The 4 factors that fueled World War I Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliances
Nationalism Ethnic groups tried to gain more political unity Especially when Europe had several nationalities often being ruled by a single regime. For example the Slavic countries ruled by Austria-Hungary
Imperialism When colonies and countries competed for control of Africa, Asia, and other parts of the world.
Militarism When countries began to strengthen their armies and navies. They would achieve their goals through threat or force.
Alliances The unification of Germany and Italy upset the balance of power in Europe. Many countries signed treaties and alliances with one another in case of war.
The Balkan “powder keg” Serbian became independent from the Ottoman Turks and wanted Bosnia and Herzegovina to join them, but they were protectorates of Austria-Hungary. In 1908- A-H will annex them. Pan-Slavism- political and cultural unity of Slavs. Russia- “the protector of the Balkan Slavs” supported Serbia Germany wanted to build a railroad from Germany to Constantinople to Baghdad forcing Russia and Great Britain into another alliance. Germany supported A-H
Spark to start the war June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H with wife were in a parade in Sarajevo. Gavril Princip (Serbian nationalist) assassinate them A-H vows to punish Serbia and gives theme an ultimatum
The Ultimatum 1.The Serbian government must suppress all groups that opposed the A-H government. 2.Serbia must dismiss school teachers and ban books that did not support A-H. 3.Serbia must dismiss government officials who spoke out against A-H. 4.A-H officials must be allowed to participate in the trials of those accused in the assassination. Serbia doesn’t agree to terms and mobilizes July 28, 1914 A-H declares war on Serbia
The domino affect Russia supports Serbia by mobilizing their army. Germany mobilizes and Russia sends troops to the borders of Germany. August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia. August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on France. Germany marches into neutral Belgium on August 4 to get to France. August 4, 1914 Great Britain declares war on Germany.
The War Expands Japan enters the war on Great Britain and France’s side. Italy remains neutral for 10 months and then sides with Great Britain and France. (May 1915) October 1914- The Ottoman Turks join Germany and A-H. October 1915- Bulgaria joins the German forces
Assignment: Write a poem or draw a political cartoon illustrating how nationalism, militarism or alliances led to World War I.
Advantages Central Powers- Germany, A-H, Bulgaria and Ottoman Turks Territory extended from the North Sea to the Middle East. This allowed for easy communication and rapid troop movement. Also Germany had a well trained and well equipped army
Advantages of Allied Powers More soldiers Greater industrial capacity British Navy- largest in the world Get food supplies and raw materials from around the world Ability to blockade EVENTUALLY 32 COUNTRIES WERE PART OF THE ALLIED FORCES
Innovations in warfare for Central Powers Submarines “U-boats” caused extensive damage to Allied ships Poison gas
Innovations in warfare for Allied powers Tanks were able to tear down barbed wire and cut into enemy defenses
Both sides… Machine guns Long range artillery Airplanes Red Baron of Germany Most famous dogfighter
Soldiers No longer professional soldiers, but men drafted into the armed forces.
Propaganda Used to stir patriotism and support for the war. Usually contained true and FALSE information Newspapers and magazines showed the enemy as brutal and sub-human, yet praised their own countries.
End Years of War Battle of the Marne- French river-turned the tide of the war-realization it would not be a quick war- allied victory Battle of Tannenburg- Russia lost and lost half their troops-Gernamy invades Russian Poland Battle of Gallipoli- Allies lost after 8 months trying to open the Dardanelles- loss of hundred of thousands
Lusitania and the U.S. May 1915 A German U-boat sank a British liner called the Lusitania. It was carrying war cargo from the U.S. ( who was supposedly neutral) 128 Americans were killed, as well as 1200 others. The U.S. warned Germany that they would not stay out of the war if they continued to sink ships. Germany backed down, worrying the U.S. would enter the war.
The Stalemate By 1915 a stalemate had been reached on land and sea. Only 7 miles of land had been exchanged in 3 years. Thousands died in the trenches. War of attrition- a slow wearing0down process in which each side was trying to outlast the other.
Reasons for the U.S. involvement We were already supplying food, raw materials and munitions to both sides. Eventually they only dealt with Great Britain. The atrocities published were upsetting the Americans. The continuance of unrestricted submarine warfare. The Russian Revolution. The Zimmerman Note
Zimmerman note- 1917, Arthur Zimmerman of the German Foreign Ministry sent a secret telegram to the German ambassador to Mexico. It proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. Germany offered to help Mexico regain territories lost. ( Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) The note was intercepted by Great Britain. It was then published in American newspapers. Americans were enraged.