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World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 The 4 factors that fueled World War I
Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliances The 4 factors that fueled World War I

3 Nationalism Ethnic groups tried to gain more political unity
Especially when Europe had several nationalities often being ruled by a single regime. For example the Slavic countries ruled by Austria-Hungary Nationalism

4 When colonies and countries competed for control of Africa, Asia, and other parts of the world.

5 Militarism When countries began to strengthen their armies and navies.
They would achieve their goals through threat or force. Militarism

6 The unification of Germany and Italy upset the balance of power in Europe.
Many countries signed treaties and alliances with one another in case of war. Alliances

7 Triple Alliance- 1882

8 Triple Entente- 1907

9 The Balkan “powder keg”
Serbian became independent from the Ottoman Turks and wanted Bosnia and Herzegovina to join them, but they were protectorates of Austria-Hungary. In A-H will annex them. Pan-Slavism- political and cultural unity of Slavs. Russia- “the protector of the Balkan Slavs” supported Serbia Germany wanted to build a railroad from Germany to Constantinople to Baghdad forcing Russia and Great Britain into another alliance. Germany supported A-H The Balkan “powder keg”

10 Map of Europe pre- war

11 Spark to start the war June 28, 1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H with wife were in a parade in Sarajevo. Gavril Princip (Serbian nationalist) assassinate them A-H vows to punish Serbia and gives theme an ultimatum Spark to start the war

12 1.The Serbian government must suppress all groups that opposed the A-H government.
2.Serbia must dismiss school teachers and ban books that did not support A-H. 3.Serbia must dismiss government officials who spoke out against A-H. 4.A-H officials must be allowed to participate in the trials of those accused in the assassination. Serbia doesn’t agree to terms and mobilizes July 28, 1914 A-H declares war on Serbia The Ultimatum

13 The domino affect Russia supports Serbia by mobilizing their army.
Germany mobilizes and Russia sends troops to the borders of Germany. August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia. August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on France. Germany marches into neutral Belgium on August 4 to get to France. August 4, 1914 Great Britain declares war on Germany. The domino affect

14 Japan enters the war on Great Britain and France’s side.
Italy remains neutral for 10 months and then sides with Great Britain and France. (May 1915) October The Ottoman Turks join Germany and A-H. October Bulgaria joins the German forces The War Expands

15 Write a poem or draw a political cartoon illustrating how nationalism, militarism or alliances led to World War I. Assignment:

16 Advantages Central Powers- Germany, A-H, Bulgaria and Ottoman Turks
Territory extended from the North Sea to the Middle East. This allowed for easy communication and rapid troop movement. Also Germany had a well trained and well equipped army Advantages

17 Advantages of Allied Powers
More soldiers Greater industrial capacity British Navy- largest in the world Get food supplies and raw materials from around the world Ability to blockade EVENTUALLY 32 COUNTRIES WERE PART OF THE ALLIED FORCES Advantages of Allied Powers

18 Allied Powers

19 Innovations in warfare for Central Powers
Submarines “U-boats” caused extensive damage to Allied ships Poison gas Innovations in warfare for Central Powers

20 Innovations in warfare for Allied powers
Tanks were able to tear down barbed wire and cut into enemy defenses Innovations in warfare for Allied powers

21 Both sides… Machine guns Long range artillery Airplanes
Red Baron of Germany Most famous dogfighter Both sides…

22 No longer professional soldiers, but men drafted into the armed forces.

23 Propaganda Used to stir patriotism and support for the war.
Usually contained true and FALSE information Newspapers and magazines showed the enemy as brutal and sub-human, yet praised their own countries. Propaganda

24 Propaganda

25 Battle of the Marne- French river-turned the tide of the war-realization it would not be a quick war- allied victory Battle of Tannenburg- Russia lost and lost half their troops-Gernamy invades Russian Poland Battle of Gallipoli- Allies lost after 8 months trying to open the Dardanelles- loss of hundred of thousands End Years of War

26 Battle of Marne/Tannenburg/ Gallipoli

27 Trench Warfare Trenches went from Switzerland to the English Channel
Sanitation and rats a problem A stalemate for 3 years Trench Warfare

28 The Trench

29 Lusitania and the U.S. May 1915
A German U-boat sank a British liner called the Lusitania. It was carrying war cargo from the U.S. ( who was supposedly neutral) 128 Americans were killed, as well as 1200 others. The U.S. warned Germany that they would not stay out of the war if they continued to sink ships. Germany backed down, worrying the U.S. would enter the war. Lusitania and the U.S.

30 Lusitania- article

31 The Stalemate By 1915 a stalemate had been reached on land and sea.
Only 7 miles of land had been exchanged in 3 years. Thousands died in the trenches. War of attrition- a slow wearing0down process in which each side was trying to outlast the other. The Stalemate

32 Reasons for the U.S. involvement
We were already supplying food, raw materials and munitions to both sides. Eventually they only dealt with Great Britain. The atrocities published were upsetting the Americans. The continuance of unrestricted submarine warfare. The Russian Revolution. The Zimmerman Note Reasons for the U.S. involvement

33 Zimmerman note , Arthur Zimmerman of the German Foreign Ministry sent a secret telegram to the German ambassador to Mexico. It proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. Germany offered to help Mexico regain territories lost. ( Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) The note was intercepted by Great Britain. It was then published in American newspapers. Americans were enraged. The Zimmerman Note

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