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A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Web 2.0: Opportunities and Challenges Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath.

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Presentation on theme: "A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Web 2.0: Opportunities and Challenges Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath."— Presentation transcript:

1 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Web 2.0: Opportunities and Challenges Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath UKOLN is supported by: Acceptable Use Policy Recording/broadcasting of this talk, taking photographs, discussing the content using , instant messaging, Blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. Acceptable Use Policy Recording/broadcasting of this talk, taking photographs, discussing the content using , instant messaging, Blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. This work is licensed under a Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) emuit-seminar tag used in del.icio.us

2 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 2 Contents Introduction Where Are We Now? Web 2.0:  Web 2.0 technologies  Web 2.0 culture Deployment Challenges (slides available –but no time to cover) Conclusions

3 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 3 About Me Brian Kelly: UK Web Focus – post funded by JISC and MLA to advise UK HE / FE and cultural heritage sectors on Web standards, emerging technologies & best practices Based at UKOLN, University of Bath Helped set up Web service in Leeds University in Jan '93 - first in UK(?) & in first 50 registered at CERN Web evangelist from 1993 (vs. Gopher orthodoxy!) Helped persuade several universities/groups to deploy the Web (Sheffield Hallam, Oxford University, TLTP) Attended 10+ WWW confs since first in 1994 (including WWW 2006 in Edinburgh in May 2006 Author of many peer-reviewed papers and given many talks on Web issues

4 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 4 About This Talk This talk uses Web 2.0 technologies & attitude: PowerPoint slides contain links to relevant resources Resources bookmarked on del.icio.us (with tag emuit ) Add your own related resources using the same tag Virtual ? WiFi network can be used by audience for discussions (you can think about implications) Possibly use of Skype to maximise access to talk CC licence for slides (and talk) Always beta – not everything will necessarily work, but that's not the end of the world Note ~ 70 slides, which you can read at your leisure! Introduction

5 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 5 National Picture: We're Doing Well Positive aspects of the UK HE Web community: Willingness to share experiences (e.g. on web- support and website-info-mgt JISCmail lists) A well-established annual event (IWMW) Avoidance of the ghetto mentality: senior managers, information professionals, designers, software developers, trainers, … meet, talk & socialise Challenges we face: Managing with limited resources Managing service vs supporting user needs Role(s) of our Web services … and the exploitation of new stuff – covered today Introduction

6 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 6 What About Web Standards? Early Days HTML+CSS+WAI WCAG = (Netscape's support for CSS was a problem) Later XML a winner New W3C formats (PNG, SMIL, SVG, …) Limited take-up – and other solutions have benefits (e.g. Flash) More Recently Complexity and Confusion: Semantic Web, Web Services, deployment difficulties (e.g. XHTML 2.0), patent issues, process issues, … Introduction

7 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 7 Summary – UK HE Web In 2004/5 State of play in 2004/5: Web is mission critical We have Web teams and resources (but we'd like more) We have a Web/Information Strategy Focus tends to be on publishing and "stand- and-deliver" model of e-learning? Key applications areas:  Institutional Web site  Intranets  VLEs  Portals  Digital repositories  … Introduction

8 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 8 Web For Significant changes seem to be happening: Blogs and Wikis RSS and Podcasting Mobile devices Pervasive networks (WiFi, broadband at home, 3G, …) Integration of services ("mashups") Microformats Google developments SOA Web 2.0 Introduction

9 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 9 Web2MemeMap, Tim O’Reilly, 2005 Characteristics Of Web 2.0 Network as platform Always beta Clean URIs Remix and mash-ups  Syndication (RSS) Architecture of participation:  Blogs & Wikis  Social networking  Social tagging (folksonomies) Trust and openness Characteristics Of Web 2.0 Network as platform Always beta Clean URIs Remix and mash-ups  Syndication (RSS) Architecture of participation:  Blogs & Wikis  Social networking  Social tagging (folksonomies) Trust and openness Web 2.0 What Is Web 2.0? Marketing term (derived from observing 'patterns') rather than technical standards - “an attitude not a technology” Web 2.0

