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1 Tel: +90 (312) 215 50 21 Faks: +90 (312) 215 50 28 e-posta: Dr. Rana Güven Dep. Dir. Gen. Working Conditions.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Tel: +90 (312) 215 50 21 Faks: +90 (312) 215 50 28 e-posta: Dr. Rana Güven Dep. Dir. Gen. Working Conditions."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Dr. Rana Güven Dep. Dir. Gen. Working Conditions of Dust Containing Workplaces, Legal Basis for Prevention of Workers’ Health 21 April 2006/Antalya Ministry of Labour and Social Security Directorate General of Occupational Health and Safety

2 2 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Occupational Health ILO/WHO (1950) Occupational Health ILO/WHO (1950) >To improve the physical, mental and social well-being of all employees to ultimate level and keep at the ultimate level, >To prevent the health problems of employees associated with working conditions, >To protect the employees from the agents at the workplace which damage their health, >To provide working conditions, which are most suitable for their physical and psychological conditions.

3 3 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Occupational Health ILO/WHO (1995) Occupational Health ILO/WHO (1995) >To protect the health and working capacity of the employees, >To improve the working environment and the work done, >To develop work organization and working culture in order to improve health and safety at the workplace.

4 4 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Global Estimates Global workforce 2.8 billion Work related fatalities 2.2 million Occupational accidents 270 million Work-related diseases 160 million Global GDP (income) billion $ Lost GDP in accidents/diseases4 % Migrants175 million llliterate1000 million People in poverty1000 million Child workers246 million (Takala, 2005)

5 5 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Kaynak: Brigitte Froneberg, ILO 07/2005 Global estimated work-related Mortality

6 6 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Kaynak: Brigitte Froneberg, ILO 07/2005 Global estimated Cost by disease

7 7 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Sickness absence by diagnosis and effect on production and national economy Kaynak: Brigitte Froneberg, ILO 07/2005

8 8 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: According to ILO Publications; >Silicosis affects 10 million employees worldwide. >37% of Latin American mining workers are affected by Silicosis. Prevalance of silicosis is nearly 50% among mining workers above 50 years of age. >50% of the workers and 36% of the workers working in rock processing in the pencil industry in India suffer from Silicosis.

9 9 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Reductıon In Prevalence Of Sılıcosıs; USA million exposed; 10% are at rısk GERMANY - 3,500 cases of sılıcosıs annually (1990s) FRANCE cases of sılıcosıs are notıfıed yearly JAPAN - 1,000 cases of sılıcosıs reported yearly AUSTRALIA - 1,010 cases are predıcted UK new cases of pneumoconıoses (2002) Global Situation – developed countries

10 10 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: CHINA - 59,773 new cases ( ), Incidence ,000 Prevalence - 542,041 (1998), >1m in million exposed, DEATHS - 5,000 YEARLY INDIA - 5 million exposed, prevalence up to 55% BRAZIL million exposed to silica dusts COLOMBIA - 1,8 million workers at risk LATIN AMERICA - 37% prevalence in miners, 50%- 50 yrs old SOUTH AFRICA % prevalence in some industries 600’000 former miners with silicosis GENERAL – 30-50% workers may suffer from dust-related occupational diseases in high risk sectors Global Situation – developing countries

11 11 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Global Situation – developing countries CountryExposed PopulationPrevalence Rate% BoliviaTin Miners (silicosis)7.6 BrazilPhosphate rock workers27.0 ChileCoal miners (CWP)14.1 ColombiaCoal miners (CWP)15.0 EgyptCoal miners (CWP)9.1 IndiaSlate pencil workers54.6 Stone cutters35.2 Agate workers 18.5 KoreaAnthracite miners9,3 ThailandStone mortar workers21.0 Refractory brick workers9.3 VietnamMining, quarrying18,0 ZimbabweMetal miners 20.0

12 12 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Some Statistical Data of WHO-Europa 2005

13 13 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: EU Countries, before May 2004 TR New cases of Occ. Diseases per

14 14 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: 12 European Union Member States (2001) >485 of occupational diseases are silicosis. >Wide spread use of crystalline silica in various sectors affect the risk of silicosis depending on the characteristics of the work and technological factors. >For instance, the risk of silicosis has been found to be between 1.9 and 6.5% for rock processing workers, whereas it has been found as 30% in sand blasting opertions.

