Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter Twelve Politics in Russia Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell, Dalton & Strøm Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2008.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter Twelve Politics in Russia Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell, Dalton & Strøm Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Twelve Politics in Russia Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell, Dalton & Strøm Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2008

2

3 Country Bio: Russia  Population:  million  Territory:  sq. miles  Year of Independence:  1991  Year of Current Constitution:  1993  Head of State:  President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin  Head of Government:  Premier Mikhail Efimovich Fradkov  Population:  million  Territory:  sq. miles  Year of Independence:  1991  Year of Current Constitution:  1993  Head of State:  President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin  Head of Government:  Premier Mikhail Efimovich Fradkov  Language:  Russian, other languages of ethnic nationalities  Religion:  Russian Orthodox 70-80%; Other Christian 1-2%; Muslim 8-9%; Buddhist 0.6%; Jewish 0.3%

4 Background: Rebuilding the Russian State  Sustainability of Russia’s great power status is tenuous.  Putin’s policies  Diminishing the realm of free association outside the state  “resource curse”  High levels of corruption, low accountability, and low investment in human capital  Severe demographic crisis  Mortality rates, particularly among adult males  Low birthrates  Net loss of close to a million people per year  Grave threat to Russia’s national security and economic viability  Sustainability of Russia’s great power status is tenuous.  Putin’s policies  Diminishing the realm of free association outside the state  “resource curse”  High levels of corruption, low accountability, and low investment in human capital  Severe demographic crisis  Mortality rates, particularly among adult males  Low birthrates  Net loss of close to a million people per year  Grave threat to Russia’s national security and economic viability

5 Current Policy Challenges  Putin elected March 2000  Undertook a steady effort to rebuild state power  Attacked the power of the so-called oligarchs  Weakened the independence of the chief executives of the country’s regions (the governors) establishing new federal districts overseen by presidentially appointed representatives  Secured power to dismiss governors for violations of the law  Removing them as ex-officio members of the upper chamber of the parliament  High levels of support early for his “managed democracy”  Putin elected March 2000  Undertook a steady effort to rebuild state power  Attacked the power of the so-called oligarchs  Weakened the independence of the chief executives of the country’s regions (the governors) establishing new federal districts overseen by presidentially appointed representatives  Secured power to dismiss governors for violations of the law  Removing them as ex-officio members of the upper chamber of the parliament  High levels of support early for his “managed democracy”

6 Current Policy Challenges  But now referenced by some as “sovereign democracy”  Chain of command  Accountability  May conflict with state sovereignty  But now referenced by some as “sovereign democracy”  Chain of command  Accountability  May conflict with state sovereignty

7 Current Policy Challenges  Only partially successful in achieving his goals  Role of oil has helped  Some of his actions (suppression of the independent media and the state’s takeover of the assets of the oil company Yukos) have discouraged business investment and fueled capital flight.  Reliance on intimidation/removal of rivals  End result: has undercut democratic checks and balances on central power; over-centralization  Only partially successful in achieving his goals  Role of oil has helped  Some of his actions (suppression of the independent media and the state’s takeover of the assets of the oil company Yukos) have discouraged business investment and fueled capital flight.  Reliance on intimidation/removal of rivals  End result: has undercut democratic checks and balances on central power; over-centralization

8 Historical Legacies  The Tsarist Regime  The Communist Revolution and the Soviet Order  Lenin  Stalin  Mikhail Gorbachev  Glasnost  Political institutions of the transition period: Demise of the USSR  Political institutions of the transition period: Russia  The Tsarist Regime  The Communist Revolution and the Soviet Order  Lenin  Stalin  Mikhail Gorbachev  Glasnost  Political institutions of the transition period: Demise of the USSR  Political institutions of the transition period: Russia

9

10 The Contemporary Constitutional Order  1993 constitution combined elements of presidentialism and parliamentarism  Separation of executive, legislative, and judicial branches  Federal division of power between the central and regional levels of government  Gave the president wide power  1993 constitution combined elements of presidentialism and parliamentarism  Separation of executive, legislative, and judicial branches  Federal division of power between the central and regional levels of government  Gave the president wide power

