Presentation on theme: "1. 2 3 Background: After WWII, the US and USSR emerged as rival superpowers. Each nation was strong enough to greatly influence world events. Each nation."— Presentation transcript:
3 Background: After WWII, the US and USSR emerged as rival superpowers. Each nation was strong enough to greatly influence world events. Each nation was strong enough to greatly influence world events.
Perspectives at the end of WWII USA Fought WWII so democracy could flourish Doesn’t want to see dictatorships spread USSR The war decimated their population Doesn’t want to be left unprotected 4
Yalta CONFERENCE February 1945 Conference near the end of WWII Some tensions between US and USSR USSR increases influence in eastern Europe 6
Truman Becomes President “ I don't know if you fellows ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.” - Truman on becoming President Different style than FDR Truman is more direct 7
8 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Final wartime conference Big Three (changes) England = Attlee USA = Truman USSR = Stalin Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe – yet never happened (set up satellite nations) Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe – yet never happened (set up satellite nations)
9 Containment Policy George Kennan, career Foreign Service Officer Formulated the policy of “containment”: US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread. US would “contain” communism where it already existed. Kennan later became critical of how the US implemented containment Kennan later became critical of how the US implemented containment
Truman Doctrine US will provide military and economic support to countries that need it to fight communism Very anti-isolationist Another key piece of US Cold War policy 10
The Cold War Progresses… History can help us see how we get from point A to point B… 11 End of World War II Bay of Pigs Invasion A “Iron Curtain” Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift B
12 The Iron Curtain Winston Churchill coined this term. Famous speech on March 5, 1946 at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri. https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=S2PUIQpAEAQ
13 Churchill’s Warning… Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe. Helped change public perception of the USSR
Marshall Plan – What it was Suggested by US Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947 to help allies and axis countries in Europe In 1947, Europe was “a rubble heap…a breading ground of pestilence and hate.” - Winston Churchill Why were Americans concerned about this? Humanitarian concerns Don’t repeat the mistakes after World War I American businesses need European markets Spread of communism
Marshall Plan Effects Any European country could participate –Ally or Axis country Greatly benefitted western Europe –Helped it rebuild USSR and its eastern European “satellite countries” refused to participate –Deepened the rift between west and east 16
17 Division of Germany The Allies decided to divide Germany into 4 zones after the war. Also, the capital of Berlin was divided into 4 sectors. SEE next 2 slides
18 Problem with Berlin? Berlin was in the Soviet Sector. Stalin was not happy with a “small piece” of democracy in Eastern Europe. What did he do?
19 Berlin Blockade June 1948, Stalin attempts to starve West Berliners into submission. All rail and street access was blocked.
20 Berlin Airlift American and British planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days. Stalin lifted the Blockade by May 1949.
22 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO was established by a treaty in 1949 This organization established a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Original members were: United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. Greece (1952), West Germany (1955) join also
23 The Warsaw Pact Communist Response to NATO. Signed on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland Military treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression. Original Members: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Rumania, the USSR, and the Czechoslovak Republic.
The Cold War Escalates Arms Race 24 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXEI3AzI-es
27 Struggle for China Mao Zedong wanted China to become a communist state after WW II. Chang Kai Shek fought to stop the communists but was unsuccessful.
28 T aiwan Chiang Kai-shek, retreated from Mainland China and moved his government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan's largest city. Taiwan made a claim they were separate from China. Still a problem area today. What did we do when we realized China was lost?
Measures to Maintain American Military Power Military levels remained high 1948 revived Selective Service Act Atomic Energy Commission National Security Act 1947-Dept of defense (army/navy), NSC, NSC-68 Report (1950) – US must take initiative (expansion of Kennan’s containment policy) CIA Iran Coup US supported the overthrow of the Iranian gov’t Began many years of hostile feelings between US and Iran rebels 29
Syngman Rhee The Korean War 1950-1953 ) Kim Il Sung
The Korean War (1950-1953) * Visions of stable,unified Korea Neither side left – 38 th parallel June 27, 1950 UN agreed to operation USSR boycotting Security council so no veto power General Douglas McArthur Limited mobilization for war in US Economic growth thwarted a recession/depression Fears of Communism reinforced Truman gave permission to MacArthur to push north China entered war and UN offensive stalled Truman wanted to avoid world war Truman-MacArthur Controversy – MacArthur fired for criticizing Truman’s decision not to attack China 33
34 Cold War in America (1945-1960) Was there reason to be concerned? YES ! 1950’s Red Scare Soviet domination of Eastern Europe China turned Communist – 1 billion people! 80,000 Americans members of Communist party
35 Loyalty Review Board Set up by President Truman in March 1947. Purpose? Investigate Federal government employees and dismiss those disloyal to US 212 dismissed 1950 – McCarran Internal Security Act passed – Communist orgs must register and make public their records
36 House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 1947= House of Representatives Investigate Communist influence in the movie industry Hollywood Ten – Blacklisted Alger Hiss Perjury trial – lied under oath and was a communist spy – convicted by R. Nixon
37 The Rosenbergs American Communists who were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American nuclear bomb to the Soviet Union. The couple were executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953.
