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21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 7: Part C.

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2 21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 7: Part C

3 Assignment CheckupAssignment CheckupAssignment CheckupAssignment Checkup Text BText BText BText B Listening PracticeListening PracticeListening PracticeListening Practice Oral PracticeOral PracticeOral PracticeOral Practice AssignmentAssignmentAssignment Unit 7: Part C

4 Assignment Checkup Word BuildingEx. VIWord BuildingEx. VIWord BuildingWord Building

5 Ex. VI, p. 230 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. VI, p. 230 Exercise Word building

6 The prefix –ate can be added to some nouns and adjectives to form verbs, meaning to give ( to sth.) the specified thing or quality. For example: motivate - to provide with an incentive; move to action; impel. activate - to set in motion; make active or more active nominate - to propose by name as a candidate terminate - to discontinue the employment of; dismiss regulate - to control, direct or adjust originate - to bring(come) into being Exercise Word building

7 Now complete the following sentences with the proper form of the words given above. 1.With the widespread use of the violence-_________ computer (声控电脑), typing might well become something of the past. 2.An employee who is constantly making excuses rather than getting his job done on time is likely to be _________. activated terminated Exercise Word building motivateactivateoriginateregulatenominateterminate

8 3.Under capitalism, economic activities ________ themselves as long as there is competition. 4.Advertisers have to study closely what are the factors _________ consumers to buy so that they can come up with effective advertisements. regulate motivating Exercise Word building Now complete the following sentences with the proper form of the words given above. motivateactivateoriginateregulatenominateterminate

9 5.The theory of free market economy _________ in 18 th century Britain when Adam Smith wrote The wealth of Nations. 6.A candidate is a person who seeks or is __________ for an office, prize, or honor. originated nominated Exercise Word building Now complete the following sentences with the proper form of the words given above. motivateactivateoriginateregulatenominateterminate

10 Text B: Language PointsText B: Language PointsText B: Language PointsText B: Language Points ComprehensionComprehensionComprehension Unit 2: Text B

11 Language Points Text B The Jeaning of America – and the World Michael Korda

12 The Jeaning of America The Jeaning of America – and the World – and the World Michael Korda 1 This is the story of a sturdy American symbol which has now spread throughout most of the world. The symbol is not the dollar. It is not even Coca-Cola. It is a simple pair of pants called blue jeans, and what the pants symbolize is what Alexis de Tocqueville called “a manly and legitimate passion for equality...” Blue jeans are favored equally by bureaucrats and cowboys; bankers and Language Points

13 deadbeats; fashion designers and beer drinkers. They draw no distinctions and recognize no classes; they are merely American. Yet they are sought after almost everywhere in the world -- including Russia, where authorities recently broke up a teen-aged gang that was selling them on the black market for two hundred dollars a pair. They have been around for a long time, and it seems likely that they will outlive even the necktie. They draw no distinctions and recognize no classes; they are merely American. Yet they are sought after almost everywhere in the world They have been around for a long timeThey draw no distinctions and recognize no classes; they are merely American. Yet they are sought after almost everywhere in the world They have been around for a long time 2 This ubiquitous American symbol was the invention of a Bavarian-born Jew. His name was Levi Strauss. Language Points

14 3 He was born in Bad Ocheim, Germany, in 1829, and during the European political turmoil of 1848 decided to take his chances in New York, to which his two brothers already had emigrated. Upon arrival, Levi soon found out that his two brothers had exaggerated their tales of an easy life in the land of the main chance. They were landowners, they had told him; instead, he found them selling needles, thread, pots, pans, ribbons, yarn, scissors, and buttons to housewives. For two years he was a lowly peddler, hauling some 180 pounds of sundries door-to-door to eke out a marginal living. When a married sister in San Francisco offered to pay his way West in 1850, he jumped at the opportunity, taking with him bolts of canvas he hoped to sell for a living. during the European political turmoil of 1848 decided to take his chances in New York, to which his two brothers already had emigratedin the land of the main chanceeke out a marginal livingduring the European political turmoil of 1848 decided to take his chances in New York, to which his two brothers already had emigratedin the land of the main chanceeke out a marginal living Language Points