11

12 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Presidency  President appoints the prime minister and the rest of government  Has the right to issue presidential decrees, which have the force of law  Prime minister primarily responsible for economic and social policy  President directly oversees the ministries and other bodies concerned with coercion, law enforcement, and state security  President appoints the prime minister and the rest of government  Has the right to issue presidential decrees, which have the force of law  Prime minister primarily responsible for economic and social policy  President directly oversees the ministries and other bodies concerned with coercion, law enforcement, and state security

13 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Presidency  President can dissolve parliament or dismiss the government  Head of state and commander of chief  Security Council – chaired by the president  Formulates policy in foreign & defense areas and more  State Council – heads of regional governments  Public Chamber- created by Putin in 2005  Made up of 126 members from selected civic, sports, artistic, and other NGOS  Purpose to deliberate on matters of public policy  May, along with other “councils” diminish the role of Parliament  President can dissolve parliament or dismiss the government  Head of state and commander of chief  Security Council – chaired by the president  Formulates policy in foreign & defense areas and more  State Council – heads of regional governments  Public Chamber- created by Putin in 2005  Made up of 126 members from selected civic, sports, artistic, and other NGOS  Purpose to deliberate on matters of public policy  May, along with other “councils” diminish the role of Parliament

14 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Government  Refers to the senior echelon of leadership in the executive branch  Charged with formulating the main lines of national policy  Especially economic and social  Corresponds to the Cabinet in Western parliamentary systems  Not a party government  President Putin appoint Fradko, a relatively obscure figure as prime minister  Refers to the senior echelon of leadership in the executive branch  Charged with formulating the main lines of national policy  Especially economic and social  Corresponds to the Cabinet in Western parliamentary systems  Not a party government  President Putin appoint Fradko, a relatively obscure figure as prime minister

15 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Parliament  Federal Assembly is bicameral  Lower house: State Duma  Upper house: Federation Council  Legislation originates in the Duma  Federal Council can then only pass it, reject it, or reject it and call for the formation of an agreement commission to iron out differences.  If the Duma rejects the upper house’s changes, it can override the Federation Council by a two- thirds vote and send the bill directly to the president.  Federal Assembly is bicameral  Lower house: State Duma  Upper house: Federation Council  Legislation originates in the Duma  Federal Council can then only pass it, reject it, or reject it and call for the formation of an agreement commission to iron out differences.  If the Duma rejects the upper house’s changes, it can override the Federation Council by a two- thirds vote and send the bill directly to the president.

16

17 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Parliament  When the bill has cleared parliament, it goes to the president for signature.  If the president refuses to sign the bill, it returns to the Duma.  The Duma may pass it with his amendments or it may override the president’s veto with a two-thirds vote.  The Federation Council must then also approve the bill, by a simple majority if it approves the president’s amendments or by a two-thirds vote if it chooses to override the president.  Legislative elections  Pro-Putin party: United Russia  When the bill has cleared parliament, it goes to the president for signature.  If the president refuses to sign the bill, it returns to the Duma.  The Duma may pass it with his amendments or it may override the president’s veto with a two-thirds vote.  The Federation Council must then also approve the bill, by a simple majority if it approves the president’s amendments or by a two-thirds vote if it chooses to override the president.  Legislative elections  Pro-Putin party: United Russia

18 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Parliament  Committees  Federal Council: designed as an instrument of federalism  Executive-legislative relations  Yeltsin years  Putin: power shifted away from parliament  Committees  Federal Council: designed as an instrument of federalism  Executive-legislative relations  Yeltsin years  Putin: power shifted away from parliament

