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Types of Government SE 14B – Compare how democracy, dictatorship, monarchy, republic, theocracy, and totalitarian systems operate in specific countries.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Government SE 14B – Compare how democracy, dictatorship, monarchy, republic, theocracy, and totalitarian systems operate in specific countries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Government SE 14B – Compare how democracy, dictatorship, monarchy, republic, theocracy, and totalitarian systems operate in specific countries.

2 What is the best form of government?
Essential Question What is the best form of government?

3 Important Ideas There are several different types of government:
In a monarchy, a hereditary ruler controls the government and decides what it should do. In a republic, people govern themselves without a monarch. In a democracy, ordinary citizens hold supreme power because all government decisions ultimately come from the people.

4 Important Ideas There are several different types of government:
In a dictatorship, power rests in the hands of an individual or a small group that tells everyone else what to do. In a totalitarian system, a dictatorial government closely controls every aspect of a citizen’s life. In a theocracy, religious leaders control government.

5 Geographic Terminology
Monarchy Constitutional Monarch Republic Democracy Direct Democracy Representative Democracy Dictatorship Totalitarianism Theocracy

6 What would happen if there was no government?
What is a government? The organization that people set up to protect their community and to enforce its rules is a government. What would happen if there was no government?

7 Types of government

8 Monarchy Monarchy is probably the oldest form of government.
How does the monarch usually come into power? When the ruler dies, power automatically passes to one of the monarch’s children or close relatives. It is inherited. What potential problems can you think of with this system? Kings, emperors, or sultans fulfill their role as supreme ruler by surrounding themselves with people who will help them govern. Create a list of countries that you can think of that have a monarch.

9 King Henry VIII of England
Rule By Divine Right Rulers in monarchies often claimed that they came to their position by “divine right” or by the will of God. This divine right gave the king or queen absolute power. The citizens under the monarch did not have any rights unless they were granted to them by the monarch. The image is in the public domain due to its age. What options did citizens have if they were treated unfairly by the king or queen? King Henry VIII of England

10 Constitutional monarchy
Think – Pair – Share Describe to each other what a constitutional monarchy is.

11 This file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA
This file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA. NASA copyright policy states that "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". (See Template:PD-USGov, NASA copyright policy page or JPL Image Use Policy.) This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Presidencia del Gobierno de España. This applies worldwide. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Do you recognize these people? How are they related to each other? What are their responsibilities?

