Presentation on theme: "U LTRA O RTHODOX IN I SRAEL CAI MARCH 2013. W HO ARE THE H AREDIS ? Haredi is the most conservative form of Orthodox Judaism, often referred to by outsiders."— Presentation transcript:
W HO ARE THE H AREDIS ? Haredi is the most conservative form of Orthodox Judaism, often referred to by outsiders as ultra-Orthodox. The word means fearful/afraid (from god, from change) Haredi Judaism is not an institutionally cohesive or homogeneous group. These groups often differ significantly from one another in their specific ideologies and lifestyles.
H AREDI DEMOGRAPHICS IN ISRAEL According to the Central Bureau of Statistics Haredi’s make between 700,000-800,000 as of 2009. Draft: 16% of Haredi youth compared to 75% of the rest of Israeli public. Employment: 56% of Haredi women employed, compared to 85% non-Haredi women. 40% of Haredi men employed, compared to 88% non-Haredi men.
M AIN CONFLICTS WITH H AREDI SOCIETY The Haredi community's low contribution to the economy. The absence of “equal burden-sharing“ Haredi religious coercion on various matters
R ECRUITMENT OF HAREDIES “Toratam Emoonatam”- “The Tora is their belief” a regulation Enacted by the first government of Israel. The goal was to save the “dying” studies of the Jewish law and way, after the Holocaust. The law has changed many times - limiting the amount of exemption. 1977- The first majority right wing government canceled all limitations. Any person claiming to learn in a known Orthodox “Yeshiva (heder)” was released automatically from serving in the IDF.
W HAT LED TO THE T AL LAW 1999- “The high court for justice in Israel” had decided that there has to be an official law (as opposed to a regulation) that permits students of Jewish Orthodox Law, to be exempt from army service. 1999- A committee headed by justice Tzvi Tal was founded to form a new law that would suit the new situation (a growth of the Haredi world, Jewish studies was no longer at risk).
The law was approved by the Knesset in 2002. It stated that the minister of defense would dismiss for a period of 1 year a student that would have a signed authorization from the head of the yeshiva he studies in, based on the following conditions: 1. He studies at least 45 hours a week. 2. He doesn’t work in any other field. de-facto the minister would automatically dismiss any applicant and would extend the dissmission every year. Note- any married person/ any person over 23 is automatically exempt from army service. T HE T AL LAW
Tal law was legislated for 5 years. 2007- The law was about to expire. It was brought to “The high court of justice” a few times. June 2007- The ruling was to extend the law for 5 more years claiming that it is constitutional and does not breach the constitutional law “Human Dignity and Freedom (1992)”. The plaintiff claimed the government is treating it’s citizens unequally. 10 YEARS OF T AL LAW
E ND OF TAL LAW February 2012- “The high court for justice” reversed the decision saying “Tal law was not Proportionate to it’s initial cause” and therefore should not be renewed (meaning that it would end on July 2012).
P LASNER COMMITTEE 2012 Benjamin Netanyahu decided to form a new committee on May 2012 that would recommend what steps should be taken. Due to Disagreements the committee Dissolved on July 2012 with no formal outcome.
D ECEMBER 2012 Government grants release to 1,300 Haredi’s. Yair Lapid (head of “Yesh Atid”) takes the case to court, claiming that the decision is a contempt of the ruling made by “The high court of Juctice”. There is no new ruling as of today.
W HAT NOW ? No big change has happened yet. The majority of the public in Israel is determined that Haredi’s should be drafted to the IDF or engage in alternative “national service” in order to maintain “equality of the burden”. The outcome of the elections Mirrors this feeling.
S OME QUESTIONS : What are some real problems with the Haredi’s being recruited? (more money, Haredi’s going into “bad culture”, risking Jewish studies) Is there a value to the existence of the Haredi denomination in Judaism? What can we learn from them? Are they ready and able to learn from us? Can the secular society in Israel replace their roll (do they know enough about Jewish law)? What will make Israel Jewish if they do not monopolize Jewish rituals in Israel? How liberal can Israel be? Should Israel claim to be liberal? If Israel becomes more liberal does this endanger the existence of a Jewish state? Can liberal streams of Judaism (reform, conservative est.) agree?
S OME QUESTIONS : Secular Israeli’s willing to cooperate with Haredis, but the opposite is not true. Unacceptable that a group would get all privileges without any of the responsibility. Haredi city never had a demonstration or public disorder. Haredi mayor would rather live in a separate environment so that his children would not be exposed secular world. Women approached the mayor asking to have segregated buses.