15 15 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Some Data of OHS in TURKEY

16 16 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Number of Workplaces ( , SSK)

17 17 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Number of Workers ( , SSK)

18 18 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: SSK Statistics 2004 SSK Statistics > occupational accidents >384 occupational diseases >843 deaths > working days lost

19 19 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Number of Occupational Diseases ( , SSK)

20 20 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Number of Fatalities Due to Occupational Diseases and Accidents ( , SSK)

21 21 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Index of Occupational Diseases (Regulation of Health Procedures, 1972) Group A: Diseases due to hazardous chemicals and their compounds. Group B: Occupational skin diseases Group C : Pneumoconiosis and other occupational respiratory diseases. Group D : Occupational infectious diseases Group E : Diseases due to physical agents

22 22 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Group C: Pneumoconiosis and other occupational respiratory diseases (2004, SSK) Group C F M T C-1 A50 Silicosis and silicotuberculosis C-1 B51 Asbestosis 011 C-1 C52 Silicatosis 000 C-1 D53 Siderosis 011 C-254 Aliminium and its compounds 000 C-355 Hard-metal dust 000 C-456 Thomas slug 000 C-557 Ocupational bronchial asthma 134 C-658 Byssinosis 000

23 23 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Number of Workers Exposed to Dust (2004, SSK) >Coal Mining >Mining except Coal Mining 8512 >Stone, Clay, Sand Quarries >Deduce of other Ores >Stone, Soil, Clay, Sand etc. Prod TOTAL

24 24 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: National and International Regulations About Dusts

25 25 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: ILO CONVENTIONS-RECOMMENDATIONS Occupational Safety and Health >Convention of Occupational Safety and Health 1981 No.155 >Recommendation for Occupational Safety and Health 1981 No.164 Occupational Safety Services >Convention of Occupational Safety Services 1985 No.161 >Recommendation for Occupational Safety Services 1985 No.171

26 26 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: ILO CONVENTIONS-RECOMMENDATIONS >Asbestosis Convention No.162. >Asbestosis Recommendation No.172 >Chemicals Convention No.170 >Chemicals Recommendation No.177 >Convention of Occupational Cancers No.139 >Recommendation for Occupational Cancers No.147 >Convention of Safety and Health in Mines, 1995 No:176 >Recommendation for Safety and Health in Mines, 1995 No:183 >Convention of Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise ve Vibration), 1977 No:148 >Recommendation for Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise ve Vibration), 1977 No:156

27 27 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: “National Action Plan for Silicosis” (1995 and 2003) ILO/WHO Global Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis (GPES) “National Action Plan for Silicosis” (1995 and 2003)

28 28 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta:

29 29 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta:

30 30 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: ILO/WHO Global Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis Definition of the GPES The ILO/WHO global programme for the elımınatıon of sılıcosıs (gpes) ıs an ınternatıonal technıcal cooperatıon programme desıgned to assıst countrıes ın theır actıon to pprevent sılıcosıs and elımınate ıt as an occupatıonal health problem worldwıde.

31 31 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: ILO/WHO Global Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis Purpose of the programme Offer framework for wıde ınternatıonal cooperatıon Contrıbute to the global elımınatıon of sılıcosıs as OSH problem Immediate objective Promote establısment of natıonal actıon programs Reduce sıgnıfıcantly the ıncıdence rate of sılıcosıs by 2015 Development objective Establısh long-term wıde ınternatıonal cooperatıon Elımınate sılıcosıs as OSH problem by 2030

32 32 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: ILO/WHO Global Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis ILO 2000 Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis 1980, 2000

33 33 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Seminar on International ILO Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis July 2005/Ankara First seminar in Turkey: 1995 The second one: 2005 Participants: MOLSS 8 Ministry of Health 20 Universities 3 Turkish Med. Ass. 2 Foun. of Thorax 3 Private sector 7 Total 43 Medical doctors.

34 34 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Some photos from ILO Seminar in Ankara

35 35 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Current Legislation in Turkey Regulation for Worker Health and Occupational Safety Fourth Chapter - Article 76 Regulation for Occupational Health and Safety Measures in Mines, Quarries and Tunnel Construction Regulation for Combatting Dust in Mines, Quarries and Tunnel Construction Regulation for Heavy and Hazardous Works

36 36 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Labour Act No.1475 " Regulation for Occupational Health and Safety Measures in Mines, Quarries and Tunnel Construction“ Regulation for Combatting Dust in Mines, Quarries and Tunnel Construction 14/09/ (Change: )

37 37 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: OBJECTIVE: In all mining, quarrying and tunnel constrcution enterprises and their complementary facilities within the scope of the Labour Act, Fight against dust and protect employees from dusts leading to pneumoconiosis

38 38 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: The Commission of Challenge Against Dust Makes decisions by considering the opinions and recommendatons of DGOHS, Board of Labour Inspectorate, workplaces and employers covered by this regulation and other related foundations, regarding this implementation of the regulation. The Unit to Challenge Against Dust The enterprises in which 300 or more workers are employed are obliged to found a unit to fight against dust.