15 4 It was the wrong kind of canvas for that purpose, but while talking with a miner down from the mother lode, he learned that pants -- sturdy pants that would stand up to the rigors of the diggings -- were almost impossible to find. Opportunity beckoned. On the spot, Strauss measured the man's girth and inseam with a piece of string and, for six dollars in gold dust, had them tailored into a pair of stiff but rugged pants. The miner was delighted with the result, word got around about “those pants of Levi's,” and Strauss was in business. The company has been in business ever since. for that purposesix dollars in gold dust Strauss was in businessfor that purposesix dollars in gold dust Strauss was in business Language Points

16 5 When Strauss ran out of canvas, he wrote his two brothers to send more. He received instead a tough, brown cotton cloth made in Nimes, France -- called serge de Nimes and swiftly shortened to “denim” (the word “jeans” derives from Genes, the French word for Genoa, where a similar cloth was produced). Almost from the first, Strauss had his cloth dyed the distinctive indigo that gave blue jeans their name, but it was not until the 1870s that he added the copper rivets which have long since become a company trademark. The rivets were the idea of a Virginia City, Nevada, tailor, Jacob W. Davis, who added them to pacify a mean-tempered miner called Alkali Ike. Alkali, the story goes, complained that the pockets of his jeans always tore when he stuffed them with ore samples and demanded that Davis do something about it. a Virginia City, Nevada, tailora Virginia City, Nevada, tailor Language Points

17 As a kind of joke, Davis took the pants to a blacksmith and had the pockets riveted; once again, the idea worked so well that word got around; in 1873 Strauss appropriated and patented the gimmick -- and hired Davis as a regional managerAs a kind of joke, Davis took the pants to a blacksmith and had the pockets riveted; once again, the idea worked so well that word got around; in 1873 Strauss appropriated and patented the gimmick -- and hired Davis as a regional manager. As a kind of joke, Davis took the pants to a blacksmith and had the pockets riveted; once again, the idea worked so well that word got around; in 1873 Strauss appropriated and patented the gimmick -- and hired Davis as a regional manager 6 By this time, Strauss had taken both his brothers and two brothers-in-law into the company and was ready for his third San Francisco store. Over the ensuing years the company prospered locally, and by the time of his death in 1902, Strauss had become a man of prominence in California. For three decades thereafter the business remained profitable though small, with sales largely confined to the working people of the West -- cowboys, lumberjacks, railroad workers, and the like. Levi's jeans were first introduced to For three decades thereafter the business remained profitable though small, with sales largely confined to the working people of the West -- cowboys, lumberjacks, railroad workers, and the likeFor three decades thereafter the business remained profitable though small, with sales largely confined to the working people of the West -- cowboys, lumberjacks, railroad workers, and the like Language Points

18 the East, apparently, during the dude-ranch craze of the 1930s, when vacationing Easterners returned and spread the word about the wonderful pants with rivets. Another boost came in World War II, when blue jeans were declared an essential commodity and were sold only to people engaged in defense work. From a company with fifteen salespeople, two plants, and almost no business east of the Mississippi in 1946, the organization grew in thirty years to include a sales force of more than twenty-two thousand, with fifty plants and offices in thirty-five countries. Each year, more than 250,000,000 Language Points

19 items of Levi's clothing are sold -- including more than 83,000,000 pairs of riveted blue jeans. They have become, through marketing, word of mouth, and demonstrable reliability, the common pants of America. They can be purchased pre-washed, pre-faded, and pre- shrunk for the suitably proletarian look. They adapt themselves to any sort of idiosyncratic use; women slit them at the inseams and convert them into long skirts, men chop them off above the knees and turn them into something to be worn while challenging the surf. Decorations and ornamentations abound. They have become, through marketing, word of mouth, and demonstrable reliability, the common pants of AmericaThey can be purchased pre-washed, pre-faded, and pre- shrunk for the suitably proletarian lookchallenging the surfThey have become, through marketing, word of mouth, and demonstrable reliability, the common pants of AmericaThey can be purchased pre-washed, pre-faded, and pre- shrunk for the suitably proletarian lookchallenging the surf Language Points