10 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 10 The "Web 2.0" Term Web 2.0 term is contentious is some circles: Marketing hype Ill-defined – not a rigourously defined term technical people often prefer Doesn't-scale (what comes next?) O'Reilly had to right to create a new term On the other hand: It has generated excitement & interest Its lack of precision allows the flexibility needed in a user-focussed context The word is now widely accepted, and who has the right to reject a term now so widely accepted My view – No Web 2.0 without responsibility (thanks to Andy Clarke for this insight at WWW 2006) Web 2.0

11 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 11 Web 2.0 Exemplars Let's look at some examples Web 2.0

12 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 12 Google as a Web 2.0 Exemplar Google – developed GMail, Google Maps, … Use AJAX to provide richly interactive interfaces Web 2.0 Is your campus map rescalable (without loss of resolution)? Or do you have a campus map in GIF format: poor quality when printed, not reusable, but at least you own it and you've got the University logo on it. (Northumbria is an exception) You will still have work to do, though. For example is your building on the map?

13 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 13 Note: Greasemonkey environment Note: Greasemonkey environment

14 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 14 Can you merge data from 3 rd party sources with your maps, like this merging of Google maps and BBC traffic data? See for examples. Can you merge data from 3 rd party sources with your maps, like this merging of Google maps and BBC traffic data? See for examples. Mashup – merging information from multiple sources (cf music mashups) Mashups Syndication

15 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 15 RSS has its role but: Why send messages which time-out when many users will read them too late? Why not use delivery channels which are spam-free? Why not use delivery channels which are more suited to receiving information (as opposed to discussions)? Why not allow users to select their preferred channels? RSS: Syndication of content A light-weight standard used in the JISC IE View on Web, using one of many dedicated RSS viewers, Opera or Pluck IE plugin Shouldn't RSS viewers be standard on desktops? Shouldn't we be creating RSS feed for news alerts – and not just adding to overload? Shouldn't RSS viewers be standard on desktops? Shouldn't we be creating RSS feed for news alerts – and not just adding to overload? Google for "rss is opt-in authenticated " See RSS briefing paper

16 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 16 RSS, Syndication, OPML IWMW 2006 makes use of RSS for: News about the event Syndication of main areas of Web site (talks,..) Integrating RSS for disparate sources e.g. local & remote services such as Wikis, search engines,… OPML tools also used to provide access to disparate RSS files workshops/webmaster-2006/rss/ workshops/webmaster-2006/rss/ RSS AJAX Syndication Note Newport use Blogbridge as desktop application

17 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 17 Netvibes.com Example of a personalised Web environment – just add your favourite RSS feeds Can be: Conventional news feeds RSS from (e.g GMail) Dynamic RSS from searches Podcasts … Note that Netvibes has an AJAX interface, so that the windows can be dragged around browser area, closed, etc. RSS AJAX Syndication

18 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 18 RSS RSS As A Navigational Aid RSS feeds for structure of Cultivate Interactive created recently RSS file for home page (and similar) provides links to each issue RSS file for an issue provides table of contents for issue RSS files created in Aug 2006, using RSSxl

19 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 19 RSS RSS & OPML As A Navigational Aid OPML provides an import/export function for groups of RSS files Can also be used for navigation But I can provide such navigation using my CMS? Yes, but remember that the interface can be embedded on 3 rd party Web sites – which your CMS doesn’t manage Mashups – take the information to the people, don’t force them to come to you e.g. see

20 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 20 RSS Searching RSS Space Technorati provides a searching service for Blog space/RSS space Thoughts – if you want to be visible in Technorati, you’ll need to create RSS – or encourage others to Blog about you

21 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 21 Web 2.0 Repository Services Slideshare.net provides an good example of a Web 2.0 service for accessing slides: Features: Upload PowerPoint slides Provide tags Users can provide comments How does this compare with our repository services? See Andy Powell’s posting about this Are we putting our data on our own (boring) services & expect users to access it or putting the data where the users go (e.g. YouTube)? See Andy Powell’s posting about this Are we putting our data on our own (boring) services & expect users to access it or putting the data where the users go (e.g. YouTube)? Long tail

22 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 22 Mobile Devices Potential of mobile devices in learning, research, etc. Lectures on iPods; student- created Podcasts;..