39 39 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: The Commission of Challenge Against Dust (TMK) >Ministry of Health, >Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, >One representative from confederations of trade unions and employer associations who have the highest number of members >Representatves of Ministry of Labour and Social Security >One doctor and one engineer who have experience on dust and pneumoconiosis researches

40 40 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Legislation Activities >In December 2004, it has been decided to ask for the recommendations of the foundations and universities. >35 foundations delivered recommendations. >Final draft of the regulation was prepared by TMK in June 2005.

41 41 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: DRAFT: 21 ESD= mg/m³ % SiO2+2 TLV is assumed to be 3 mg/m3 where the SiO2 content is below 5%. Treshold Limit Values Article 16 -(Değişik 26/2/ s.R.G.).) For respirable dusts whose SiO2 content is above %5 TLV = 25 mg/m³ % SiO2 TLV is assumed to be 5 mg/m3 where the SiO2 content is below 5%.

42 42 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Medical examinations Workers are medically examined before they are employed and periodically examined during their employment. Protection Against Pneumoconiosis and Operations Related to Diagnosis of Pneumoconiosis (1)

43 43 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Assessment of chest radiographies Workers are subjected to standard chest radiography before they are employed and once every two years during their employment. The standard chest radiographs are assessed by reader A for and sent to reader B. Protection Against Pneumoconiosis and Operations Related to Diagnosis of Pneumoconiosis (2) DRAFT: Workers are subjected to standard chest radiography before they are employed and once a year during their employment. The standard chest radiographs are separately assessed by two readers.

44 44 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Protection Against Pneumoconiosis and Operations Related to Diagnosis of Pneumoconiosis (3) Employment conditions of the employees diagnosed as Pneumoconiosis Category I in the workplaces where dust concentration is below 2%, Category II in the dust-free operations. DRAFT: The employees who are diagnosed as Category I or higher are employed in dust-free environments.

45 45 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Training Seminars Seminars are organized for the medical doctors who will take part in the unit for challenge against dust. These seminar programs are prepared and implemented by the universities and related foundations, under coordination of İSGÜM. Training (1) DRAFT: Technical staff employed in the unit for combating dust and the medical doctors who will be examiners in the assessment of pneumoconiosis should be certificated. To that end, training seminars which are coordinated by DGOHS and in which İSGÜM, universities and related foundations participate are organized; and the ones who successfully finish the seminars are given their certificates by DGOHS.

46 46 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Pneumoconiosis Assessment Seminars Training seminars on ILO International Classification of Pneumoconiosis Radiography are organized for the doctors who will take part as readers A and B, under coordination of İSGÜM. Training (2) DRAFT: The ones who successfully finish the training seminar on ILO International Classification of Pneumoconiosis Radiography arranged for the medical doctors who will work as examiners, are given certificates. Certificates of the medical doctors are kept valid provided that they attend the proficiency evaluation exams held every five years and become successful.

47 47 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: National Action Plan for Elimination of Silicosis in Turkey

48 48 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: PROBLEMS >Inadequacy of dust measurements >High exposure concentrations >Ineffective health surveillance >Insufficient reporting for occupational diseases >Small-sized enterprises

49 49 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: DETERMINATION OF THE PROBLEMS Extent of the problem Socio-economical conditions Determination of the groups under risk Definition of the prevention strategy Institutional frame work and participants Implementation of the program Mechanism and monitoring of the implementation Development of the national standard

50 50 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Implementation of the Regulation, prepared in agreement with the social partners, Improvement of the supporting and consultation services of the government, Ineffective inspection Development of the record system for occupational diseases Training and raising awareness of the OHS professionals, Cooperation of the involved parties.

51 51 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: İSGÜM

52 52 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta: Contact us... İSG Journal of Occupational Health and Safety WEB page

53 53 Tel: +90 (312) Faks: +90 (312) e-posta:


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