19 The Contemporary Constitutional Order: The Constitutional Court  1993 Constitution provides for judicial review by the Constitutional Court  Under Putin, the court has taken care to avoid crossing the president.  Putin wishes to move the seat of the Court to St. Petersburg.  Goal to marginalize it politically  Central Government and regions  Ethnic republic guard their special status  Chechnia-independence  Beslan  20 other ethnic republics; accord with Russia  Municipalities  1993 Constitution provides for judicial review by the Constitutional Court  Under Putin, the court has taken care to avoid crossing the president.  Putin wishes to move the seat of the Court to St. Petersburg.  Goal to marginalize it politically  Central Government and regions  Ethnic republic guard their special status  Chechnia-independence  Beslan  20 other ethnic republics; accord with Russia  Municipalities

20 Russian Political Culture in the Post- Soviet Period  Produce of centuries of autocratic rule  Rapid, but uneven improvement in education and living standards  Exposure to Western standards of political life  Result: contradictory bundle of values in contemporary political culture  Sturdy core of democratic values  Firm belief in the need for a strong state  Disillusionment with democratization and market reform in Russia  Support individual rights, but less so for unpopular minorities  Nostalgia for the old order and aspirations for a better future  Surveys suggest the citizens have little faith in the current political system  Putin  Produce of centuries of autocratic rule  Rapid, but uneven improvement in education and living standards  Exposure to Western standards of political life  Result: contradictory bundle of values in contemporary political culture  Sturdy core of democratic values  Firm belief in the need for a strong state  Disillusionment with democratization and market reform in Russia  Support individual rights, but less so for unpopular minorities  Nostalgia for the old order and aspirations for a better future  Surveys suggest the citizens have little faith in the current political system  Putin

21

22

23 Russian Political Culture in the Post- Soviet Period  Political socialization  Education  Ideological content has changed  Church  Mass media  Overall, much less subject to direct state control than it was in the Soviet era  Political socialization  Education  Ideological content has changed  Church  Mass media  Overall, much less subject to direct state control than it was in the Soviet era

24 Political Participation  The importance of social capital  Scare in Russia  Participation in civic activity has been extremely limited.  Weakness of intermediate associations  Since the late 1980s, political participation, apart from voting, has seen a brief, intense surge followed by a protracted ebb.  Not psychologically disengaged or socially isolated  Half the Russian population reports reading national newspapers regularly or sometimes and discussing problems of the country with friends.  Vote in high proportions  Prize the right not to participate  Shattering of expectations for change  The importance of social capital  Scare in Russia  Participation in civic activity has been extremely limited.  Weakness of intermediate associations  Since the late 1980s, political participation, apart from voting, has seen a brief, intense surge followed by a protracted ebb.  Not psychologically disengaged or socially isolated  Half the Russian population reports reading national newspapers regularly or sometimes and discussing problems of the country with friends.  Vote in high proportions  Prize the right not to participate  Shattering of expectations for change

25

26

27 Political Participation  Elite recruitment  Refers to the institutional processes in a society by which people gain access to positions of influence and responsibility  Soviet regime: Communist Party, nomenklatura  Today, mixture of career types  Elite recruitment  Refers to the institutional processes in a society by which people gain access to positions of influence and responsibility  Soviet regime: Communist Party, nomenklatura  Today, mixture of career types

28 Interest Articulation: Between Statism and Pluralism  NGOs  Elements of corporatism  Three examples of associational groups  The Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs  The League of Committees of Soldiers’ Mothers  The Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia  New Sectors of Interest  Many new associations  More collective action by business and other sectors  More open bargaining over the details of policy  NGOs  Elements of corporatism  Three examples of associational groups  The Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs  The League of Committees of Soldiers’ Mothers  The Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia  New Sectors of Interest  Many new associations  More collective action by business and other sectors  More open bargaining over the details of policy

29 Parties and the Aggregation of Interests  Elections and party development  The 1989 and 1990 elections  The 1993 and 1995 elections  The 1996 presidential election  The 1999 election  Putin and the 2000 presidential race  The 2003 and 2004 elections  Party strategies and the social bases of party support  Evolution of the party system  Hampered by institutional factors such as the powerful presidency  Sponsoring shadow leftist or nationalist parties to divide the opposition  Elections and party development  The 1989 and 1990 elections  The 1993 and 1995 elections  The 1996 presidential election  The 1999 election  Putin and the 2000 presidential race  The 2003 and 2004 elections  Party strategies and the social bases of party support  Evolution of the party system  Hampered by institutional factors such as the powerful presidency  Sponsoring shadow leftist or nationalist parties to divide the opposition