23 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 23 PDF Note that Talis (UK library vendor) are publishing Blogs and Podcasts about "Library 2.0" And UKOLN/CDNTL have also been experimenting Note that Talis (UK library vendor) are publishing Blogs and Podcasts about "Library 2.0" And UKOLN/CDNTL have also been experimenting

24 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 24 Are your University Podcasts available through iTunes? Aren't you missing out on a major distribution channel? (Note Student's Union radio shows are leading the way) Are your University Podcasts available through iTunes? Aren't you missing out on a major distribution channel? (Note Student's Union radio shows are leading the way)

25 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 25 Web 2.0 Google "auricle bath" for URL Blogs (1) Blogs seem to be ideal for use in HE: Use by students: sharing learning; reflections on learning; developing writing & social skills; … Use by researchers: sharing knowledge and ideas; maximising impact; … (plus above) High profile e-learning Blog from Bath Univ. Note reference to Podcast – another very relevant technology for HE. Keep informed of e-learning developments from Scott Wilson's (CETIS) Blog. Note use of an RSS reader (reuse of chunks). Use Technorati to search new postings in Blogs. Will you / your researchers) miss out? (NB ~ 100 hits for UCISA on 14/03/2006) Blogs Users Syndication

26 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 26 Blogs And IT Services University of Warwick seem to be leaders in the UK with their Student Blogging service: Listen to Auricle Blog & Podcast with John Dale Note that "students will say and do the wrong thing" issue has been addressed! entry/student_mobile_ownership/ entry/student_mobile_ownership/ Want to engage with your users? Why not set up an IT Services Blog? Here John Dale has received 20 comments on a posting about student mobile ownership (a typical high response rate) Or read Owen Stephen’s Blog about recent UCISA conf. Want to engage with your users? Why not set up an IT Services Blog? Here John Dale has received 20 comments on a posting about student mobile ownership (a typical high response rate) Or read Owen Stephen’s Blog about recent UCISA conf. Blogs Users Syndication

27 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 27 Wikis (1) Wikis provide collaborative, easy-to- use Web-based authoring. Sounds ideal for HE: Students, researchers and support staff:  collaborative work  focus on content, not on authoring tools .. Web 2.0 Issue: (for Web/marketing people) Shouldn't you be proactive in ensuring content is accurate, … Should you seek to lead in order to define structure? Issue: (for Web/marketing people) Shouldn't you be proactive in ensuring content is accurate, … Should you seek to lead in order to define structure? Wikis Users Trust

28 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 28 Wikis (2) How can you not have a Wiki, for (e.g.) Systems documentation Better note-taking Student group working Collaborative research work … Should we be promoting/providing Wikis? UCISA/UKOLN event, Nov 2004 Yes. There could be real benefit and exciting possibilities in every area of institutional activities: teaching & learning, research, administration and user support. We need to get in there first and understand what users need and what they might do. We also need first make better use of wikis ourselves so we can.. Should we be promoting/providing Wikis? UCISA/UKOLN event, Nov 2004 Yes. There could be real benefit and exciting possibilities in every area of institutional activities: teaching & learning, research, administration and user support. We need to get in there first and understand what users need and what they might do. We also need first make better use of wikis ourselves so we can.. Wikis Users Trust

29 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 29 Wikipedia Summary of IWMW series available in Wikipedia: High profile location Google friendly Maximise impact Community can update Good guys seem to win CC rights assigned Clean URI May provide stable URI Shouldn't all information professionals be helping to improve the quality of information in such a popular service? Clean, stable URIs? Mashups, integration, annotation, etc. helped by use of clean (e.g. application independent) and stable URIs Wikis Collaboration Note see advice provided to Museums community

