6 Yalta CONFERENCE February 1945 Conference near the end of WWIISome tensions between US and USSRUSSR increases influence in eastern Europe
7 Truman Becomes President “I don't know if you fellows ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.”- Truman on becoming PresidentDifferent style than FDRTruman is more direct
8 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Final wartime conferenceBig Three (changes)England = AttleeUSA = TrumanUSSR = StalinStalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe – yet never happened (set up satellite nations)
9 Containment Policy George Kennan, career Foreign Service Officer Formulated the policy of “containment”:US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread.US would “contain” communism where it already existed.Kennan later became critical of how the US implemented containment
10 Truman DoctrineUS will provide military and economic support to countries that need it to fight communismVery anti-isolationistAnother key piece of US Cold War policyWas the cold war inevitable?Did any one event really take the us and ussr down a divisive path they couldn’t come back from
11 The Cold War Progresses… History can help us see how we get from point A to point B…Bay of Pigs InvasionEnd of World War IIAB“Iron Curtain”Marshall PlanBerlin Airlift
12 The Iron Curtain Winston Churchill coined this term. Famous speech on March 5, 1946 at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2PUIQpAEAQ
13 Churchill’s Warning…Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe.Helped change public perception of the USSR
14 Marshall Plan – What it was Suggested by US Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947 to help allies and axis countries in EuropeIn 1947, Europe was “a rubble heap…a breading ground of pestilence and hate.”- Winston ChurchillWhy were Americans concerned about this?Humanitarian concernsDon’t repeat the mistakes after World War IAmerican businesses need European marketsSpread of communism
16 Marshall Plan Effects Any European country could participate Ally or Axis countryGreatly benefitted western EuropeHelped it rebuildUSSR and its eastern European “satellite countries” refused to participateDeepened the rift between west and east
17 Division of GermanyThe Allies decided to divide Germany into 4 zones after the war.Also, the capital of Berlin was divided into 4 sectors.SEE next 2 slides
18 Problem with Berlin? Berlin was in the Soviet Sector. Stalin was not happy with a “small piece” of democracy in Eastern Europe.What did he do?
19 Berlin BlockadeJune 1948, Stalin attempts to starve West Berliners into submission.All rail and street access was blocked.
20 Berlin AirliftAmerican and British planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days.Stalin lifted the Blockade by May 1949.
22 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO was established by a treaty in 1949This organization established a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.Original members were:United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.Greece (1952), West Germany (1955) join also
23 The Warsaw Pact Communist Response to NATO. Signed on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, PolandMilitary treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression.Original Members:Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Rumania, the USSR, and the Czechoslovak Republic.
24 The Cold War Escalates Arms Race https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXEI3AzI-es
27 Struggle for ChinaMao Zedong wanted China to become a communist state after WW II.Chang Kai Shek fought to stop the communists but was unsuccessful.
28 realized China was lost? TaiwanChiang Kai-shek, retreated from Mainland China and moved his government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan's largest city.Taiwan made a claim they were separate from China.Still a problem area today.What did we do when werealized China was lost?
29 Measures to Maintain American Military Power Military levels remained high1948 revived Selective Service ActAtomic Energy CommissionNational Security Act 1947-Dept of defense (army/navy), NSC,NSC-68 Report (1950) – US must take initiative (expansion of Kennan’s containment policy)CIAIran CoupUS supported the overthrow of the Iranian gov’tBegan many years of hostile feelings between US and Iran rebels
33 The Korean War (1950-1953) * Visions of stable,unified Korea Neither side left – 38th parallelJune 27, 1950UN agreed to operationUSSR boycotting Security council so no veto powerGeneral Douglas McArthurLimited mobilization for war in USEconomic growth thwarted a recession/depressionFears of Communism reinforcedTruman gave permission to MacArthur to push northChina entered war and UN offensive stalledTruman wanted to avoid world warTruman-MacArthur Controversy – MacArthur fired for criticizing Truman’s decision not to attack China
34 Cold War in America (1945-1960) Soviet domination of Eastern Europe Was there reason to be concerned? YES!1950’s Red ScareSoviet domination of Eastern EuropeChina turned Communist – 1 billion people!80,000 Americans members of Communist party
35 Loyalty Review Board Set up by President Truman in March 1947. Purpose?Investigate Federal government employees and dismiss those disloyal to US212 dismissed1950 – McCarran Internal Security Act passed – Communist orgs must register and make public their records
36 House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 1947= House of RepresentativesInvestigate Communist influence in the movie industryHollywood Ten – BlacklistedAlger Hiss Perjury trial – lied under oath and was a communist spy – convicted by R. Nixon
37 The RosenbergsAmerican Communists who were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American nuclear bomb to the Soviet Union.The couple were executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953.