30

31

32

33

34

35

36 The Politics of Economic Reform: The Dual Transition  Stabilization  Shock therapy  From communism to capitalism  Heavy commitment of resources to military production in the Soviet Union complicated the task of reform; so does the size of the country  Stabilization  Shock therapy  From communism to capitalism  Heavy commitment of resources to military production in the Soviet Union complicated the task of reform; so does the size of the country

37 The Politics of Economic Reform: The Dual Transition  Privatization  “Loans for shares”  Consequences of privatization  Unsustainable debt trap  No strong institutional framework to support it; no real market economy in place  Social conditions  Small minority became wealthy in the 1990s  Most people suffered a net decline  Unemployment  Privatization  “Loans for shares”  Consequences of privatization  Unsustainable debt trap  No strong institutional framework to support it; no real market economy in place  Social conditions  Small minority became wealthy in the 1990s  Most people suffered a net decline  Unemployment

38

39

40 Rule Adjudication: Toward the Rule of Law  Gorbachev’s goal: make the Soviet Union a law-governed state  The Procuracy  Comparable to the system of federal and state prosecuting attorneys in the United States  Has more wide-ranging responsibilities and is organized as a centralized hierarchy headed by the procurator-general  Gorbachev’s goal: make the Soviet Union a law-governed state  The Procuracy  Comparable to the system of federal and state prosecuting attorneys in the United States  Has more wide-ranging responsibilities and is organized as a centralized hierarchy headed by the procurator-general

41 Rule Adjudication: Toward the Rule of Law  The Judiciary  Bench has been relatively week  Lip service to judicial independence  Unitary hierarchy: all courts of general jurisdiction are federal courts  Commercial courts  Supreme Commercial Court is both the highest appellate court for its system of courts as well as the source of instruction and direction to lower commercial courts.  Judges nominated by the president and confirmed by the Federation Council  Ministry of Justice oversees the court system; lacks any direct authority over the procuracy  The Judiciary  Bench has been relatively week  Lip service to judicial independence  Unitary hierarchy: all courts of general jurisdiction are federal courts  Commercial courts  Supreme Commercial Court is both the highest appellate court for its system of courts as well as the source of instruction and direction to lower commercial courts.  Judges nominated by the president and confirmed by the Federation Council  Ministry of Justice oversees the court system; lacks any direct authority over the procuracy

42 Rule Adjudication: Toward the Rule of Law  The Bar  “Advocates”  Comparable to defense attorneys in the U.S.  Role has expanded considerably with the spread of the market economy  Constitutional Adjudication  Court established for constitutional review of the official acts of government  Again, challenge of presidential authority  Under Putin, the court has not issued any rulings restricting the president’s power.  The Bar  “Advocates”  Comparable to defense attorneys in the U.S.  Role has expanded considerably with the spread of the market economy  Constitutional Adjudication  Court established for constitutional review of the official acts of government  Again, challenge of presidential authority  Under Putin, the court has not issued any rulings restricting the president’s power.

43 Rule Adjudication: Toward the Rule of Law  Obstacles to the Rule of Law  Abuse of legal institutions by political authorities  Corruption  Bribery  Obstacles to the Rule of Law  Abuse of legal institutions by political authorities  Corruption  Bribery

44 Russia and the International Community  Russia has not fully embraced integration into the international community.  Expanded military presence in several former Soviet republics  Chechnia  Post-communist transition has been difficult and incomplete.  Russia has not fully embraced integration into the international community.  Expanded military presence in several former Soviet republics  Chechnia  Post-communist transition has been difficult and incomplete.


Download ppt "Chapter Twelve Politics in Russia Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell, Dalton & Strøm Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2008."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google