30 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 30 Social Bookmarking / Folksonomies Social bookmark services introduced "folksonomies": User-defined tags Used for bookmarking, shared photos, etc. Comments: Librarians point out flaws in approach But can miss the potential benefits Web 2.0 events/workshops/ucisa-wlf / events/workshops/ucisa-wlf / Looks a good event – I'll bookmark it (with 'UCISA' tag). What else have I bookmarked with the 'UCISA' tag? I notice others have bookmarked the same page. Who are these other people? What are their interest? As well as resource discovery, social bookmarking can help: Identify impact Find related resources (cf Amazon) As well as resource discovery, social bookmarking can help: Identify impact Find related resources (cf Amazon)

31 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk “folksonomies” Issues Should you "claim your tag" (e.g. "iwmw-2006") and convention (e.g. “derby-publicity", “derby- graduation-2006") for your photos, Blogs, etc.? Should you proactively make you photos, etc. available? Issues Should you "claim your tag" (e.g. "iwmw-2006") and convention (e.g. “derby-publicity", “derby- graduation-2006") for your photos, Blogs, etc.? Should you proactively make you photos, etc. available?

32 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 32 Instant Messaging (IM) IM – popular, widely used, with benefits for collaboration, but banned in some places Meebo: Web-based IM client An AJAX application Issues: How do you ban it? Interoperability Doesn't it break WAI guidelines? Should IT Services ban applications when there are trivial ways around such bans? What is the reason for such bans: ideology; resource management; support; security; …? Web 2.0

33 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 33 Communications: Chat IRC chat facility was popular at IWMW 2005/6. Gabbly being evaluated: If no systems effort available On-the-fly chatting How long to set up: Go to Create chat on your institution’s home page How long? This provides on-the-fly creation of chat facilities Web 2.0 and IWMW 2006 Too good to be true? Suspicious of anything this simple? See risk assessment page Users Collaboration AJAX Syndication

34 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 34 Web 2.0 Skype / VoIP VoIP is coming, so now’s the time to gain experiences. What are the implications of ‘free’ always-on telephony (i.e. it's not just about software) - you could be broadcasting this talk now! Skype is a good example of Internet telephony: Integrated voice, IM, Web (and now video) Can be high quality Free / cheap calls Conference calls Accessibility benefits  Proprietary  Network and management issues Users Communications

35 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 35 Building A Community Building a community for your Web site can: Maximise impact by allowing interested parties to discuss their shared interests Provide you with feedback & ideas Allow you to provide targetted information Web 2.0 services such as Frappr, Blogger, MySpace, etc. allow Web communities to be easily set up (and may be particularly valuable to the 'Net Generation') Users Collaboration Syndication

36 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 36 Microformats (1) Microformats: Highlight of WWW 2006 Semantic markup on the cheap – builds on existing XHTML pages No need for complex software See Using microformats: Add some simple semantics using,, etc. classes: Brian Kelly Firefox plugins, harvesters, etc can process the semantic markup e.g. add names to your Outlook contacts, events to your Google calendar, etc Bath Univ created thousands of pages with microformats using simple tweak to Perl scripts Web 2.0

37 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 37 Microformats (2) Pages on IWMW 2006 Web site have microformats Plugins such as Tails display contact and event details & allow them to be uploaded to Outlook, Google Calendar, etc Web 2.0 workshops/webmaster-2006/sessions/kelly workshops/webmaster-2006/sessions/kelly World Cup Web site also has microformats. This avoids the cumbersome downloading dates, entering calendar, selecting import, finding file, … Network as application Syndication

38 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 38 Maps Google Map of University of Bath embedded on Web site Provides: Usability (rescalable and repositioning through use of AJAX) Can be personalised (map from my home) Effective use of scarce resources (avoids techies duplicating existing services) Web 2.0 and IWMW workshops/webmaster-2006/maps/ workshops/webmaster-2006/maps/ Risk: What if Google go out-of-business? Response: What if local staff leave? What if other development work they should do fails to get done? Risk: What if Google go out-of-business? Response: What if local staff leave? What if other development work they should do fails to get done? Note: Northumbria have better examples APIs AJAX Mashups Syndication

39 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 39 Location Services Google Maps Mashups Google Map ‘mashup’ used for IWMW 2006 event: ~ 20 lines of JavaScript. Code taken from Google Maps Web site and coordinates added workshops/webmaster-2006/maps/ More sophisticated mapping applications are being developed, such as Radius 5 at Northumbria Univ.

