Presentation on theme: "JAPAN (After WW II) A new constitution made Japan a democratic nation. All power was taken from the emperor and placed in the hands of the people,"— Presentation transcript:
JAPAN (After WW II) A new constitution made Japan a democratic nation. All power was taken from the emperor and placed in the hands of the people, this governing body was called the Diet. Democratic features such as elected representation & the right to vote at the age of 20. All people are equal under the law & are guaranteed civil rights. Discrimination is illegal. Japan was forbidden to have any army or navy except a small self-defense force.
Government Principal goal of the government is to promote national economic growth. The government provides money, loans & tax breaks to companies to promote research & productivity. Made it hard for foreign products to compete for the Japanese market by establishing high tariffs. Taxes have been lowered due to complaints from other countries. Do not have to pay for heavy defense spending. Japan invests more money in research than other countries.
Urbanization More than ¾’s of all the Japanese population live in cities. The cities are large & crowded & face pollution problems. Housing shortages exist & living spaces are small & expensive.
Education Japan places a great deal of emphasis on producing a well educated population. Students attend school 6 days a week & have short summer vacations. They take competitive examinations to get into the best high schools & universities. More than 99% of the people can read & write
A Comparison of U.S. & Japanese Education U.S. JAPAN Literacy Rate Length of School Week Days in school year High School graduates Attending College 99%99% 5 days 5 + ½ day Sat 180 days240 days under 80%over 94% 58%48%
Workplace Workers place great emphasis on the group or team effort. They tend to identify strongly with their employers & usually work for the same company throughout their careers. Management often consults with workers to obtain their ideas for improving the workplace & production.
Work Force Japan’s work force is literate, well- educated & highly skilled. They tend to work longer hours than we do here in the U.S. Workers are not generally fired when business is slow; instead the company will train workers for a new function before it will dismiss them. Employees have deep loyalty to their company. Japanese labor unions accept change & introduction of labor saving machinery without resistance. Japan has fewer strikes than U.S. or Europe.
Management Managers tend to be highly innovative & creative. They have one basic aim; to produce the highest quality goods at the lowest possible prices. Borrowed U.S. methods of quality control & improved upon them. Managers take a personal interest in the lives of their workers, which strengthens company loyalties. Differences between managers & workers are resolved by compromise instead of conflict.
Status of Women Since 1947, women enjoy equal rights by law. On average, women earn much less than their male counterparts. There are some women in professions like teaching & medicine, but few that are in management. Married women still stay at home to supervise their children’s education.
Trade Imbalance Japan sells more goods to the U.S. than the U.S. have sold to Japan creating a trade deficit of tens of billions of dollars each year. This money enables Japan to purchase raw materials, like oil, from other countries. This is the concept of interdependence of nations in a global economy. Americans spend more & save little. Japanese spend less & save more. Trade agreements have been reached to resolve the trade imbalance.
Traditional Arts Japan blends modernization with traditional values such as: The Tea Ceremony – performed slowly, restfully to promote meditation Flower Arranging – emphasizes symbolism Origami – folding paper into shapes Kabuki Theater – all-male cast wearing masks & elaborate costumes Haiku Poetry – simple & graceful poems reflecting on beauty of nature & life Martial Arts – judo, karate, sumo wrestling reflecting earlier influence of samurai warriors