20 7 The pants have become a tradition, and along the way have acquired a history of their own -- so much so that the company has opened a museum in San Francisco. There was, for example, the turn-of-the-century trainman who replaced a faulty coupling with a pair of jeans; the Wyoming man who used his jeans as a towrope to haul his car out of a ditch; the Californian who found several pairs in an abandoned mine, wore them, then discovered they were sixty- three years old and still as good as new and turned them over to the Smithsonian as a tribute to their toughness. And then there is the particularly terrifying story of the careless construction worker who dangled fifty-two stories above the street until rescued, his sole support the Levi's belt loop through which his rope was hooked. so much so thatreplaced a faulty coupling with a pair of jeansturned them over to the Smithsonian as a tribute to their toughnesshis sole support the Levi's belt loopso much so thatreplaced a faulty coupling with a pair of jeansturned them over to the Smithsonian as a tribute to their toughnesshis sole support the Levi's belt loop (1000 words) Language Points

21 Paraphrase? The Jeaning of America – and the World The popularity of Jeans in America – and in the World Jeans, or blue jeans, are usually close-fitting pants that are made esp. of a durable twilled cotton cloth and used esp. for sports-wear and work clothes. The word jean is normally not used as a verb.

22 They draw no distinctions and recognize no classes ; they are merely American. Yet they are sought after almost everywhere in the world draw a distinction — say that two things are different Paraphrase the underlined part ? They (blue jeans) show no difference in the social status and class of people who wear them; they simply show that they are Americans. They draw no distinctions and recognize no classes; they are merely American. Yet they are sought after almost everywhere in the world Paraphrase the underlined part ? They are popular among consumers almost everywhere in the world.

23 Translation? 它们不分贫富,不认阶级;它们仅仅是美国的。然而它们在 世界几乎所有的地方都深受人们的喜爱。 They draw no distinctions and recognize no classes; they are merely American. Yet they are sought after almost everywhere in the world

24 They have been around for a long time… — They have been in existence for a long time… be around — 1) be present or available; 2) be active and prominent in a particular field or profession Example: she has been around as a film director since the 1960’s. she has been around as a film director since the 1960’s.

25 Paraphrase the underlined part ? during the European political turmoil of 1848 (he) decided to take his chances in New York, to which his two brothers already had emigrated. decided to try his luck in New York Translation? 在 1848 年欧洲政治骚乱期间,他决定去纽约碰碰运气, 因为他的两个兄弟已经移居到了那儿

26 in the land of main chance — (here) in America the main chance — the best opportunity

27 Paraphrase? eke out a marginal living Manage to survive in a very difficult situation in which there is very little food, money, etc.

28 Paraphrase? for that purpose For the purpose of selling for a living

29 Paraphrase? six dollars in gold dust Six dollars’ worth of gold dust

30 Paraphrase? Strauss was in business Strauss began to operate his own company

31 Paraphrase? a Virginia City, Nevada, tailor A tailor in Virginia City, Nevada.

32 Translation? As a kind of joke, Davis took the pants to a blacksmith and had the pockets riveted; once again, the idea worked so well that word got around; in 1873 Strauss appropriated and patented the gimmick -- and hired Davis as a regional manager. 为了开个玩笑,戴维斯拿着裤子去找了个铁匠,让他给裤子 口袋敲上铆钉;这主义又一次大获成功,消息很快传开; 1873 年施特劳斯把这项小革新据为己有并取得了专利权 - 然后便雇佣戴维斯做了一名地区经理 。

33 Translation? For three decades thereafter the business remained profitable though small, with sales largely confined to the working people of the West -- cowboys, lumberjacks, railroad workers, and the like. 在以后的 30 年间,生意一直很赚钱但规模确一直很小,销售 主要限于西部的劳动人民 - 牛仔、伐木工、铁路工人等等。

34 They have become, through marketing, word of mouth, and demonstrable reliability, the common pants of America. by/through words of mouth — in spoken, not written words Examples: I received the news by words of mouth. I received the news by words of mouth. people hear about it through words of mouth people hear about it through words of mouth

35 Translation? 通过市场销售、口传和明显的可靠性,它们已经成为美国常 见的裤子。 Paraphrase? They have become the common pants of America through marketing, word of mouth and demonstrable reliability. They have become, through marketing, word of mouth, and demonstrable reliability, the common pants of America.

