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PRESIDENT PUTIN’S FEDERAL REFORMS 2000-2005. Since 2000 – from ‘centered controlled federalism’ to ‘quasi federalism’(?) … the danger of the country disintegration.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESIDENT PUTIN’S FEDERAL REFORMS 2000-2005. Since 2000 – from ‘centered controlled federalism’ to ‘quasi federalism’(?) … the danger of the country disintegration."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESIDENT PUTIN’S FEDERAL REFORMS

2 Since 2000 – from ‘centered controlled federalism’ to ‘quasi federalism’(?) … the danger of the country disintegration the danger of the country disintegration the removal of economic policy from the politicized influence of local and regional interests (as well as national lobbies). the removal of economic policy from the politicized influence of local and regional interests (as well as national lobbies). the inability of the central power to guarantee the civil and social rights of Russian citizens in all units of the RF. the inability of the central power to guarantee the civil and social rights of Russian citizens in all units of the RF.

3 How have the federal authorities managed to regain political control over the regions? 1. The war in Chechnya as an obvious political message to those, mainly non-Russian, regions that gained major autonomy in recent years. 2. Drastic increase in political control over the regions, supporting economically weak regions due to the results of 1999 parliamentary elections.

4 Two stages in strengthening the central authority:

5 2000 the creation of seven federal districts under the control of an Authorized Representative of the President. the creation of seven federal districts under the control of an Authorized Representative of the President. the change in the way of the Council of the Federation formation the change in the way of the Council of the Federation formation the possibility for the President to dismiss and remove regional leaders if they have adopted decisions which violate the Federal Constitution or Federal laws or have refused to implement Federal legislation or court decisions or if they have been found guilty of having committed crimes. the possibility for the President to dismiss and remove regional leaders if they have adopted decisions which violate the Federal Constitution or Federal laws or have refused to implement Federal legislation or court decisions or if they have been found guilty of having committed crimes. the introduction of an advisory State Council the introduction of an advisory State Council

6 2000 Back to Constitutional Federalism: the end of the bilateral treaty process. Back to Constitutional Federalism: the end of the bilateral treaty process. The End of “War of Laws”: a burst of legal reforms in regions and republics. The End of “War of Laws”: a burst of legal reforms in regions and republics. How many times can governors be re- elected?

7 2004  the highest executive official (governor) in a union of the RF no longer is elected by popular vote. Instead, the law provides for his or her confirmation by the respective regional legislature upon the proposal of the President of the Federation. Should the local legislature fail to confirm the candidate, the President would designate an interim official.  the right of the President of the RF to dissolve the regional legislature if it twice rejects the President’s candidate.  the responsibility of the governor towards the regional legislature is diminished. The law reduces the right of the legislatures to a preliminary vote of no confidence which is subject to examination and final decision by the President of the RF.  the strengthening of the power of the President of the RF to dismiss the governor. The President has a right of dismissal for a situation in which the President loses confidence in this highest executive official.

8 The great reduction of the power of the regions to autonomously form their own organs of government.  BUT: Has it impinged on the essence of autonomous responsibilities of the regions, transforming their character from autonomous units expressing the will of the local population to bodies basically implementing federal policies?

9 A particularly important problem is the Council of the Federation. A particularly important problem is the Council of the Federation. The new reform certainly goes to the utmost limit of what can still be regarded as a federal model. The new reform certainly goes to the utmost limit of what can still be regarded as a federal model.

10 LAW IS LAW AND LIFE IS LIFE… AND LIFE IS LIFE…

11 Formal legal provisions are not as important as their actual implementation and ‘operation’.

12 Centralist and anti-federal in their intention, the impact of Putin’s reforms is limited by regional diversity, regional diversity, institutional inconsistency, institutional inconsistency, a lack of steering presidential capacity. a lack of steering presidential capacity.

13 Is federalism beneficial for democratic development, especially in large and diverse societies?

14 Successful federalism requires: well functioning democratic institutions, well functioning democratic institutions, integrated national political parties, integrated national political parties, appropriate electoral incentives created by democratic political competition. appropriate electoral incentives created by democratic political competition.

15 William Riker: The institutions of federalism are fundamentally incompatible with intermediate values of the quality of democracy SO The immature democracies wishing to keep federalism will have to resort to the non-democratic tools of protecting their territorial integrity.

16 The specific mechanism for that is “personnel integration” – establishing a mutually beneficial relationship between the center and unit-level governments, where in exchange for federal loyalty the center shields local politicians from competitive pressures by institutionalizing non-electoral and top-down procedures for appointing and retaining the regional cadre. Preservation of federalism in Russia, even if only in form, would require guarding against political competition of any sort re-emerging at the regional level. Will retaining federalism cost Russia its chance of having a democracy? Will retaining federalism cost Russia its chance of having a democracy?

17 In any case three things have already changed permanently in Russian political process: an increase in the number and type of players in the Russian political system; an increase in the number and type of players in the Russian political system; the proliferation of power venues and "entry points" into the political system; the proliferation of power venues and "entry points" into the political system; the slide from political power or authority as a singular concept to one which is increasingly plural in nature. the slide from political power or authority as a singular concept to one which is increasingly plural in nature.


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