40 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 40 Location Services Location Metadata (1) Embedded location metadata can now by exploited by various 3 rd party tools How? Install Greasemap script & add: meetings/edinburgh / meetings/edinburgh / Note I shouldn’t do this, the organisation should be responsible for its own metadata (I’ve probably got the wrong building!)

41 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 41 Location Services Location Metadata (2) Same location metadata can be used by other applications. web-focus/events/meetings/edinburgh / web-focus/events/meetings/edinburgh / Note also Geo microformats – embed location inline in HTML text, which can be exploited by various tools

42 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 42 GeoRSS Location metadata can also be included in RSS feeds Advantages: Simple encoding of data in RSS Range of applications to process data web-focus/events/presentations-2006.rss web-focus/events/presentations-2006.rss This example is linked in from a list of presentations at

43 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 43 UK participants include: National Archives Natural History Museum Creative Commons, Science Commons, Open Access, Open Source, … are helping to drive Web 2.0. What's the UK HE's take on this? Creative Commons, Science Commons, Open Access, Open Source, … are helping to drive Web 2.0. What's the UK HE's take on this?

44 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 44 See "Let's Free IT Support Materials!" (EUNIS 2005 paper) as an example of what UK HE could be doing

45 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 45 Deployment Challenges Such questions: How do we go about deploying Web 2.0? More importantly, should we (isn't it just hype?) Challenges: The Web policy is owned by the marketing people; they see the Web as a publishing vehicle not as a communications tool We can't use Creative Commons, open access, etc. We shouldn't make use of commercial services These services are: Technically / philosophically flawed Don't reflect our views on open source / standards Breaking out of our existing culture, software, … Barriers These issues will be addressed in the EMUIT meeting

46 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 46 Technical & Cultural Barriers Technical Barriers: Will it work?  Is it interoperable? Is it secure?  Is performance acceptable? Do we have the expertise, resources, … … Cultural and Organisational Barriers: What/who are the barriers? IT Services  Librarians Academics  Senior management Users  … I may need an escort out of the building after upsetting all of these groups! Barriers

47 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 47 Nobody Likes Us - The Users' View IT Services: Don't understand learning and teaching and think that students only ever use the Web for messing around. Have no interest in what the users actually want and generally prefer to give the users what they themselves think they want. (I've seen senior IS staff dismiss the data gathered in formal user requirements gathering exercises because it doesn't fit their own viewpoint.) Tend to work in silos (example: student information systems team which won't talk to the VLE team), and will do anything to avoid working with others outside of their own silo. They have no concept of team working across services or with academic staff. Consultation usually consists of them telling you what they are going to do. If you tell them what you want they don't listen! IT Services Barrier Do these comments ring any bells? If not, how can you be sure?

48 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 48 Nobody Likes Us - The Users' View IT Services: Don't understand learning and teaching and think that students only ever use the Web for messing around. Have no interest in what the users actually want and generally prefer to give the users what they themselves think they want. (I've seen senior IS staff dismiss the data gathered in formal user requirements gathering exercises because it doesn't fit their own viewpoint.) Tend to work in silos (example: student information systems team which won't talk to the VLE team), and will do anything to avoid working with others outside of their own silo. They have no concept of team working across services or with academic staff. Consultation usually consists of them telling you what they are going to do. If you tell them what you want they don't listen! IT Services Barrier Do these comments ring any bells? If not, how can you be sure?

49 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 49 A Blairite Vision Of Control? The government wishes to introduce: ID cards Greater powers of arrest … in order to minimise the dangers of global terrorism IT Services (esp. networking staff) seem to wish to: Manage applications used by users Ban certain software … in order to minimise dangers of computer attacks The rational for organisations to wish to introduce greater control mechanisms is understandable. But citizens / users may regard such measures as not also necessary and may tolerate some level of risk-taking. (And do any of the above "sex up" the information to achieve these goals?) The rational for organisations to wish to introduce greater control mechanisms is understandable. But citizens / users may regard such measures as not also necessary and may tolerate some level of risk-taking. (And do any of the above "sex up" the information to achieve these goals?) IT Services Barrier