36 Paraphrase? They can be purchased pre-washed, pre-faded, and pre- shrunk for the suitably proletarian look. They can be pre-washed, pre-faded, and pre-shrunk when they are sold in order to look properly like pants that workmen wear.

37 Paraphrase? challenge the surf ride the surfboard; go surfing

38 Paraphrase? so much as that to such an extent that

39 Paraphrase? replaced a faulty coupling with a pair of jeans Used a pair of jeans (to link two railway carriages) when the coupling was faulty (intended to prove the sturdiness of the jeans)

40 Paraphrase? turned them over to Smithsonian as a tribute to their toughness handed them over to the Smithsonian Institution in order to show admiration for the tough quality of the jeans.

41 Paraphrase? his sole support the Levi’s belt loop his only support being the belt loop of the jeans

42 Text B: Comprehension Comprehension Skimming for Main IdeasEx. VISkimming for Main IdeasEx. VISkimming for Main IdeasSkimming for Main Ideas ComprehensionEx. VIComprehensionEx. VIComprehension

43 Text B: Comprehension Ex. XIV, p. 242 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XIV, p. 242

44 Text B: Comprehension 1.The basis (or main idea) of this article: Blue jeans, a ubiquitous American symbol, were ____________________________. the invention of a Bavarian-born Jew, named Levi Strauss Answer the following questions.

45 Text B: Comprehension 2.this article may roughly be divided into four sections. Write in the space the main idea of each section. (The answer for section 1 is given as an example) In order to satisfy the needs of Western miners for durable work clothes, Levi Strauss, a German immigrant, succeeded in manufacturing blue jeans from canvas. Answer the following questions. Introduction (Paragraph 1): Blue jeans, an omnipresent American symbol, are not only favored by all American, but also popular among people throughout the world. The Invention of Blue Jeans(Para.2-5) _________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ The blue Jeans Business, Yesterday and Today (Para.6) __ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Lev’s company, a small local business at the beginning of the 20 th century, has grown into a huge multinational manufacturer. Concluding Remarks (Para.7): _______________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Blue jeans have become a tradition and have acquired a history of their own.

46 Text B: Comprehension Ex. XV, p. 243 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XV, p. 243

47 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 1.The author begins her article with __________. A)a definition of the sturdy American symbol that is present everywhere B)a brief description of the ever-growing popularity of blue jeans all over the world C)an anecdote about blue jeans in Russia D)a brief account of the significance of blue jeans 1.The author begins her article with __________. A)a definition of the sturdy American symbol that is present everywhere B)a brief description of the ever-growing popularity of blue jeans all over the world C)an anecdote about blue jeans in Russia D)a brief account of the significance of blue jeans

48 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 2.Blue jeans symbolize “a manly and legitimate passion for equality” (Para.1) in that _________. A)the necessity of distinguishing a leader from a President B)the role of leader in times of doubt and crisis C)timing as a crucial factor in the rise of a leader D)people ’ s expectation of their President as a leader 2.Blue jeans symbolize “a manly and legitimate passion for equality” (Para.1) in that _________. A)the necessity of distinguishing a leader from a President B)the role of leader in times of doubt and crisis C)timing as a crucial factor in the rise of a leader D)people ’ s expectation of their President as a leader

49 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 3.“A ubiquitous American symbol” (Para.2) means ____________. A) “ a symbol that best represents the American values and assumptions ” B) “ a symbol that distinguishes American form people of other countries ” C) “ a symbol that is in existence uniquely in America ” D) “ an American symbol that is present everywhere in the world ” 3.“A ubiquitous American symbol” (Para.2) means ____________. A) “ a symbol that best represents the American values and assumptions ” B) “ a symbol that distinguishes American form people of other countries ” C) “ a symbol that is in existence uniquely in America ” D) “ an American symbol that is present everywhere in the world ”