12 Constitutional Monarchy
Power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister Power to issue and withdraw passports Power to summon, prorogue and dissolve Parliament Power to command the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom And several other powers not listed Constitutional Monarchy Domestic Powers The Chief of State of the British Kingdom is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II The power to ratify and make treaties The power to declare War and Peace The power to deploy the Armed Forces overseas The power to recognize states The power to credit and receive diplomats Foreign Powers In the UK there are two Houses in Parliament. There specific duties and responsibilities are below. UK Parliament [edit] House of Commons Parliament meets at the Palace of Westminster Main article: British House of Commons The Countries of the United Kingdom are divided into parliamentary constituencies of broadly equal population by the four Boundary Commissions. Each constituency elects a Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons at General Elections and, if required, at by-elections. As of 2010 there are 650 constituencies (there were 646 before that year's general election. Of the 650 MPs, all but one - Lady Sylvia Hermon - belong to a political party. In modern times, all Prime Ministers and Leaders of the Opposition have been drawn from the Commons, not the Lords. Alec Douglas-Home resigned from his peerages days after becoming Prime Minister in 1963, and the last Prime Minister before him from the Lords left in 1902 (the Marquess of Salisbury). One party usually has a majority in Parliament, because of the use of the First Past the Post electoral system, which has been conducive in creating the current two party system. The monarch normally asks a person commissioned to form a government simply whether it can survive in the House of Commons, something which majority governments are expected to be able to do. In exceptional circumstances the monarch asks someone to 'form a government' with a parliamentary minority[8] which in the event of no party having a majority requires the formation of a coalition government. This option is only ever taken at a time of national emergency, such as war-time. It was given in 1916 to Andrew Bonar Law, and when he declined, to David Lloyd George and in 1940 to Winston Churchill. A government is not formed by a vote of the House of Commons, it is a commission from the monarch. The House of Commons gets its first chance to indicate confidence in the new government when it votes on the Speech from the Throne (the legislative programme proposed by the new government). [edit] House of Lords Main article: House of Lords The House of Lords was previously a largely hereditary aristocratic chamber, although including life peers, and Lords Spiritual. It is currently mid-way through extensive reforms, the most recent of these being enacted in the House of Lords Act The house consists of two very different types of member, the Lords Temporal and Lords Spiritual. Lords Temporal include appointed members (life peers with no hereditary right for their descendants to sit in the house) and ninety-two remaining hereditary peers, elected from among, and by, the holders of titles which previously gave a seat in the House of Lords. The Lords Spiritual represent the established Church of England and number twenty-six: the Five Ancient Sees (Canterbury, York, London, Winchester and Durham), and the 21 next-most senior bishops. The House of Lords currently acts to review legislation initiated by the House of Commons, with the power to propose amendments, and can exercise a suspensive veto. This allows it to delay legislation if it does not approve it for twelve months. However, the use of vetoes is limited by convention and by the operation of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949: the Lords may not veto the "money bills" or major manifesto promises (see Salisbury convention). Persistent use of the veto can also be overturned by the Commons, under a provision of the Parliament Act Often governments will accept changes in legislation in order to avoid both the time delay, and the negative publicity of being seen to clash with the Lords. However the Lords still retain a full veto in acts which would extend the life of Parliament beyond the 5 year term limit introduced by the Parliament Act 1911. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 outlined plans for a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom to replace the role of the Law Lords. The House of Lords was replaced as the final court of appeal on civil cases within the United Kingdom on 1 October 2009, by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. What governmental responsibilities do you think the Parliament in Britain has?

13 Why is the United States not a constitutional monarch?
How can you explain the diffusion of this form of government around the world? Why is the United States not a constitutional monarch? Do you notice any patterns to where the constitutional monarchies are located? Why does Canada use this form of government? Who is their monarch? This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in green. Other constitutional monarchies are shown in light green.

14 Republic A republic is a government without a king or queen. Often, the people in a republic choose representatives to make decisions. Is the United States a republic? Explain your answer and give details about the United States government.

15 In a democracy, the government gets its authority from the people.
How do people tell the government what they want? In a democracy, the people have certain basic rights. Why is it important that people have these rights and feel comfortable? What are the people’s basic rights in a democracy? How are these rights protected?

16 Democracy Direct Democracy Representative Democracy
First known democracy was in ancient Athens in the fifth century B.C. Democracy is Greek for “people-power” Citizens of ancient Athens assembled to make important decisions for their city-state They voted on issues directly The ancient Romans developed the first representative democracy Different social groups elected their own representatives Representatives met in assemblies The nobles were represented in the Senate Governmental power was divided between these two branches and they voted on various issues Show students this map of the spread of democracy. It lasts for 90 seconds.

17 Later democracies In England, land owners elected representatives to the House of Commons, one of the two chambers in the English Parliament. When the English originally set up the colonies in North America, each colony had its own colonial legislature. In the 1800s, several Latin American countries fought for independence, won, and set up democracies in their countries. After the United States won the Revolution, it created Congress, a two part house, to govern. The two parts are the House and Senate. Many countries were not democratic in Europe till after World War I. Many countries in Asia and Africa became democratic after they won their independence following World War II.

18 What problems do emerging democracies face?
Think about it – What is an emerging democracy? An emerging democracy is a country that is in the process or has recently switched from an authoritarian rule to a democratic government. Print this article to have students analyze it. What problems do emerging democracies face?

19 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Take a few minutes to look at the map and analyze the patterns. Know that each of the colors represents a different ethnic or religious group that do not share the same beliefs and ideals. In 1990 Bosnia and Herzegovina separated from Yugoslavia. This separation caused a civil war in Bosnia. What do you think was the cause of this civil war after looking at the map? The Croats wanted to join with Croatia, the Serbs wanted to unite with Serbia, and the Muslims wanted Bosnia and Herzegovina to unite. After the war ended what do you think would be a solution to satisfy each group?

