for opponents of republic

46 Jacobins influence Nat’l Convention
Try Louis for treason Sentenced to death Jan. 21, 1793 – beheaded by guillotine Thousands of French oppose Jacobins Horrified by beheadings of Louis XVI

47 Terror Grips France Robespierre Assumes Control Maximilien Robespierre
Jacobin leader “Republic of virtue” Try to wipe out every trace of monarchy and nobility

48 Leader of Committee of Public Safety
Decided who was enemy of the republic Protect France from enemies Reign of Terror July 1793 – July 1794 – governs as dictator Executes Marie Antoinette 40,000 French executed 16,000 by guillotine 85% were from 3rd Estate


50 The Republic of Virtue Democratic republic composed of good citizens
Formed by good education Primary education for all Abolished slavery in French colonies Tried to control prices of essential goods De-Christianization

51 Role of Women Active participants
No official power Observed sessions of Nat’l Convention Made demands Society for Revolutionary Republican Women in Paris Asserted readiness to defend republic

52 Rise of the revolutionary army
France’s Citizen Army 1793 – GB, Holland and Spain join Austria and Prussia against French Feb – National Convention starts draft 300,000 citizens ages 18 – 40 1794 – 800,000 soldiers, including women Pushed back invading army Conquered Austrian Netherlands

53 End of the Terror Robespierre attacks other revolutionaries
Less radical than Robespierre July 1794 – National Convention turns against Robespierre Arrested and executed July 28 Public opinion shifts to the right

54 New Government 1795 – National Convention drafts new gov’t
3rd since 1789 More conservative Restricted power of CoPS Churches reopened New constitution created

55 Two legislative houses
Council of 500 Drafted laws Council of Elders 250 members Accepted or rejected laws Members chosen by electors Owned or rented property worth certain value 30,000 people

56 The Directory Committee of 5 leaders
Council of Elders chose from list from Council of 500 Reactionary and corrupt Many political enemies Economic issues Relied heavily on support of military

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