50 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 4.According to the text, which of the following is NOT true? A)Levi Strauss was born in Germany and left for America because of the political persecution of the Jewish people there. B)To try his luck in the “ land of main chance ”, the young man left Europe to join his two brothers in New York. C)For his first two years in America, Levi Strauss worked every hard but could barely make a living. D)The wrong kind of canvas he took with him to the West provided him with a good opportunity to start a business. 4.According to the text, which of the following is NOT true? A)Levi Strauss was born in Germany and left for America because of the political persecution of the Jewish people there. B)To try his luck in the “ land of main chance ”, the young man left Europe to join his two brothers in New York. C)For his first two years in America, Levi Strauss worked every hard but could barely make a living. D)The wrong kind of canvas he took with him to the West provided him with a good opportunity to start a business.

51 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 5.The expression “to eke out a marginal living” (Para.3) is closest in meaning to _________. A) “ to work hard and live a thrifty life ” B) “ to work hard, but barely earn enough money to survive ” C) “ to manage to earn a decent living ” D) “ to make both ends meet by doing odd jobs ” 5.The expression “to eke out a marginal living” (Para.3) is closest in meaning to _________. A) “ to work hard and live a thrifty life ” B) “ to work hard, but barely earn enough money to survive ” C) “ to manage to earn a decent living ” D) “ to make both ends meet by doing odd jobs ”

52 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 6.Levi’s plan became an immediate success for the following reasons EXCEPT that _________. A)it was almost impossible t find tough pants that could stand up to the severe conditions of diggings B)the pants Levi made for the miner proved stiff but sturdy, which just satisfied the general need for hard- wearing work clothes C)word about Levi ’ s pants quickly spread among the miners D)Levi ’ s pants were comfortable, durable and inexpensive 6.Levi’s plan became an immediate success for the following reasons EXCEPT that _________. A)it was almost impossible t find tough pants that could stand up to the severe conditions of diggings B)the pants Levi made for the miner proved stiff but sturdy, which just satisfied the general need for hard- wearing work clothes C)word about Levi ’ s pants quickly spread among the miners D)Levi ’ s pants were comfortable, durable and inexpensive

53 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 7.Levi’s pants got their name “blue jeans” (Para.6) because ______. A)Levi Strauss had his cloth dyed the distinctive indigo almost from the beginning B)Levi Strauss used blue cloth form the very start C)The word “ jeans ” derived from Genes, the French word for Genoa, where a similar cloth was manufactured D)Both A) and C) 7.Levi’s pants got their name “blue jeans” (Para.6) because ______. A)Levi Strauss had his cloth dyed the distinctive indigo almost from the beginning B)Levi Strauss used blue cloth form the very start C)The word “ jeans ” derived from Genes, the French word for Genoa, where a similar cloth was manufactured D)Both A) and C)

54 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 8.Blue jeans, a Western working-man’s uniform, became popular among people in eastern U.S. _________. A)as a result of the company ’ s effective promotion and advertising B)after Levi Strauss patented the trademark rivets on the pockets of his pants C)when vacationing Easterners returned and spread the word about the wonderful pants with rivets D)because soldiers wore them in World War II 8.Blue jeans, a Western working-man’s uniform, became popular among people in eastern U.S. _________. A)as a result of the company ’ s effective promotion and advertising B)after Levi Strauss patented the trademark rivets on the pockets of his pants C)when vacationing Easterners returned and spread the word about the wonderful pants with rivets D)because soldiers wore them in World War II

55 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 9.By ending her article with more anecdotes about blue jeans, the author intends to _________. A)encourage readers to carry our independent research on this subject B)justify her idea of blue jeans as a sturdy American symbol C)demonstrate the toughness of blue jeans as an essential commodity D)illustrate that blue jeans have virtually become part of the American cultural heritage 9.By ending her article with more anecdotes about blue jeans, the author intends to _________. A)encourage readers to carry our independent research on this subject B)justify her idea of blue jeans as a sturdy American symbol C)demonstrate the toughness of blue jeans as an essential commodity D)illustrate that blue jeans have virtually become part of the American cultural heritage