50 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 50 Beware The IT Fundamentalists We need to avoid simplistic solutions to the complexities: Open Standards Fundamentalist: we just need XML Open Source Fundamentalist: we just need Linux Vendor Fundamentalist: we must need next version of our enterprise system (and you must fit in with this) Accessibility Fundamentalist: we must do WAI WCAG User Fundamentalist: we must do whatever users want Legal Fundamentalist: it breaches copyright, … Ownership Fundamentalist: must own everything we use Perfectionist: It doesn't do everything, so we'll do nothing Simplistic Developer: I've developed a perfect solution – I don't care if it doesn't run in the real world IT Services Barrier IT Director, March 2006 "I could give names of the individuals in my department!"

51 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 51 The Librarian Fundamentalists Librarians: Think they know better than the user e.g. they don't like people using Google Scholar; they should use Web of Knowledge (who cares that users find it easier to use Google Scholar & finds references they need that way?) Think that users should be forced to learn Boolean searching & other formal search techniques because this is good for them. Don't want the users to search for themselves (cf folksonomies) because they won't get it right. They still want to classify the entire Web - despite the fact that users don't use their lists of Web links. Want services to be perfect before they will release them to their users. They are very uncomfortable with the concept of 'forever beta' (because they don't believe that their users have the capability to figure these things out for themselves and work around the bugs). Library Barrier

52 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 52 The Problem With Academics The enthusiasts academics will be: Here, encouraged by Web 2.0 descriptions Cheering the critiques of the service departments However: Many academic are conservative & won't care Many will feel threatened Many won't like WiFi in lecture theatres, students chatting on IRC, Googling answers, … Many will soon ask for WiFi to be removed, blocked from lecture theatres (including areas where it's not yet available!) Academics Barrier

53 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 53 Problems With Senior Management / Users Senior management: Don't understand technologies Can be conservative More comfortable with conventional business relations with vendors May be over-cautious about being sued … Users: Can be conservative Many don't understand technologies Those that do may use the technologies in dangerous ways … Barriers

54 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 54 Addressing the Barriers How do we address such barriers: A change in culture Being more open (surely what HE is about?) Revisiting AUPs Developing more sophisticated models for standards, accessibility, open source, … Integrating IT policies & institutional policies Risk management User-focussed approach to development Developing key principles Ongoing debate and discussion Addressing The Barriers

55 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 55 Need To Change Catch Phrases Computer Says No! Time to ditch this catch phrase Wikis? IT Services says no Folksonomies? Library says no Skype? UKERNA says no Wikis? IT Services says no Folksonomies? Library says no Skype? UKERNA says no Yer, but, no, but, yer Time to embrace the ambiguities acknowledged by Vicky Pollard Yer, like Wikis are well cool, but, OK so I copied my homework, but, like I always copy my homework Images from BBC Web site Need for Culture Change X

56 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 56 User Focus Web 2.0 highlights importance of user involvement: Blogs, Wikis, social networks, etc. Therefore: Need to place emphasis on user needs May be a need to move focus away from institutional needs (e.g. corporate Web presence, large CMS, enterprise software, …) This will be contentious! IWMW 2006 Web site uses Web 2.0 technologies to: Allow our use to see and use the technologies To provide services to support our users (e.g. maps, collaborative authoring, …) To enable scarce technical effort to be used more effectively IWMW 2006 Web site uses Web 2.0 technologies to: Allow our use to see and use the technologies To provide services to support our users (e.g. maps, collaborative authoring, …) To enable scarce technical effort to be used more effectively Addressing The Barriers

57 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 57 Risk Management IWMW 2006 Web site uses: Google Maps & Google Search Wikis RSS viewers & aggregators & OPML viewers Microformats & microformating tools Del.icio.us social bookmarking tool Content hosted by others (e.g. Wikipedia and Upcoming ) Risk management approach: User engagement, sharing of risks, experiences, … Small-scale trials Backup plans Local management to facilitate change control.. Addressing The Barriers