20 Building of the Government in Sarajevo
The presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is held by three elected officials – 1 Bosnian Muslim, 1 Croat and 1 Serb. Each president is elected for a four year term and they rotate the chairmanship of the presidency every 8 months. There are many political parties in Bosnia that fight for elected positions every election. The Bosnian government plays a huge role in the economics of the country. While businesses are privatized and 90% of businesses are personally owned, the government owns the huge conglomerates. Changes to this system are very slow and often times met with resistance. The black market is still a huge part of the economics of Bosnia. Building of the Government in Sarajevo The Presidency building in Central Sarajevo

21 After reading about Bosnia, what characteristics did you notice that would make it an emerging democracy? What struggles will they face in the future as they continue forming their democracy?

22 Take a few minutes to view this map
Take a few minutes to view this map. It shows you countries that claim to be democracies and countries that actually are. It also shows people who fought to make these countries democracies.

23 Stop on this slide to answer questions 1-4.
You will need the assignment called “Making Predictions” before you continue. Stop on this slide to answer questions 1-4.

24 Democracy Index 2010 7-7.9 5-5.9 2-2.9 Democracy Index 2010.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit that claims to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states. The Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation and political culture. The Index was first produced in 2006, with updates produced in 2008 and 2010. According to the latest issue of the Index, for 2010 Norway scored a total of 9.80 on a scale from zero to ten, which was the highest result, replacing Sweden which had the highest score in 2008, but slipped to fourth position in North Korea scored the lowest with 1.08, remaining at the bottom in 167th place, the same as in The Democracy Index for 2010 highlights the impact of the global financial crisis in 2008–09 on politics throughout most of the world, with the most significant changes happening in Europe. The Democracy Index score was lower in 2010 than in 2008 in 91 countries out of the 167 that are covered, although in the majority of these the deterioration was modest.[1] The countries are categorized into full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes. In 13 countries there was a change in regime type between 2008 and 2010; in 11 of these there was regression. Notably, negative political trends in France in recent years have resulted in the country being downgraded from a full democracy to the flawed democracy category.[2] Italy was also downgraded to the flawed democracy category, which the report attributes to the deterioration of media situation since the prime minister Silvio Berlusconi returned to power in Only two countries (Ghana and Mali in Sub-Saharan Africa) were upgraded, both from hybrid regimes to the flawed democracy category. Key: Full democracies:       9-10    8-8.9 Flawed democracies:    7-7.9  6-6.9 Hybrid regimes:    5-5.9  4-4.9 Authoritarian regimes    3-3.9 2-2.9 0-1.9

25 Dictatorship A single person or small group has complete power over others. The power of a dictator is not inherited like that of a king.

26 How do dictators get there power?
A dictator either seizes power by force or is placed in the authority position by others. Think about this – Who does a potential dictator have help them when they are trying to take over a country? Dictators are free to do as they please without asking anyone else what they think. Citizens of a dictatorship have fewer rights because they have no influence over the government and policies made by the government.

27 Challenge Question Is there ever a time when there could be a benefit to having a dictator in charge of a country? Potential answers could include that decisions can be made quickly. In ancient Rome, the Romans would choose a dictator when they were at war and needed a strong leader. When the war was over, the dictator was supposed to relinquish their power. In more recent times the dictator does not give up the power until he is overthrown.

28 Sometimes dictators hold elections to gain power.
How would a dictator still come into power even with elections being held in the country? The election is held just to give the dictator some semblance of legitimacy (to the people and the world). The election is not truly free. Opposition parties to the dictator are not permitted. The dictator uses military force to “encourage” voters. People are afraid to criticize or oppose the dictator due to fears of retribution.

29 Every year Parade magazine puts out a list of the 10 Worst Dictators
Every year Parade magazine puts out a list of the 10 Worst Dictators. Take a look at several from 2009. As you are learning about each dictator, make notes on your Circle Map of characteristics or actions that make each person a dictator. Also, on your blank world map, color the country of each dictator red. Students should NOT copy all of the information about each dictator. This information should be used to learn about the dictators and to fill in the Circle Map with characteristics of a dictator.