56 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 10.The title “The jeans of America – and the World” can best be interpreted as __________. A)the manufacturing of blue jeans in America and in the world B) the development and popularization of blue jeans throughout the US and the world C)the production of jean ( 粗斜纹棉布 ) as a cloth in the US and the world D)none of the above 10.The title “The jeans of America – and the World” can best be interpreted as __________. A)the manufacturing of blue jeans in America and in the world B) the development and popularization of blue jeans throughout the US and the world C)the production of jean ( 粗斜纹棉布 ) as a cloth in the US and the world D)none of the above

57 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 11.This article is basically a piece of __________ writing. A)descriptive B) argumentative C)expository D) narrative 11.This article is basically a piece of __________ writing. A)descriptive B) argumentative C)expository D) narrative

58 Listening Practice Listening & Speaking IV Passage 2Passage 2Passage 2Passage 2 Passage 3Passage 3Passage 3Passage 3

59 Listening Practice: Passages Passage 2 《听说教程 IV 》 Part 4.3, p. 83

60 5. A)The origins of paper currency. B)Who was the first to make a bank loan for an interest. C)The origins of modem banking. D)The circulation of goldsmiths receipts. Listening Practice: Passages

61 6. A)Because it was more profitable. B)Because they didn't need to pay the goldsmith. C)Because it was safer. D)Because it was much easier and more convenient. Listening Practice: Passages Check-up

62 Listening Practice: Passages 5.What is the talk mainly about? A)The origins of paper currency. B)Who was the first to make a bank loan for an interest. C)The origins of modem banking. D)The circulation of goldsmiths receipts. 5.What is the talk mainly about? A)The origins of paper currency. B)Who was the first to make a bank loan for an interest. C)The origins of modem banking. D)The circulation of goldsmiths receipts.

63 Listening Practice: Passages Script 6.Why did businesspeople begin to exchange the goldsmith’s receipts instead of exchanging the gold? A)Because it was more profitable. B)Because they didn't need to pay the goldsmith. C)Because it was safer. D)Because it was much easier and more convenient. 6.Why did businesspeople begin to exchange the goldsmith’s receipts instead of exchanging the gold? A)Because it was more profitable. B)Because they didn't need to pay the goldsmith. C)Because it was safer. D)Because it was much easier and more convenient.

64 Listening Practice: Passages Modern banking had its origin in ancient England. In those days, people wanting to safeguard their coins or gold had two choices — they hid it under the mattress or turned it over to someone else for safekeeping. The logical people to turn to for storage were the local goldsmiths, since they had the strongest vaults. The goldsmith accepted the gold for storage, giving the owner a receipt stating that the gold could be redeemed at a later date. When a payment was due, the owner went to the goldsmith, redeemed part of the gold, and gave it to the payee. After all that, the payee was very likely to turn around and give the gold back to the goldsmith for safekeeping. Gradually, instead of taking the time and effort to physically exchange the gold, business people began to exchange the goldsmith ’ s receipts as payment. Therefore, the gold never left the goldsmiths ’ vaults. It wasn ’ t long before enterprising goldsmiths saw the potential for profit in this arrangement. As long as the gold remained in the vaults, the owners wouldn ’ t miss it if it were loaned to someone else — for a fee. The odds were overwhelmingly against all the depositors wanting their gold at the same time — and few people would ever demand their very own gold coins back. The circulation of goldsmiths ’ receipts was the beginning of paper currency and of commercial banking. And the enterprising goldsmith who first lend somebody else ’ s gold for a fee was the first to make a bank loan for interest.

65 Listening Practice: Passages Passage 3 《听说教程 IV 》 Part 4.3, pp. 83~84

66 7.A)The many types of guide dogs. B)The training of guide dogs. C)The selection of guide dogs. D)How to command guide dogs. Listening Practice: Passages

67 8.A)Intelligence B)A good disposition. C)Speed. D)Physical fitness. Listening Practice: Passages

68 9.A)One year. B)Five months. C)Four weeks. D)As long as it takes. Listening Practice: Passages

69 10.A)Most of them are suitable for guide dogs. B)They prefer to train the guide dogs themselves. C)Very few can afford the costs of training and maintaining a guide dog. D)Many are unsuited to work with dogs. Listening Practice: Passages Check-up

70 Listening Practice: Passages 7.What is the talk mainly about? A)The many types of guide dogs. B)The training of guide dogs. C)The selection of guide dogs. D)How to command guide dogs. 7.What is the talk mainly about? A)The many types of guide dogs. B)The training of guide dogs. C)The selection of guide dogs. D)How to command guide dogs.

