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Tribal Constitutions & Codes Tribal Court Development for Alaska Tribes UAF Course TM 110 Nov. 7, 2013 Special thanks to Lisa Jaeger from TCC for her assistance.

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Presentation on theme: "Tribal Constitutions & Codes Tribal Court Development for Alaska Tribes UAF Course TM 110 Nov. 7, 2013 Special thanks to Lisa Jaeger from TCC for her assistance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tribal Constitutions & Codes Tribal Court Development for Alaska Tribes UAF Course TM 110 Nov. 7, 2013 Special thanks to Lisa Jaeger from TCC for her assistance and guidance.

2 Power of the Tribe Tribal Members Council Constitution Tribal Court

3  What does your constitution provide for?  Why is the constitution important?  Why is it important to refer to your constitution? Tribal Constitutions

4  Kaltag took custody of newborn boy.  Council President asked OCS to do whatever it needed to do to provide foster care payments to the foster parents.  OCS filed a petition to take emergency custody of the baby.  Tribe filed motion to dismiss case because the Tribe already had jurisdiction over the child.  State court decision was vacated because state did not have jurisdiction over child. In re J.M. 718 P.2d 150 (Alaska 1986)

5 “Written laws are like tracks in the snow. They are evidence of tribal activity” Will Mayo Past President of Tanana Chiefs Conference Tribal Court Codes

6  Ordinance -Code -Statute -Act  Codification Terminology

7  Provide details for tribal government structures and procedures (I.e. tribal court structure, election procedures)  Outline the laws that the tribal government will enforce (I.e. curfew and vandalism of tribal property)  Regulate activities in the village (I.e. the taking of artifacts and environmental regulation)  Provide for a smooth flow of government and continuity between administrations  Promote respect from other governments and institutions  Protect Native cultural activities and traditions Function of Tribal Codes

8 Two basic kinds of ordinances:  Those that set up structures and procedures for the tribal government enforced by tribal councils and by political pressure from tribal members  Those that regulate activities and behaviors, enforced by tribal councils and courts Possible Tribal Codes  Title 1: Tribal Government Structures and Procedures  Title 2: Law and Order  Title 3: Domestic Relations  Title 4: Health and Safety  Title 5: Land Management  Title 6: Natural and Cultural Resources  Title 7: Tribal Business Operations Overview of Tribal Codes

9 Types of Codes:  Underage drinking  Trespass  Vandalism  Theft  Minor assaults  Truancy  Juvenile curfew  Disorderly conduct  Animal control  Traffic - speeding and such  Regulating firearm use in the village  Alcohol regulation Law & Order Codes

10 Health & Safety Codes Types of Codes: Animal Control Abandoned Vehicles Nuisances Fireworks Environmental regulation Solid waste Littering Burn barrels Hazardous waste Hazardous materials Outhouses and human waste Water quality

11 Types of codes:  Council powers over land issues  Rights of tribal members and land use  Acquisition of land procedures  Managing tribally owned lands  Tribal land assignments  Land use planning policies and procedures Land Management Codes

12 Types of Codes:  Child custody disputes and formalizing agreements  Child protection  Terminating parental rights  Foster home licensing  Adoptions  Guardianships  Marriage  Divorce/annulment  Probate  Elder Protection  Domestic Violence Domestic Relations

13 Section 6: Court Structure The Tribal Court will consist of a panel of judges. The Judges shall be appointed by a majority vote of the Tribal Council. At least two and no more than five judges will hear each case. It shall be a preference that at least one elder judge presides over every case that comes before the Tribal Court. Sample Tribal Court Codes: Court Structure Kenaitze Tribal Court

14 Native Village of Barrow Sample Tribal Court Codes: Court Structure Native Village of Barrow

15 Section 4(A) Court Structure: The Chignik Lagoon Tribal Court shall be composed of 7 Judges, who shall be the 5 Tribal Council members and two alternate Council members. The term of service for a Tribal Court Judges shall coincide with their term as a Council member or alternate member. Sample Tribal Court Codes: Court Structure Native Village of Chignik Lagoon

16 Section 1.2 Judiciary. The Court shall consist of one Chief Judge and such associate judges as are appointed by the Tribal Council. To be eligible to serve as a judge, a person must be over the age of 25 and within the preceding five years not have been convicted of an offense involving dishonesty or impugning his/her moral character. The judge shall hold office for a period of four years. Sample Tribal Court Codes: Court Structure Sitka Tribe of Alaska

17  Sitka Tribe of Alaska  Native Village of Barrow  Curyung Sample Tribal Court Codes: Termination

18  Disclaimer and Credits  This project was supported by Grant No AL-BX-K001 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Office for Victims of Crime, the Community Capacity Development Office, and the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice


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