30 Muammar al-Gaddafi Killed in October 2011
Gaddafi seized power in a military coup in 1969. Libya has continually denied that Gaddafi has held any formal power. After he gained power in 1969, he abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951 and instituted his own political ideology. By exporting oil, Libya became the African country with the highest standard of living. Over the years, Gaddafi began several wars and acquired many chemical weapons. Reports of torture are common. The UN called Libya under Gaddafi a pariah state and many countries issued sanctions against Libya. In February 2011, neighboring Egypt and Tunisia held revolutions and Gaddafi’s 41 year reign was threatened. A Libyan civil war erupted and the National Transitional Council and NATO began looking for Gaddafi to arrest him. He was later captured in Sirte and then killed by the revolutionaries. Killed in October 2011

31 Gurbanguly Berdymuhammedov
President of Turkmenistan Replaced former dictator Saparmurat Niyazov Berdymuhammedov was the Director of the Health Ministry under Niyazov and closed all hospitals outside the capital city in 2005. 58% of people in Turkmenistan live below the poverty line despite the country’s vast natural resources. The country’s constitution forbids acting presidents to run for office. Berdymuhammedov got the law overturned and won the election with 89% of the vote thanks to the country’s elite supporting him. He has managed to remove some of the cult of personality surrounding former leader Niyazov, such as getting rid of the naming of the months after Niyazov and his mother. He is currently in negotiations with China to get an oil pipeline built between the two countries. This image is a work of an employee of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

32 Isayas Afewerki President of Eritrea since 1992
Announced that there would be no elections for 3 to 4 decades because they “polarize society” All media is controlled by the government. Journalists rank Eritrea as the one of the least journalism-friendly countries in the world. Eritrea frequently imprisons journalists. The US banned the sale of arms to Eritrea since Eritrea wasn’t “fully cooperating with anti-terrorism” efforts. The US still conducts trade with Eritrea but mainly for its main export of sorghum. Eritrea and Ethiopia have had a tense relationship with several wars about border control between the two countries. Eritrea’s constitution was ratified in 1997 and has still not been implemented. Afewerki blames this on border problems with Ethiopia. When Afewerki first came to power he restructured the entire government and implemented an elected local judicial system and the spread of education to the outlying areas. This image is a work of a U.S. military or Department of Defense employee, taken or made during the course of an employee's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

33 Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei
He was President of Iran from 1981 to 1989, and has been Supreme Leader of Iran (of religion) since June 1989 when the Assembly of Experts appointed him to succeed Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. He is considered a living martyr because he lost use of one of his arms during an assassination attempt. Khamenei has increased against non-violent opponents of his regime, women’s rights activists, journalists, and religious and ethnic minorities. In 2008, Khamenei’s regime was the only one in the world to execute juveniles (boys at 15, girls at 9). Killing, torturing, stoning, and maiming are common place in Iran under Khamenei’s rule. He controls Iran’s political alliances, nuclear programs and the limited domestic freedoms that Iranian’s are granted. Women were given the right to vote in 1980 but many don’t because of their disillusionment with the male leaders in the country. Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

34 Hu Jintao Current Paramount Leader of the People’s Republic of China
Involved with the Communist Party for most of his adult life and has held leadership roles in the party. Hu won the right to host the 2008 Olympics in China by promising to increase human rights. So far, this has not happened. He has increased restrictions on freedom of speech and religion. Hu has also continued to repress Tibetans and other minority groups. Political and religious dissidents can be held in labor camps for up to four years without a trial for speaking out against the government. Hu maintains a strict control over the media and what can be reported. This was also seen during the Olympics. He has created a list of the “20 forbidden areas” that cannot be discussed in the media. Hu has tried to increase relations with Africa. He is accused of selling arms to Sudan, ignoring the genocide in Darfur and supporting Robert Mugabe. He is also the commander of the world’s largest army – the People’s Liberation Army. More than 99% of all criminal trials in China end with a guilty verdict.