38 McCarthyism Senator Joe McCarthy became the most famous anti-Communist activist. Used the issue to help win re-election in 1950. Made one unsupported accusation after another. He would bully witnesses. McCarthyism = tactics used to advance your career.
39 McCarthy’s Downfall At first, no one, not even President Eisenhower challenged him In 1954 McCarthy made accusations against the US Army. Led to televised Senate investigation; and American people did not like McCarthy’s tactics. His popularity dropped greatly.
1948 Election – Greatest Upset 40 Strom Thurmond Harry Truman George Dewey HOW? -Southern Democrats, -Catholics, Jews, and Surprisingly -Mid-western and western farmers
Truman’s Domestic Policy Successes Economic boom due to people’s increase in savings – no depression Truman’s Fair Deal Raised minimum wage Expanded SSA National Housing Act Desegregated military End to discrim in hiring fed Hard line on communism Failures Consumers flooded markets led to great INFLATION Labor unrest Competition for jobs Return to Conservatism – 1946 Congressional Elections Taft Hartley Act – Explain Couldn’t get national health insurance passed Couldn’t get more civil rights legis, polling taxes, etc 42
43 Change in Leaders The early 1950s saw a change in leaders in both the US and USSR. USA = Dwight Eisenhower wins the election of 1952. VP – Richard Nixon Checker’s speech USSR = Nikita Khruschev takes over when Stalin dies in 1953.
44 Hydrogen Bomb US exploded the 1st H- bomb on November 1, 1952 in South Pacific. That bomb completely destroyed one island and left a crater 175 feet deep. Russians exploded one in August of 1953.
46 Brinkmanship Massive Retaliation Defined as willingness to push nation to the “brink” of nuclear war to keep peace. Policy advocated by John Foster Dulles; Secretary of State.
47 Space Race On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball. Orbited the earth in 98 minutes. Race to control space was on!
48 U-2 Incident U-2 was designed to be high altitude reconnaissance plane. CIA used these to spy on USSR and one was shot down on May 1, 1960.
49 Francis Gary Powers Recruited by CIA to fly spy missions. Shot down in U2 over USSR and convicted of espionage. Exchanged for a KGB colonel the US had captured.
Bay of Pigs Invasion Fidel Castro had risen to power in Cuba (supporter of communism) What CIA planned a covert operation to overthrow Castro with help from Cuban rebels Huge failure – hundreds of rebels were killed or captured, and Cuban people did not join in 51
Bay of Pigs Invasion Effects Made the United States look aggressive and weak Invading a foreign country and failing Cuba and USSR became closer 52
Cuban Missile Crisis WHAT: A US spy plane saw that the USSR was installing missiles in Cuba that could hit the United States Over the next two weeks “the smell of burning hung in the air” - Khrushchev The US decided to block more missile shipments from entering Cuba – “quarantine” and tried to pressure the USSR to remove the missiles The USSR removing the missiles ended the crisis along with guarantee by US not to invade Cuba and agreement to remove missiles from Turkey 57
Cuban Missile Crisis EFFECTS: Maybe the closet the world ever came to ending Led to more open negotiations between the US and USSR They recognized each other’s power The arms race and Cold War still continued though Americans became more proud of their country (and their president) 58
Cuban Missile Crisis Reaction You are an American citizen during the Cuban Missile Crisis. You have just seen President Kennedy’s speech describing the crisis. Write a journal entry about your reaction For example, you could discuss How are you feeling and what steps you are taking? What do you think might happen? What do you want the government to do? How’s to blame for this? 59
Vietnam Escalation Truman supported French in the 1 st Indochina war (French vs. Vietnam) Eisenhower did not help French, but when Vietnam became independent, it supported the South Vietnam Kennedy and Johnson support South 60
61 Conclusion… Series of Crisis in the Middle East in the 1950s Establishment of Israel Iran Suez Crisis Cuba Moving into the 1960’s, the Cold War was really starting to heat up with no end in sight. The Cold War will continue in the 1960s with the world moving closer to an open conflict between the US and USSR.
Other Cold War Military Conflicts --- Containment 3 rd World CountriesDatesConflicts Vietnam1954-1975Eisenhower avoids military intervention Israel1948- present dayArab Israeli Wars Iran1953CIA helped Shah of Iran, Pahlevi take power Egypt1956 – Dulles withdrew USA’s offer to assist in building Aswan Dam across the Nile Suez Canal Crisis – US joined UN in pressuring French and British to withdraw from Egypt Cuba Hungarian Rev 1959 1956 Fidel Castro rises to power (1959) Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Eisenhower didn’t intervene 62