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It’s a foundation for children around the world that provides food, education, medical care and housing. These children are infected with the HIV virus.

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Presentation on theme: "It’s a foundation for children around the world that provides food, education, medical care and housing. These children are infected with the HIV virus."— Presentation transcript:

1 It’s a foundation for children around the world that provides food, education, medical care and housing. These children are infected with the HIV virus or have AIDS already. Its important to help these children in need because they are our future. In my presentation I provide information on the HIV virus and AIDS. Also how you can be apart if saving children lives.

2 AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a disease that makes it difficult for the body to fight off infectious diseases. The human immunodeficiency virus known as HIV causes AIDS by infecting and damaging part of the body's defenses against infection — lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell in the body's immune (infection-fighting) system that is supposed to fight off invading germs. HIV can be transmitted through direct contact with the blood or body fluid of someone who is infected with the virus. That contact usually comes from sharing needles or by having unprotected sex with an infected person. An infant could get HIV from a mother who is infected. Though there are treatments for HIV and AIDS, there are no vaccines or cures for them. But there are things you can do to prevent you and your child from getting the disease.

3  The virus attacks specific lymphocytes called T helper cells (also known as T-cells), takes them over, and multiplies. This destroys more T-cells, which damages the body's ability to fight off invading germs and disease.  When the number of T-cells falls to a very low level, people with HIV become more susceptible to other infections and they may get certain types of cancer that a healthy body would normally be able to fight off. This weakened immunity (or immune deficiency) is known as AIDS and can result in severe life-threatening infections, some forms of cancer, and the deterioration of the nervous system. Although AIDS is always the result of an HIV infection, not everyone with HIV has AIDS. In fact, adults who become infected with HIV may appear healthy for years before they get sick with AIDS.

4  The first case of AIDS was reported in 1981, but the disease may have existed unrecognized for many years before that. HIV infection leading to AIDS has been a major cause of illness and death among children, teens, and young adults worldwide. AIDS has been the sixth leading cause of death in the United States among 15- to 24-year-olds since 1991.  In recent years, AIDS infection rates have been increasing rapidly among teens and young adults. Half of all new HIV infections in the United States occur in people who are under 25 years old; thousands of teens acquire new HIV infections each year. Most new HIV cases in younger people are transmitted through unprotected sex; one third of these cases are from injection drug usage via the sharing of dirty, blood-contaminated needles.  Among children, most cases of AIDS — and almost all new HIV infections — resulted from transmission of the HIV virus from the mother to her child during pregnancy, birth, or through breastfeeding.  Fortunately, medicines currently given to HIV-positive pregnant women have reduced mother-to-child HIV transmission tremendously in the United States. These drugs (discussed in detail in the Drug Treatments section of this article) are also used to slow or reduce some of the effects of the disease in people who are already infected. Unfortunately, these medicines have not been readily available worldwide, particularly in the poorer nations hardest hit by the epidemic. Providing access to these life-saving treatments has become an issue of global importance.

5  Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in children are complicated and should be managed by experienced health care professionals. Kids will need to have their treatment schedules closely monitored and adjusted regularly. Any infections that could become life threatening must be quickly recognized and treated.  Medicines are adjusted in relation to the child's viral load. The child's health is also monitored by frequent measurement of T-cell levels because these are the cells that the HIV virus destroys. A good T-cell count is a positive sign that medical treatments are working to keep the disease under control.  Children will need to visit their health care providers often for blood work, physical examinations, and discussions about how they and their families are coping socially with any stress from their disease. Some immunizations during routine visits may be slightly different for infants or children with HIV/AIDS. A child whose immune system is severely compromised will not receive live virus vaccines including measles-mumps-rubella and varicella (chickenpox). All other routine immunizations are given as usual, and a yearly influenza vaccine (flu shot) is recommended as well.  If a family seeks health care in a hospital emergency department, parents should be sure to tell the nurse who registers the child that the child has HIV. This will alert medical caregivers to look closely for any signs of diseases from opportunistic infections and provide the best possible treatment