35 King Abdullah has been in power since 1995 when his brother, King Fahd, suffered a stroke. He officially became king when his brother died in 2005. Most of the citizens live under strict Wahhabist interpretation of Sharia law, which mandates the amputation of the hand for theft and floggings for crimes like drunkenness. Execution by beheading is common for rape, murder, and drug-trafficking. Women in Saudi Arabia need permission from their male guardian to marry, work, get an education, and travel. Women even have to get permission before seeing a doctor. There is a board comprised to help women’s rights but it is made up entirely of men. Defendants in a court case cannot question the witnesses in the case. America has somewhat overlooked the human rights violations in Saudi due to the huge reliance on oil from Saudi. Abdullah promised to crack down on Islamic extremists after it was discovered that 15 of the 19 hijackers on 9/11 were Saudis. King Abdullah

36 Died December 2011 Kim Jong-Il
Kim Jong-Il has been in power in North Korea since He replaced his father as leader. It is believed that he has had a stroke in the last few years which is why he has been out of the public eye so much. Kim Jong-Il and his father are deified throughout the country. The constitution refers to him as “Supreme Leader” and citizens call him “Dear Leader,” “Our Father,” and “the General.” Children and adults have been forced to labor camps in North Korea for instances such as hoarding and anti-socialist behavior. Kim once kidnapped two South Korean actresses to make propaganda films and create a movie industry in North Korea. The actresses escaped 8 years later. Kim Jong-Il allows for “collective punishment” which means that three generations of a family can be punished for the actions of one person. Kim has the fourth largest army in the world and is aggressively trying to increase his nuclear and chemical arsenal. Citizens are only allowed to read government propaganda and Kim controls all forms of media. It is believed by some that the ardent support of Kim by the citizens is out of fear. Died December 2011 This file comes from the website of the President of the Russian Federation and is copyrighted. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. In short: you are free to distribute and modify the file as long as you attribute The permission letter from the Press Secretary for the President of the Russian Federation is available as Kremlin authorisation-English.pdf. Students might be interested in these facts about Kim Jong-Il –

37 Robert Mugabe Ruler of Zimbabwe since 1980
Inflation in Zimbabwe is so bad that the government recently issued a $50 billion dollar note which is enough to buy two loaves of bread. The unemployment rate is over 85%. Mugabe held an election but made it clear that he would not accept the results unless he won. Mugabe has destroyed the economy, threatened, starved and tortured people, blown up a printing press of the opposition newspaper and many other atrocities. He once said he has a “degree in violence.” Professional cricket teams have refused to travel to Zimbabwe until Mugabe is removed from power. Mugabe has been building relationships with Asian countries due to so many western countries issuing trade sanctions and embargoes against Zimbabwe. He blames the extreme poverty of his country on the US and the sanctions. At a UN meeting in 2008, he was asked if he would allow human rights workers in to help. He said “Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha! Let them keep out.“ He has received many honorary degrees (Michigan State, University of Massachusetts, and was knighted in Great Britain) and most of them have been taken away due to the crimes against humanity that he has committed. It was confirmed in 2011 that Mugabe has cancer and probably only has a year or two to live. Robert Mugabe This image or file is a work of a U.S. Air Force Airman or employee, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image or file is in the public domain.

38 To view dictators from a broader time span look at this Parade Magazine site.

39 To view dictators from a broader time span look at this Life Magazine site.

40 Totalitarian Systems

41 Characteristics of a Totalitarian Government
People can only belong to organizations that are controlled by the government. There are no separate political parties, labor unions or other organizations. The government either controls or prohibits all churches and religious groups. One leader or political party has total control over all aspects of society.

42 Characteristics of a Totalitarian Government
Government controls all aspects of the media. Television Radio Newspapers Censorship prohibits any media that criticizes the government. People are not allowed to protest and any that do are terrorized by secret police. People that oppose the government are arrested and sent to labor camps or killed.