71 Listening Practice: Passages 8.Which is not a quality necessary in a guild dog? A)Intelligence B)A good disposition. C)Speed. D)Physical fitness. 8.Which is not a quality necessary in a guild dog? A)Intelligence B)A good disposition. C)Speed. D)Physical fitness.

72 Listening Practice: Passages 9.How long is the intensive course for training guide dogs? A)One year. B)Five months. C)Four weeks. D)As long as it takes. 9.How long is the intensive course for training guide dogs? A)One year. B)Five months. C)Four weeks. D)As long as it takes.

73 Listening Practice: Passages Script 10.What does the speaker say about blind people? A)Most of them are suitable for guide dogs. B)They prefer to train the guide dogs themselves. C)Very few can afford the costs of training and maintaining a guide dog. D)Many are unsuited to work with dogs. 10.What does the speaker say about blind people? A)Most of them are suitable for guide dogs. B)They prefer to train the guide dogs themselves. C)Very few can afford the costs of training and maintaining a guide dog. D)Many are unsuited to work with dogs.

74 Listening Practice: Passages Guide dogs are trained for the purpose of guiding a blind person. Not every dog can be a guide dog, and only a select few end up being chosen. Dogs chosen for this job must show intelligence, physical fitness, responsibility, patience, an even temper, and a good disposition. At the age of one, guide dogs begin a five-month intensive course. During this time, they become accustomed to wearing the leather harness and rigid leather handle that they will be wearing when guiding their owner. Along with this physical portion of the course, they are also taught the skills necessary to guide a blind person. They learn how to avoid dangerous situations and how to guide the owner away if they sense danger. At the age of one, guide dogs begin a five-month intensive course. During this time, they become accustomed to wearing the leather harness and rigid leather handle that they will be wearing when guiding their owner. Along with this physical portion of the course, they are also taught the skills necessary to guide a blind person. They learn how to avoid dangerous situations and how to guide the owner away if they sense danger. They learn to watch traffic and safely cross the street. They also learn numerous commands such as “ forward, ” “ left, ” and “ sit. ” These commands are constantly reinforced, and the dogs learn to disobey any command that may lead their owner into danger. The most important part of the program takes place during the last four weeks of the program in which the guide dogs are placed with their future owners. During this time, the two practice the commands and learn to communicate, as well as getting accustomed to working and living together. Working with guide dogs is not as easy as it may seem. Many blind people are unsuited by personality to work with dogs, as only a tenth of blind people find the guide dogs helpful.

75 Speaking Practice Practice I Practice II Practice III Oral Practice

76 Speaking Practice I Divide into groups, discuss the following questions in your groups. Do you want to accept his advice? Why or why not? What special advice does he give his readers before he begins listing his rules? What are the two things Sam Walton considers important but are not included in his list of rules for building a business?

77 Oral Practice Speaking Practice II Divide into groups, discuss the following questions in your groups. Why does Sam recommend managers listening to everything in their company? And how? Why does Sam recommend managers communicating everything to their partners? Why does Sam recommend managers motivating their partners? And how?

78 Oral Practice Speaking Practice III Divide into groups, discuss the following questions in your groups. Which of Sam’s 10 rules are commonly practiced by Chinese business? Why is there any other “rule” do you think important for a successful manager? Of Sam’s 10 rules, which do you think is the most important one? Why?

79 1.Read Text C, Unit 7 2.Do exercises: Ex. XVIII (p. 250)Ex. XVIII (p. 250) Ex. XIX(p. 252)Ex. XIX(p. 252) 3.Preview Text A, Unit 8 AssignmentAssignment


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