38 McCarthyismSenator Joe McCarthy became the most famous anti-Communist activist.Used the issue to help win re-election in 1950.Made one unsupported accusation after another.He would bully witnesses.McCarthyism = tactics used to advance your career.
39 McCarthy’s DownfallAt first, no one, not even President Eisenhower challenged himIn 1954 McCarthy made accusations against the US Army.Led to televised Senate investigation; and American people did not like McCarthy’s tactics. His popularity dropped greatly.
40 1948 Election – Greatest Upset Harry TrumanHOW?Southern Democrats,Catholics, Jews, and SurprisinglyMid-western and westernfarmersStrom ThurmondGeorge Dewey
42 Truman’s Domestic Policy SuccessesFailuresConsumers flooded markets led to great INFLATIONLabor unrestCompetition for jobsReturn to Conservatism – 1946 Congressional ElectionsTaft Hartley Act – ExplainCouldn’t get national health insurance passedCouldn’t get more civil rights legis, polling taxes, etcEconomic boom due to people’s increase in savings – no depressionTruman’s Fair DealRaised minimum wageExpanded SSANational Housing ActDesegregated militaryEnd to discrim in hiring fedHard line on communism
43 Change in LeadersThe early 1950s saw a change in leaders in both the US and USSR.USA = Dwight Eisenhower wins the election of 1952.VP – Richard NixonChecker’s speechUSSR = Nikita Khruschev takes over when Stalin dies in 1953.
44 Hydrogen BombUS exploded the 1st H-bomb on November 1, 1952 in South Pacific.That bomb completely destroyed one island and left a crater 175 feet deep.Russians exploded one in August of 1953.
46 Brinkmanship Massive Retaliation Defined as willingness to push nation to the “brink” of nuclear war to keep peace.Policy advocated by John Foster Dulles; Secretary of State.
47 Race to control space was on! Space RaceOn October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I.The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball.Orbited the earth in 98 minutes.Race to control space was on!
48 U-2 IncidentU-2 was designed to be high altitude reconnaissance plane.CIA used these to spy on USSR and one was shot down on May 1, 1960.
49 Francis Gary Powers Recruited by CIA to fly spy missions. Shot down in U2 over USSR and convicted of espionage.Exchanged for a KGB colonel the US had captured.
50 What’s cuba like?What’s us relationship w/ cuba like?Why?What happened with the Bay of Pigswhat do you remember from the book?
51 Bay of Pigs InvasionFidel Castro had risen to power in Cuba (supporter of communism)WhatCIA planned a covert operation to overthrow Castro with help from Cuban rebelsHuge failure – hundreds of rebels were killed or captured, and Cuban people did not join in
52 Bay of Pigs Invasion Effects Made the United States look aggressive and weakInvading a foreign country and failingCuba and USSR became closer
57 Cuban Missile Crisis WHAT: A US spy plane saw that the USSR was installing missiles in Cuba that could hit the United StatesOver the next two weeks “the smell of burning hung in the air”- KhrushchevThe US decided to block more missile shipments from entering Cuba – “quarantine”and tried to pressure the USSR to remove the missilesThe USSR removing the missiles ended the crisis along with guarantee by US not to invade Cuba and agreement to remove missiles from Turkey
58 Cuban Missile Crisis EFFECTS: Maybe the closet the world ever came to endingLed to more open negotiations between the US and USSRThey recognized each other’s powerThe arms race and Cold War still continued thoughAmericans became more proud of their country (and their president)
59 Cuban Missile Crisis Reaction You are an American citizen during the Cuban Missile Crisis. You have just seen President Kennedy’s speech describing the crisis.Write a journal entry about your reactionFor example, you could discussHow are you feeling and what steps you are taking?What do you think might happen?What do you want the government to do?How’s to blame for this?
60 Vietnam EscalationTruman supported French in the 1st Indochina war (French vs. Vietnam)Eisenhower did not help French, but when Vietnam became independent, it supported the South VietnamKennedy and Johnson support South
61 Conclusion… Series of Crisis in the Middle East in the 1950s Establishment of IsraelIranSuez CrisisCubaMoving into the 1960’s, the Cold War was really starting to heat up with no end in sight.The Cold War will continue in the 1960s with the world moving closer to an open conflict between the US and USSR.
62 Other Cold War Military Conflicts --- Containment 3rd World CountriesDatesConflictsVietnamEisenhower avoids military interventionIsrael1948- present dayArab Israeli WarsIran1953CIA helped Shah of Iran, Pahlevi take powerEgypt1956 – Dulles withdrew USA’s offer to assist in building Aswan Dam across the NileSuez Canal Crisis – US joined UN in pressuring French and British to withdraw from EgyptCubaHungarian Rev19591956Fidel Castro rises to power (1959)Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Eisenhower didn’t intervene