58 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 58 Do It! Don't just talk about Web 2.0 – use it, build it, engage with it, … Start now: let's have some examples of how Web 2.0 technologies can be useful to you and your institution. Addressing The Barriers Map A Campus Day An idea. Campus maps are important. Google Maps look useful, but coverage is partial and building details aren't available. So let's map our campuses: students, staff, etc. with GPS devices recording details, storing locally and uploading to Google Maps (and other mapping services). But before doing this, let's talk, find out what data we already have; software we can use; experiences we can share; … Who's game? Map A Campus Day An idea. Campus maps are important. Google Maps look useful, but coverage is partial and building details aren't available. So let's map our campuses: students, staff, etc. with GPS devices recording details, storing locally and uploading to Google Maps (and other mapping services). But before doing this, let's talk, find out what data we already have; software we can use; experiences we can share; … Who's game?

59 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 59 Implement An Open Approach Implementing an open approach should not be difficult: We have tradition of sharing & using OSS The HE sector is now more open to discussing open access issues (e-prints, financial issues, …) Creative Commons (CC) provides a legal framework What can we do: Make support services resources available with CC licence: see paper on "Let's Free IT Support Materials!" Exploit UKOLN's QA Focus briefing documents: 90+ documents available with CC licence Contribute to UKOLN's Wiki on Best Practices For CMSs (being planned) … Using other's resources and service may be unpopular (job security, ideology, …). For example, should IT services host , … when this can be outsourced? Addressing The Barriers

60 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 60 Acceptable Use Policies (AUP) Is Skype Permitted over JANET? "The Computing Service is frequently asked for a ruling on whether Skype may legitimately be used... the Computing Service considers that use of Skype contravenes the JANET Acceptable Use Policy, although UKERNA does not concur with this view." Missing The Point? There may be (religious) debates over the interpretation of UKERNA's words. But Did the policy come from God? Is it infallible? Why do we hide behind AUPs? Proposal: An AUP is meant to work on behalf of an organisation, helping to ensure the effective use of IT by its users. An AUP should not be used as a control mechanism to prevent usage which IT staff may frown upon. Proposal: An AUP is meant to work on behalf of an organisation, helping to ensure the effective use of IT by its users. An AUP should not be used as a control mechanism to prevent usage which IT staff may frown upon. Addressing The Barriers

61 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 61 The Need For An AUPP AUPs: Shouldn't be cast in stone: technologies change; usage changes; culture changes (e.g. AUPs banning social use; ; Web; messaging; …) Therefore need for mechanisms for changing AUPs and engagement with users Proposal: We need an Acceptable Use Policy Process (AUPP) We need mechanisms to ensure users can input into the discussion process We need more flexibility in our AUPs (e.g. to reflect blended learning, pervasiveness of IT; …) Addressing The Barriers

62 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 62 Example of AUPP For Skype Background: P2P applications banned: typically used for downloading copyrighted materials Legitimate uses of P2P grow e.g. Internet telephony Discussions: Skype is proprietary; lack of management control; can degrade performance; SIP provides open alternative; … Skype works; minimal support needed; provides rich functionality not available with SIP (e.g. video; shared browsing; etc.); my remote colleagues use Skype; … Pragmatic Solution (Yer, but no, but yer): Evaluation period Network problems in halls  banned there in response to user concerns; discouraged on campus, until technical solutions (e.g. network shaper) tested, with plans to then liberalise policy (or SIP is usable) Addressing The Barriers

63 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 63 Framework For Diversity: Standards Open Standards – the Challenges Open standards? Yer, great. Like, Bill Gates is SO evil. But, well RDF, hmm. OSI? Coloured Books? How old do you take me for? No, but, I always use MS Windows for playing games. Contextual Approach A contextual approach to standards has been developed: Recognises context (not one-size- fits-all) Scalable for use by others See "A Standards Framework For Digital Library Programmes", ichim05 conf & "A Contextual Framework For Standards" at E-Government: Barriers & Opportunities workshop, May 2006 Purpose Governance MaturityRisks … SectorFundingResearch … ExternalSelf assessment Learning … Context: Compliance External factors: legal, cultural, … … Context: Policies Annotated Standards Catalogue Richer Models

