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3: Saving Tsarism in 4 easy steps! Nick and Pete save the power of the Tsar 1905 was a close one!

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Presentation on theme: "3: Saving Tsarism in 4 easy steps! Nick and Pete save the power of the Tsar 1905 was a close one!"— Presentation transcript:

1 3: Saving Tsarism in 4 easy steps! Nick and Pete save the power of the Tsar 1905 was a close one!

2 Step 1: Re-assert Nick’s autocratic powers 4 days before the opening of the First Duma, Nick published the Fundamental State Laws reasserting the Tsar’s absolute autocracy. Two articles removed the power sharing offered in Nick’s October Manifesto: 1. Supreme Autocratic power belongs to the Emperor 2. No law can come into force without his consent WHY? No Duma elected by the politically ignorant were going to impinge on Nick’s authority.

3 Step 2: Dismiss radically lead Duma’s First Duma (Apr-Jul 1906): Radical ministers wanted equal rights, land reform, free education, constitution to limit Tsar, and equitable tax distribution. These demands clashed with the Fundamental State Laws. Second Duma (Feb-June 1907): Radicals voted in again and pushed for the same reforms. Fake assassination plot was forged to enable Tsar to dismiss Duma.

4 Tsar has enough of the radical parties Electoral laws were illegally changed by the Tsar in 1907 reducing the numbers of deputies representing the workers, peasants and ethnic minority groups, while increasing the deputies voted by upper class. Electoral laws were illegally changed by the Tsar in 1907 reducing the numbers of deputies representing the workers, peasants and ethnic minority groups, while increasing the deputies voted by upper class. Voting power was unequal; to elect one deputy it now took 230 landowners, 60,000 peasants or 125,000 industrial workers. Voting power was unequal; to elect one deputy it now took 230 landowners, 60,000 peasants or 125,000 industrial workers. 20 months since the October crisis of 1905, the Tsar was back in total control!!! 20 months since the October crisis of 1905, the Tsar was back in total control!!!

5 The 3 rd & 4 th Duma’s The conservative lead Duma’s were totally unrepresentative of the Russian people. The conservative lead Duma’s were totally unrepresentative of the Russian people. Historian Fischer said that the radical ministers were trying to introduce complex western objectives to a non-liberal and under-developed society. Historian Fischer said that the radical ministers were trying to introduce complex western objectives to a non-liberal and under-developed society. But some radical ministers learnt a lot about government, and the people grew a political consciousness. But some radical ministers learnt a lot about government, and the people grew a political consciousness.

6 Step 3: Stolypin’s Carrot Stolypin: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde – The conservative Tsarist statesman and reforming political realist. Stolypin: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde – The conservative Tsarist statesman and reforming political realist. He knew to stop the revolution using a combination of the carrot and the stick. He knew to stop the revolution using a combination of the carrot and the stick.

7 Step 3: Stolypin’s Carrot Concessions included Land reforms for peasants to buy their own land freely and fairly; Concessions included Land reforms for peasants to buy their own land freely and fairly; Social reforms on welfare benefits, proportional tax and education; Social reforms on welfare benefits, proportional tax and education; Industrial reforms included shorter work hours and safer working conditions for children and women. Industrial reforms included shorter work hours and safer working conditions for children and women.

8 Step 4: Stolypin’s stick Opponents were crushed and demoralised Opponents were crushed and demoralised Exiled or sent to Siberia Exiled or sent to Siberia Okhrana wiped out thousands of opponents in both the city and countryside using the noose. Okhrana wiped out thousands of opponents in both the city and countryside using the noose. The noose therefore became known as ‘Stolypin’s Necktie’ The noose therefore became known as ‘Stolypin’s Necktie’

9 Tsarism was saved! Politically: Reforms had been conceded and opponents crushed Politically: Reforms had been conceded and opponents crushed Economically: Massive economic growth with the national debt reduced; annual growth of 6%, savings and exports doubled; and govt spending and income doubled. Economically: Massive economic growth with the national debt reduced; annual growth of 6%, savings and exports doubled; and govt spending and income doubled. Socially: Growing middle class made up of landowning peasants (Kulaks); industrial workers and commercial class Socially: Growing middle class made up of landowning peasants (Kulaks); industrial workers and commercial class

10 4: World War 1 Disaster for Russia; the end of Nick! War was not a good idea!

11 Response to the outbreak of war 1. Political & economic problems were forgotten as emotional fervour took over the public. 2. Minister Durnovo was worried the financial and economic implications of the war would add to social discontent 3. Lenin saw the war as the rich getting the poor to fight for their gain. He called for a class war but popular patriotism won the day.

12 Massive Russian Military Defeats Russians managed one victory capturing 1/3 of the Austrian army early on, BUT Russians managed one victory capturing 1/3 of the Austrian army early on, BUT Russia lost 130,000 in the Battle of Tannenburg, and 100,000 as POW’s Russia lost 130,000 in the Battle of Tannenburg, and 100,000 as POW’s By 1915 Russia had lost 4 million men with 16 million captured civilians By 1915 Russia had lost 4 million men with 16 million captured civilians Can be blamed on poor military leadership compounded by lack of ammo, supplies and organisation. Demoralisation and socialist propaganda was also rife leading to mass desertion Can be blamed on poor military leadership compounded by lack of ammo, supplies and organisation. Demoralisation and socialist propaganda was also rife leading to mass desertion

13 Political impact of the war Mistake 1: Nick became Commander of the Russian Army – The significant military losses lead to the Tsar assuming control of the Army from the popular Grand Duke Nikolaevich. Issues this caused: Tsar was away from Petrograd, symbolically abandoning the Russian people Tsar was away from Petrograd, symbolically abandoning the Russian people Military defeats lead to a lack in confidence in the Tsar Military defeats lead to a lack in confidence in the Tsar

14 Political mistake 2 – Tsarina in charge of the government. With Nick away, he left the inexperienced Tsarina in charge of political affairs With Nick away, he left the inexperienced Tsarina in charge of political affairs Encouraged by the advice of Rasputin she enjoyed maintaining autocratic rule Encouraged by the advice of Rasputin she enjoyed maintaining autocratic rule But the ruling class didn’t trust Rasputin or her German heritage. But the ruling class didn’t trust Rasputin or her German heritage.

15 Economic and social impact of the war Political disillusionment about autocratic tsarism was increased by military defeats Political disillusionment about autocratic tsarism was increased by military defeats Lack of supplies and organisation not only cause problems in the army, but also created economic and social issues that would push ordinary Russians to revolution Lack of supplies and organisation not only cause problems in the army, but also created economic and social issues that would push ordinary Russians to revolution

16 Economic impact Food Shortages Poor organisation of rail and roads meant that food rarely made it to towns & cities Fuel Shortages Transport crisis meant coal and fuel could not make it to industry Inflation & Price Increases Price of goods increased more than wages did Unemployment No fuel for industry meant no jobs. No jobs meant harder to buy expensive food!

17 Social Impact Military defeats, distant leadership and economic disaster fed social agitation Military defeats, distant leadership and economic disaster fed social agitation The Tsar was warned to regain confidence in his people if he wanted to win the war and keep his throne The Tsar was warned to regain confidence in his people if he wanted to win the war and keep his throne But did he listen? But did he listen?

18 Chapter Review Read about Rasputin on pages and do Analysis Activity 1 & 3 Read about Rasputin on pages and do Analysis Activity 1 & 3


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