43 Which dictator of a totalitarian system is this?
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in the early 1930s. During his rise to power he began implementing programs that were completely controlled by the government. Soon the only political party left was his, the Nazi Party. He ran a repressive police state based on fear and hatred. He led Germany to attack Poland in what was the beginning of World War II, which affected the world for 6 years. Over 70 million people died during this war. 17 million Jews and other “undesirables” were also murdered according to his direction. The murder of the Jews during this war is called the Holocaust. This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.

44 Which dictator of a totalitarian system is this?
Joseph Stalin After Lenin’s death, Stalin gradually managed to gain more and more power. In the late 1920s he pushed the USSR to become a command economy and move from an agrarian society to an industrialized society. During this time he sent millions to labor camps and uprooted millions more and moved them to far away lands – all to keep building his industrialized society. In 1937 and 1938 he conducted the Great Purge in which he killed hundreds of thousands of political dissidents. During WWII he was allied with Germany but when Hitler turned on the USSR Stalin joined forces with the Allies. Following the end of WWII, Stalin led the USSR into the Cold War and their attempt for world dominance. This image is a work of a U.S. Army soldier or employee, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

45 Which dictator of a totalitarian system is this?
Saddam Hussein The New York Times described in its obituary how Saddam "murdered as many as a million of his people, many with poison gas. He tortured, maimed and imprisoned countless more. His unprovoked invasion of Iran is estimated to have left another million people dead. His seizure of Kuwait threw the Middle East into crisis. More insidious, arguably, was the psychological damage he inflicted on his own land. Hussein created a nation of informants — friends on friends, circles within circles — making an entire population complicit in his rule". Hussein had thousands of posters created of himself which he placed everywhere in cities. He tried to make sure he had infiltrated every aspect of Iraqi’s lives. Saddam Hussein was captured after the 2003 invasion of Iraq by US-led forces and later hanged. This file is in the public domain, because The source of this image was the Iraqi News Agency, an organ of the defunct old regime. In case this is not legally possible: The right to use this work is granted to anyone for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

46 How does a dictatorship relate to a totalitarian government?
Think-Pair-Share How does a dictatorship relate to a totalitarian government?

47 Theocracy

48 Theocracy A government run by religious leaders.
Like a monarchy, a theocracy is an old form of government. The government claims to be directed by God or divinely blessed. There is no separation of church and state. Often times, citizens of other faiths are excluded or expelled.

49 As a Pharaoh of ancient Egypt, I am believed to be a god by my people
As a Pharaoh of ancient Egypt, I am believed to be a god by my people. Because I am the religious leader of my people are form of government is a theocracy. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

50 The Byzantines viewed the Emperor as a messenger or representative of Christ.
Justinian built the Church of the Holy Wisdom of God, Hagia Sophia, which was completed in the short period of four and a half years (532–537). Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

51 The Holy Roman Empire Rise of the Catholic Church
The Church (and especially the bishop of Rome, the pope) had played an important political role since the times of Constantine, who tried to include it in the imperial administration. In the politically unstable situation after the fall of the western empire, the Church often became the only stable institution and the only source of learning. Even the barbarians had to rely on clerics in order to administer their conquests. Furthermore, the Catholic monastic orders, such as the Benedictines had a major role both in the economic life of the time, and in the preservation of the classical culture. After the Lombard invasion, the popes (i.e. St. Gregory, St. Peter, and St. Mark) were nominally subject to the eastern emperor, but often received little help from Constantinople, and had to fill the lack of stately power, providing essential services (ex. food for the needy) and protecting Rome from Lombard incursions; in this way, the popes started building an independent state. This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to Australia, the European Union and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years.

52 Turn to pages 233 and 234 in the Mastering the TEKS in World Geography
Turn to pages 233 and 234 in the Mastering the TEKS in World Geography. Read the discussion aloud or silently and answer the questions on page 234.

53 Draw the chart on your own paper and write a description of each type of government and give an example. Types of Government Monarchy Dictatorship Totalitarian System Theocracy Republic Democracy

54 Chapter Study Cards Types of Governments Types of Governments
Monarchy – Rule by Divine Right. Constitutional Monarch. Democracy – Direct Democracy. Representative Democracy. Republic - Dictatorship – Totalitarian System – Theocracy –


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