64 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 64 Framework For Diversity: Accessibility Accessibility – the Challenges WAI WCAG – important area and high visibility But the model is flawed, fails to take into account developments e.g. can you use Podcasts? Holistic / Approach Blended Holistic approach to e-learning accessibility developed Accessibility of learning outcomes (not necessarily digital resources) is paramount WAI WCAG are guidelines See "Implementing A Holistic Approach To E-Learning Accessibility" prize-winning ALT- C 2005 paper Follow up paper at W4A 2006, May 2006 will further develop model WAI Richer Models

65 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 65 Liberalising Our Policies Nothing New Derek Law pointed our arguments for a more liberal approach at IWMW 2002 (see video clip from 09:50-11:00). Issues: Should we ban dubious (but legal) use if students have paid? How strongly do we enforce bans of P2P apps (Napster)? These issues related to clear 'social' use of IT – and didn't consider use of P2P, etc. in a work-related context. Wider Context We need to think about policies in a wider context: Blended Policies which reflect wider University culture (e.g. blended learning; blended accessibility; …) Policies which describe principles, but allow flexibility in implementation (e.g. to allow academics flexibility in exploring learning issues ) IT Policies & Institutional Culture

66 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 66 Addressing The Barriers Need For Shared Understanding UKOLN/UCISA/CETIS workshop on “Disruptive Technologies” agreed on potential benefits for principles on mutual understanding between user community and IT Services Draft Principles for Service Providers User Focus: We will ensure that priority is given to a user focussed approach to our services. Avoiding Dogma: We will develop policies (e.g. standards, open source, accessibility, …) but these will evolve and won't be used in a dogmatic way. Responsive to Change: We will seek to be responsive to changes in technology, user needs, cultural and political developments. Good Communications: We will establish (and monitor) effective communications channels Learning: We recognise that HEIs will seek to make use of IT in innovative ways and we will support such innovation Draft Principles for Service Providers User Focus: We will ensure that priority is given to a user focussed approach to our services. Avoiding Dogma: We will develop policies (e.g. standards, open source, accessibility, …) but these will evolve and won't be used in a dogmatic way. Responsive to Change: We will seek to be responsive to changes in technology, user needs, cultural and political developments. Good Communications: We will establish (and monitor) effective communications channels Learning: We recognise that HEIs will seek to make use of IT in innovative ways and we will support such innovation

67 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 67 Proposed Principles (2) Draft Principles for Developers Scalability: Developers will recognise that there will be scalability issues to be addressed if innovations are to be deployed into service. Sustainability : Developers will recognise that innovations need to be sustainable if they are to be deployed into service. R eliability : Developers will recognise that a high level of reliability is needed if innovations are to be deployed... Integration : Developers will recognise that innovative services may need to be integrated with existing systems. Consistency : Developers will recognise that innovations need to be harmonised with existing systems (e.g. avoid replicating functionality, …) (Also need something on security) Draft principles available Notes on Wiki available Draft principles available Notes on Wiki available Addressing The Barriers

68 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 68 Keep Talking In a period of rapid change it is important to have wide open debate and discussion Web 2.0 deployment issues were addressed at the UKOLN/UCISA/CETIS workshop on "Initiatives & Innovation: Managing Disruptive Technologies" at University of Warwick on 24 Feb A Wiki kept a record of the discussion group summaries. Web 2.0 deployment issues were addressed at the UKOLN/UCISA/CETIS workshop on "Initiatives & Innovation: Managing Disruptive Technologies" at University of Warwick on 24 Feb A Wiki kept a record of the discussion group summaries. The 11 th Institutional Web Management Workshop will be held at University of York, June What will you be doing in your institution; in your region; within your community? Addressing The Barriers

69 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 69 Conclusions To conclude: Web 2.0 can provide real benefits for our users However organisations tend to be conservative We therefore need:  Advocacy  To listen to users' concerns  To address users' concerns e.g. through a risk management approach We can all benefit by adopting Web 2.0 principles of openness and sharing. So let us:  Share our advocacy resources, risk management techniques, etc.  Have your social network based on openness, trust, collaboration,.. Conclusions


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