6  Talking about HIV and AIDS means talking about sexual behaviors — and it's not always easy for parents to talk about sexual feelings and behavior with their kids. Similarly, it's not always easy for teens to open up or to believe that issues like HIV and AIDS can affect them.  Doctors and counselors suggest that parents become knowledgeable and comfortable discussing sex and other difficult issues early on, even before the teen years. After all, the issues involved — understanding the body and sexuality, adopting healthy behaviors, respecting others, and dealing with feelings — are topics that have meaning at all ages (though how parents talk with their children will vary according to the child's age and ability to understand). Open communication and good listening skills are vital for parents and kids.  Schools can help. Every state requires schools to provide age- appropriate information about HIV/AIDS that has been designed to educate kids about the disease. Studies show that such education makes a tremendous difference in stopping risk-taking behavior by young people.  Parents who are well informed about how to prevent HIV and who talk with their children regularly about healthy behaviors, feelings, and sexuality play an important part in HIV/AIDS prevention.

7  As medical understanding about how the virus invades the body and multiplies within cells has increased, drugs to inhibit its growth and slow its spread have been developed. Drug treatment for HIV/AIDS is complicated and expensive, but highly effective in slowing the replication (reproduction) of the virus and preventing or reducing some effects of the disease.  Drugs to treat HIV/AIDS use at least three strategies:  interfering with HIV's reproduction of its genetic material (these drugs are classified as nucleoside or nucleotide anti-retrovirals)  interfering with the enzymes HIV needs to take over certain body cells (these are called protease inhibitors)  interfering with HIV's ability to pack its genetic material into viral code — that is, the genetic "script" HIV needs to be able to reproduce itself (these are called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs])  Because these drugs work in different ways, doctors generally prescribe a "combination cocktail" of these drugs that are taken every day. This regimen is known as HAART treatment (HAART stands for highly active antiretroviral therapy). Doctors may also prescribe drugs to prevent certain opportunistic infections — for example, some antibiotics can help prevent PCP, especially in kids.  Although a number of medicines are available to treat HIV infection and slow the onset of AIDS, unless they are taken and administered properly on a round-the-clock schedule, the virus can quickly become resistant to that particular mix of medications. HIV is very adaptable and finds ways to outsmart medical treatments that are not followed properly. This means that if prescribed medicines are not taken at the correct times every day, they will soon fail to keep HIV from reproducing and taking over the body. When that happens, a new regimen will need to be established with different drugs. And if this new mix of medicines is not taken correctly, the virus will likely become resistant to it as well and eventually the person will run out of treatment options.

8  Aside from the difficulty of getting young children to take their medication on a timed schedule, the medications present other problems. Some have unpleasant side effects, such as a bad flavor, whereas others are only available in pill form, which may be difficult for kids to swallow. Parents who need to give their child these medications should ask the doctor or pharmacist for suggestions on making them easier to take. Many pharmacies now offer flavoring that can be added to bad-tasting medicines, or your doctor may recommend mixing pills with applesauce or pudding.  Because the number of drugs described above is still limited, doctors are concerned that if children fail to take their medicines as prescribed (even missing just a few doses), the virus could eventually develop resistance to existing HIV drugs — making treatment difficult or impossible. It is then doubly important that kids take their medications as directed. One of the most important home treatment messages for any parent or caregiver that the child should take all medications consistently, at the time the prescription indicates. This can be difficult — but many HIV/AIDS family support groups and experienced medical providers can help families with practical suggestions to help them be successful with the many day-to-day challenges they face.  Many of the new medications that fight HIV infection are expensive. One of the major challenges facing individuals, families, communities, and nations is how to make these medications easily available to all that need them.

9  http://www.keepachildalive.org/uk/ http://www.keepachildalive.org/uk/  Keep a Child Alive is a 501(c)3 organization that developed as an urgent response to the AIDS pandemic currently ravaging Africa. With more than 28 million dead and 15 million orphaned, the disease continues, wiping out whole societies, threatening economic infrastructures and creating tragic family devastation. KCA provides life- saving medication (ARV's), social support, and orphan care, to keep these children and families alive and healthy. KCA has also developed global campaigns designed to raise awareness and funds to help KCA in the fight against HIV/AIDS. For just a dollar a day, you can help save the life of a child or a parent who cannot afford essential treatment and care in some of the world's poorest countries.


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